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Full text of "BYTE-1988-08"

Inside: SPECIAL ALL-MACINTOSH SUPPLEMENT 

Hi 




REVIEWS 

Apple A/UX 
PC Input Devices 
Three 20-MHz 80386s 
VersaCADfortheMac 




AUGUST 1988 



A McGRAW-HILL PUBLICATION 



PRODUCT FOCUS 
Script-Driven Communications 



The First of 
the 25-MHz 
Machines: 

Computing moves up 
another notch 



IN DEPTH 



The C Language 

with Kernighan and Ritchie, 
Stroustrup, and others 






PLUS 



, Norton on OS/2 
Four New Columns 
Short Takes: 

Dell System 220 

T-DebugPLUS 

Grammatik III 

Paradox OS/2 




q Deskpro 386/25 



Netpro 386/2S 



r~*\ 



\T$t ' 



Intel SYP302 



08: 




Everex Step 386/25 



o 440235" o 



$3.50 U.S.A./S4.50IN CANADA 
0360-5280 



BORLAND PRESENTS 



T 



./•*■-' .*" 



D 



t — — 

oi 3 



rclStCSt and most approachable 
implementation of that language" 



-Darryl Rubin, AI Expert, on Turbo Prolog 



L 



"Most powerful 

version of Basic ever" 

—Ethan Winer, PC Magazine, on Turbo Basic 

And able to leap 

onto "new ground in the 
price/performance arena 

— John H. Mayer, Computer Design, 
on Turbo C 



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See the technological 
excellence of Turbo C, 
Turbo Pascal and 
Turbo Basic! 

Meet Turbo Prolog 2.0: 
Artificial Intelligence like 
you've never seen it! 



The Critics Agree: Borland's 




"Turbo C . . . will stun you with in-RAM 
compilations that operate at warp speed." 



"Turbo Pascal 4.0 flies 
4.0 is ballistic!" 




Turbo C's 8 sleek 
compiler is so fast 
and powerful, we 
used it to write our 
equation solver, 
Eureka.'" Even better, 
all that muscle is 
wrapped in a smooth, 
integrated environment with every- 
thing you need to make writing, 
editing and compiling your programs 
a snap: 

• Compiles 10,000 lines per minute* 

• Online, context-sensitive help 

• ANSI compatible 

• Six memory models— tiny to huge 

• 450 library functions 

• Utilities: Librarian, Make, GREP 

• Source code for MicroCalc 
spreadsheet 

• Command-line version of the compiler 

• Inline assembly that lets you mix 
C and assembler 



System Requirements Fur the IBM PS/2'" and the IBM 8 family of 
personal computers and all 100% compatibles. PC-DOS (MS-DOS) 2.0 or 
later. 384KRSM. 



—Richard Hale Shaw, PC Magazine 

• Professional-quality graphics library 
supporting VGA, CGA, EGA, Hercules, 
and IBM 8514 

• Interfaces with Turbo Pascal 4.0 
and Turbo Prolog 

Just $99.95 

H A lightning fast, fully featured C 
compiler suitable for almost every- 
thing . . . Borland's Turbo C compiler 
is flexible, fast and friendly. 

—Peter Feldman, PC Week JJ 

Heap Sort 






Turbo C 1.5 | Microsoft C 5.0 


Compile time 


4.7 sec. 16.3 sec. 


Compiles link 
time 


7.4 sec. 


19.5 sec. 


Execute time 


10.5 sec. 


15.5 sec. 


Object code size 


1119 


1313 


Execution size 


6392 


7891 



Sort benchmark run on an It MHz IBM AT using Turbo C version 1.5 and 
the Turbo Linker version I.I; Microsoft C version 5.0 and the MS overlay 
linker version 3.61. 



-Tom Swan, 



Almost from 
its introduction, 
Turbo Pascal® has 
been the world- 
wide Pascal stan- 
dard. It's fast. It's 
flexible. It's affor- 
dable. And it 
gives you full control. 

Compile more than 27,000 lines 
of code per minute*. And work in a 
complete, integrated programming 
environment with pull-down menus 
and a full-featured editor. 

You don't have to swap code in 
and out to beat the 64K barrier; it's 
designed for large programs. Break 
your code into convenient modules 
and work with them swiftly and 
separately. If there's an error in 
one, you can see it and fix it. 



System Requirements For the IBM PS/2'" and the IBM® family of 

personal computers and all 100% compatibles. PC-DOS (MS-DOS) 2.0 or 
later. 3B4K RAM. 



t Customer satisfaction is oor main concern; if within 00 days of purchase 
this product does not perform In accordance wlih our claims, call our 
customer service department, and we will arrange a refund. 



All Borland products are trademarks or registered trademarks of Borland Inter- 
national. Inc. Other brand and product names are trademarks of their respecuve 
holders. Copyright °1988 Borland International. Inc. Bl I230A 



Turbo Languages are Super ! 




like a rocket . . . 

/ 987 Programmer's Journal 

Powerful features include: 

• Producing EXE files 

• Separate compilation 

• Built-in project management 

• Graph unit including support 
for IBM CGA, EGA, VGA, and 
3270, Hercules and ATT 6300 

• Online, context-sensitive help 
*Runonan8MHzIBM PC AT. 

Add expertise: 

The Turbo Pascal Toolboxes 

Start with Turbo Pascal Tutor for 
just $69.95 and add the others as 
your interests and expertise grow: 

• Database Toolbox 

• Editor Toolbox 

• Graphix Toolbox 

• Numerical Methods Toolbox 

• GameWorks 

Toolboxes require Turbo Pascal 4.0 
Just $99.95 each 

U Each new Turbo Pascal 4.0 Tool- 
box is a virtual treasure of program- 
ming methods and tips. 

—Giovanni Perrone, PC Week JJ 

Circle 26 on Reader .Service Card 
(DEALERS: 27) 



"Turbo Basic compiles faster than 
anything I have seen." -Ethmwmer,pcMa S ame 




Turbo Basic® is 
the lightning-fast 
Basic compiler 
with a total devel- 
opment environ- 
ment that puts you 
in full control. 
Even novices can 
write professional programs with 
Turbo Basic's full-screen windowed 
editor, pull-down menus, and trace 
debugging system. You also get a long 
list of innovative Borland features 
like binary disk files, true recursion, 
and increased compilation control. 
Plus the ability to create programs as 
large as your system's memory can 
hold— not just a cramped 64 K. 
The choice is basic: Turbo Basic! 



Just $99.95! 

44 Turbo Basic, simply put, is an 
incredibly good product ... Not only 
is this the most advanced BASIC 
ever, but Borland has lived up to 
its Turbo tradition. 

— William Zachmann, Computerworld }} 

Add another Basic advantage: 
The Turbo Basic Toolboxes 

• The Database Toolbox 

• The Editor Toolbox 

Toolboxes require Turbo Basic 1.1 
Just $99.95 each. 

System Requirements For the IBM PS/2" and the IBM® family d 
personal computers and all 11)0% compatibles. PC-DOS (MS-DOS) 2.0 or 
later. 3S4K RAM. 640K to compile toolboxes, 



Compare the BASIC differences 





Turbo Basic 1. 1 


QuickBASIC 4.0 Compiler QuickBASIC 4.0 Interpreter 


Compile & Link to 
stand-alone EXE 


3 sec. 


7 sec. 





Sizeof.EXE 


28387 


25980 





Execution time 
w/80287 


O.I 6 sec. 


16.5 sec. 


21.5 sec. 


Execution time 
w/o 80287 


0. 16 sec. 


286.3 sec. 


292.3 sec. 



The Klkins Optimization Benchmark program Trum March 1988 issue of Computer language was used. The Program was run on an IBM 
PS/2 Model 60 with 80287. The benchmark tests compiler's ability to optimize loop-invariant code, unused code, expression and condi- 
tional evaluation. 










Turbo Prolog 2.0: Powerful Artificial 
Intelligence for your real- world applications! 




New Turbo Prolog 8 2.0 lets you 
harness powerful AI techniques. 
And you don't have to be an expert 
programmer or artificial intelli- 
gence genius! 

You get an all-new Prolog 
compiler that's been optimized to 
produce smaller and more efficient 
programs than ever before. An 
improved full-screen, completely 
customizable editor with easy pull- 
down menus. All-new documenta- 
tion, including a tutorial rich with 
examples and instructions to take 
you all the way from basic program- 
ming to advanced techniques. Even 
online help! 

System Requirements For the IBM PS/2" ana ihc IBM® family of 

personal computers and all H)0% compalibles. PC-DOS (MS-DOS) 2.0 or 
lau-.r. 384K RAM. 



More new features! 
An external database system 
for developing large databases. 
Supports B+ trees and EMS 
Source code for a fully-featured 
Prolog interpreter written 
entirely in Turbo Prolog. Plus 
step-by-step instructions to adapt 
it or include it as is in your own 
applications! 

Support for the Borland 
Graphics Interface, the same 
professional-quality graphics 
in Turbo Pascal, Turbo C, 
and Quattro 
Improved windowing 
Powerful exception handling 
and error trapping features 
Full compatibility with Turbo C 
so the two languages can call 
each other freely 
Supports multiple internal 
databases 
High-resolution video support 



Turbo Prolog Toolbox is 
6 toolboxes in one! 

More than 80 tools and 8,000 
lines of source code help you build 
your own Turbo Prolog applications. 
Includes toolboxes for menus, 
screen and report layouts, business 
graphics, communications, file- 
transfer capabilities, parser 
generators, and more! 

Toolbox requires Turbo Prolog 2.0 

Just $99.95 

ii If I had to pick one single 
recommendation for people who 
want to try to keep up with the 
computer revolution. I'd say, 
'Get and learn Turbo Prolog.' 

—Jerry Pournelle, Byte 1/88 

An affordable, fast, and easy-to-use 
language. 

—Dairy I Rubin, AI Expert JJ 



Just $149.95! 

60-Day Money-back Guarantee t 

For the dealer nearest you 
Gall (800) 543-7543 

Circle 28 on Reader Service Card (Dealers: 29) 




BORLAND 

INTERNATIONAL 



BVTE 



AUGUST 1988 VOLUME 13 NUMBER 8 



PRODUCTS IN PERSPECTIVE 



67 What's New 

89 Short Takes 

Dell System 220, a small but 
powerful desktop system 
T-DebugPLUS 4.0, symbolic 
debugging for Turbo Pascal 4. 
Cambridge Computer Z88, small 
is beautiful 

Grammatik III, comprehensive 
grammar checking 
Watcom C 6.0, a class act 
Paradox OS/2, a solid entree 
into OS/2 applications 



EXPERT ADVICE 

101 Computing at Chaos Manor: 
A Fond Farewell 

by Jerry Pournelle 
Is Jerry's old friend Zeke 
II retiring to greener 
pastures? 

115 Applications Plus: 
New Directions 
by Ezra Shapiro 
The column's horizons are 
expanded, and GrandView 
defines a new class of software. 

121 Down to Business: 

Staking Out the Territory 

by Wayne Rash Jr. 
What trends are most important to 
business users? This new column 
starts with some thoughts on 
networking and database servers. 

125 Macinations: 

What's Up with Apple? 

by Don Crabb 
New columnist Don Crabb 
discusses Macintosh products 
and issues. 

131 OS/2 and You: 
Why OS/2? 

by Mark Minasi 
The debut of this column 
covers some of OS/2' s 
attractive features. 




Cover Story: 
25-MHz 80386 Machines/140 




Communications Packages/148 




VersaCAD/195 



135 COM1: 

The Wired Society 

by Brock N. Meeks 
Noted telecommunicator 
Brock N. Meeks surveys 
the communications landscape. 



FIRST IMPRESSIONS 

140 25-MHz Computing 
Buzzsaws 

by Rick Grehan 
From Compaq, Everex, Intel, 
and SimpleNet, here they come: 
the first of the 25-MHz 
80386-based AT clones. 



REVIEWS 

148 Product Focus: 
Communications 
According to Script 

by Steve Apiki and Stan Diehl 
Stand-alone communications 
packages that can handle 
a communications session 
unattended. 

162 Variations on the 20-MHz 
Theme 

by Ed McNierney 
The Tatung TCS-8000, Proteus 
386A, and Everex Step 386/20 
offer a range of performance 
and capabilities. 

173 Four Surrogate Mice 

by JeffHoltzman 
PC-Trac, FastTRAP, Trackball 
Plus, and Felix offer the 
functionality of a mouse 
without the hassle. 

185 Unix for the Mac II 

by David Betz and Eva M. White 
Transform the Mac II into a Unix 
workstation with A/UX. 

195 VersaCAD on a Mac 

by Paul Tuten 

The MS-DOS-based drafting 

tool is now available 

in a Macintosh edition. 

200 Review Update 



2 BYTE' AUGUST 1988 



COVER PHOTOGRAPHY: PAUL AVIS © 1988 



IN DEPTH 



202 Introduction: The C Language 

205 The State of C 

by Brian W. Kernighan 
and Dennis M. Ritchie 
Originally designed for systems 
programming, C has become one 
of the most widely used languages 
in the world. 




DEPARTMENTS 





6 


Editorial: Touching All the Bases 




11 


Microbytes 




22 


Letters 




33 


Chaos Manor Mail 


PC-Trac/173 


38 


Ask BYTE 




51 


Book Reviews 




291 


Coming Up in BYTE 



215 A Better C? 

by Bjarne Stroustrup 

The C + + language is a superset 

of C that supports data abstraction 

and object-oriented 

programming. 

219 It's an Attitude 

by Jonathan S. Linowes 
A mechanism for doing 
object-oriented programming 
in conventional C. 

226 Resource Guide 



FEATURES 



229 Making the Move to OS/2 
by Robert E. Shostak, John 
Socha, Linda Dudinyak, 
and David P. Reed 
Top programmers from Borland, 
Norton, and Lotus talk about 
what it took to port their 
programs to OS/2. 



HANDS ON 

239 Ciarcia's Circuit Cellar: 

Why Microcontrollers?, Part 1 

by Steve Ciarcia 
A tutorial perspective 
of the Intel 8031/8051 
microcontroller family. 

249 Some Assembly Required: 

The Pitfalls of Porting, Part 2 

by Rick Grehan 

Porting an MS-DOS application 

to the Mac is discussed. 




The C Language/202 




Circuit Cellar/239 



READER SERVICE 



290 Editorial Index by Company 
292 Alphabetical Index to Advertisers 
294 Index to Advertisers by Product 

Category 

Inquiry Reply Cards: after 296 



PROGRAM LISTINGS 



From BIX: see 182 
From BYTEnet: 
call (617) 861-9764 
On disk or in print: 
see card after 248 



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AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 3 



EVTE 



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4 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 



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AUGUST 1988 -BYTE S 



EDITORIAL m Fred Langa 



Touching All 
the Bases 



Hybrid speed demons, 
a new 80386 chip, four 
new monthly columns, 
and an In Depth section 
on the C language 



Tust 90 days ago, a handful of rela- 
tively new 20-MHz 80386-based 
machines sat comfortably at the 
top of the heap: the fastest desktop 
computers. Today, they have been rele- 
gated to second-tier status by a veritable 
explosion of 25-MHz computers. 

Their reign, in turn, also may be brief: 
We know of at least one manufacturer 
who is preparing 30-MHz motherboards 
using "goosed" 25-MHz chips. (If it 
turns into a working product, you'll read 
about it in a future BYTE.) 

But, at least for now, 25 MHz is as fast 
as it gets for real, desktop machines 
using more-or-less conventional archi- 
tectures. The enhancements usually in- 
clude fast RAM accessed by a propri- 
etary 32-bit-wide memory bus and built- 
in disk caching. The rest of such a 
machine tends to be built from stock 
IBM PC AT-class parts. Our cover story 
gives you an early look at preproduction 
models of four examples of this new wave 
of hybrid speed demons. 

Speaking of hybrids, the cover story 
also discusses the Compaq 386S, a very- 
small-footprint machine that uses a new 
kind of 16-MHz 80386 chip: It's 32 bits 
wide internally, but it communicates 
with the outside world through an IBM 
PC AT-style 16-bit bus. (No, at this 
time, you can't use the chip as a plug- 
and-play replacement for an 80286. To 
date, the only such replacement we know 
of is the Cheetah Adapter/386, which we 
covered in April 1987.) 

This new chip, which is called the 
80386SX, may produce a whole new 



kind of IBM PC AT-class machine based 
on the 80386. (The 80286 could be 
pushed downward into entry-level ma- 
chines.) In theory, this would simplify 
things, because everyone above the entry 
level could standardize on 80386-spe- 
cific software and thus circumvent some 
of the current hoop jumping required to 
cope with the limitations of the 80286. 
(An entry-level user isn't likely to bump 
up against the 80286's shortcomings.) 
It's a development that bears close 
watching. 

While enhancements abound on the 
IBM PC side, the machines based on the 
68000 family haven't exactly been dead 
in the water, either— witness the steady 
stream of new products for the Mac- 
intosh. 

In fact, there's so much interesting 
Macintosh material, that we've placed a 
special Macintosh supplement between 
this month's Products in Perspective and 
In Depth sections. Be sure to take a look. 

With all this activity, it's getting more 
difficult to stay abreast of all the impor- 
tant developments in microcomputing- 
harder to touch all the bases. That's why 
we've added four new monthly columns 
starting with this issue. They'll help en- 
sure that you get the information you 
need— when you need it— in these criti- 
cal areas: 

OS/2: You've read about the theory, 
you've seen some sample code, and you 
may have seen an actual OS/2 application 
in action. But chances are, you don't own 
a copy of OS/2 yet. Noted OS/2 consul- 
tant Mark Minasi's "OS/2 and You" col- 
umn offers some welcome perspective on 
making the move to OS/2 by combining 
technical insights, practical tips, and 
plain old common sense. 
Communications: Brock Meeks, an 
award-winning author, writes about his 
passion: telecommunications. Each 
month, Brock's "COM1:" column will 
offer a mix of "hard" and "soft" tele- 
communications topics, examining the 



technology and issues relating to point- 
to-point and area computer communi- 
cations. 

Business: Wayne Rash's name is familiar 
to longtime BYTE readers: He's a regu- 
lar and popular contributor. When he 
isn't writing for BYTE, Wayne makes his 
living as a computer consultant to gov- 
ernment and business. His specialty is 
solving the distinctive problems encoun- 
tered by those who deal with large instal- 
lations of microcomputers— networking, 
security, operational issues. . .the list of 
possible bottlenecks is almost infinite. 
Proven solutions to those myriad prob- 
lems are the focus of his "Down to Busi- 
ness" column. 

Macintosh: Don Crabb is another famil- 
iar name. Don has been a regular re- 
viewer of Mac products for us. He's a 
participant in Apple's educational con- 
sortium and a frequent beta tester of new 
Mac products. The "Macinations" col- 
umn is Don's forum to share his experi- 
ences with us. 

This month's In Depth section also de- 
serves special attention: It focuses on the 
top language for serious software devel- 
opment today. Virtually every major 
software package available today was 
coded in C: The C language is quite liter- 
ally the foundation of today's software 
industry. 

For our In Depth, we went to the folks 
who literally wrote the book: We have 
excellent articles by Kernighan and Rit- 
chie, Bjarne Stroustrup, and others. 
(Dennis Ritchie is the designer of the C 
language; he and Brian Kernighan are 
the authors of the standard "K&R" refer- 
ence on C. Bjarne Stroustrup is the cre- 
ator of the general-purpose, object- 
oriented superset of C called C+ + .) 
This In Depth also features an unusually 
rich two-page Resource Guide. It's defi- 
nitely a keeper. 

— Fred Langa 

Editor in Chief 

(BIX name "f langa") 



6 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 






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Today at ALR, we manufacture the 
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'• 1 ! ' 

—m ■ — i 



excerpts from 
Editors Choice 
June 28, 1988 



NOVELL 

TESTED & 
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The ALR FlexCache 20386 Model 
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'Byte June, 1988 



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PC 



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8 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 



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MlCROBYTES 



Staff-written highlights of developments 
in technology and the microcomputer industry 



Experimental Adder Circuit Could Speed Up Clock Cycles 



Probably the most fun- 
damental operation in 
computing is the use of 
logic gates to add two register 
values. The speed of regis- 
ter-to-register addition plays 
a large role in determining 
a computer's clock cycle 
speed. A typical 16-MHz 
machine would have an add 
time of 62 nanoseconds 
(this figure does not include 
register-to-register times, 
which would increase the 
number somewhat); high- 



performance machines like 
the VAX typically have an 
add time of 45 ns. 

Researchers at Stanford 
University have developed a 
new adder circuit that they 
hope will speed up addition 
times to about 1 ns for full 
32-bit addition. The "sub- 
nanosecond arithmetic 
project," directed by profes- 
sor Michael Flynn, is spon- 
sored by the Center for Inte- 
grated Systems, a very 
large scale integration (VLSI) 



ParcPlace Hopes Smalltalk 
Makes It Big 



Although BYTE devoted 
almost an entire issue to 
Smalltalk in August 1981, 
the object-oriented program- 
ming environment has re- 
mained relegated to academic 
and research institutions. In 
that issue 7 years ago, Dr. 
Adele Goldberg wrote that 
the "Smalltalk system is tak- 
ing flight into the main- 
stream of the computer pro- 
gramming community." As 
president of ParcPlace Sys- 
tems (Palo Alto, CA), a 
new company dedicated to 
promoting and enhancing 
Smalltalk, Goldberg hopes to 
make good on that claim, 
although somewhat 
belatedly. 

ParcPlace is working on 
new features for the environ- 
ment, including expanded 
libraries of "reusable parts" 
and "reusable frameworks" 
(a series of interacting re- 
usable parts). These librar- 
ies will enable designers of 
user interfaces to select 
graphical objects or a se- 
quence of activities involv- 
ing objects for use in their 
designs, similar to how a 



conventional programmer 
might call an existing func- 
tion from a library for use in 
a program. "We're trying 
to provide tools for develop- 
ment of new interfaces, but 
we're dedicated to the stan- 
dards of the vendors," 
Goldberg said. Objects con- 
sistent with AT&T's new 
Open Look version of Unix, 
for example, would be in- 
cluded in the Smalltalk reus- 
able-parts libraries. "Our 
objective is to provide a mal- 
leable information environ- 
ment where you can specify 
the user interface you want 
and find parts in libraries. 
Not everyone is a graphic 
artist or human factors ex- 
pert," Goldberg said. 

Other projects that Parc- 
Place is working on include 
graphical interfaces for 
Structured Query Language 
(SQL) database systems, 
and interfaces to object-ori- 
ented databases with exten- 
sible data types and "active 
objects" stored in the data- 
base. An active object can 
actually interact with the 

continued 



research center funded by 
several major electronics 
companies. 

The adder circuit is 
based on a new addition algo- 
rithm that combines the 
best features of three com- 
monly used addition algo- 
rithms: Ling's algorithm, the 
carry look-ahead algo- 
rithm, and the conditional 
sum algorithm. The adder 
circuit requires only three 
gate delays (the time span 
between the input and the 
output of the final sum), 
while current adder circuits 
generally require about 
eight gate delays. 

"Ultimately," Flynn 
said, "we're trying to create 
a technology to achieve 1- 
ns cycle times." He sees the 
adder circuit as the first 
step in that direction. How- 
ever, the speed of the new 
circuit won't have much im- 
pact until other major pro- 
cessing bottlenecks, such as 
memory and cache access 
speeds, are also accelerated. 
The entire design of micro- 
processors will have to 
change in order to realize 
1-ns processing speeds, 
Flynn said. 

The first prototype is 
currently being fabricated 
using emitter coupled logic 
(ECL) gates. Flynn said he 
hopes the first chip will 
yield an addition speed of 
about 1.5 ns. The research 
group is also working on a 
CMOS version. The next 
phase of the project will in- 
clude the development of a 
bipolar ECL floating-point 
multiplier circuit. 

The "subnanosecond" 
project is futuristic, but 
Flynn sees more immediate 
potential for application of 
the adder and multiplier 
circuits in floating-point 
coprocessors. 



Nanobytes 

<■ The current shortage 
of 1 -megabit single in- 
line memory modules 

(SIMMs)— chips that are 
widely used in Apple 
Computer's Macintosh 
and LaserWriter— is 
likely to continue for an- 
other year, an Apple ex- 
ecutive says. Apple chief 
operating officer Del 
Yocam said it will take 
until the "middle of next 
year" for supply of the 
chips to reach acceptable 
levels for manufacturers. 
This could mean, 
sources said, that Apple 
will have to delay intro- 
duction of new machines, 
such as an enhanced 
Mac SE. Yocam said the 
scarcity of 1 -megabit 
chips is due to Japanese 
failure to foresee the 
growth in demand for 1- 
megabit chips and the 
Reagan administration's 
trade embargoes. The 
memory chips Apple al- 
ready has under contract 
will have to be used in 
units already in produc- 
tion. You can go into cer- 
tain computer shops and 
buy the SIMMs, but 
you'll pay a pretty price 
for them. 

e Only 2 percent of the 
computer software sold in 
the Arab Middle East is 
legitimate, according to 
Oliver Smoot, executive 
vice president of the Com- 
puter and Business 
Equipment Manufacturers 
Association. Smoot said 
the 98 percent piracy 
rate is largely among 
users working for govern- 
ments and state-owned 
companies. 

s Many users didn't like 
continued 



AUGUST 1988 'BYTE 11 



MICROBYTES 



NANOBYTES 

it, but one software indus- 
try executive thinks it's 
time to bring back copy 
protection for certain 
types of programs. "I 
think copy protection for 
business software went 
away prematurely," said 
Ken Wasch, executive di- 
rector of the Software 
Publishers Association. 
Wasch told a group of 
Amiga developers in 
Washington, DC that 
software companies gave 
in to user demands too 
easily. "All we have to 
protect ourselves is 
moral persuasion," he 
said. Wasch added that 
the SPA uses litigation as a 
second line of defense. 

• In the future, laser 
printer engines with very 
high resolution may not 
be required, says presi- 
dent Luis Villalobos of 
Conographic (Irvine, 
CA), which makes Post- 
Script-compatible printer 
controller cards that go 

in IBM PCs and compat- 
ibles. Villalobos said he 
has seen 300- to 600-dot- 
per-inch monochrome 
and color print engines, 
beyond the prototyping 
stage, that can vary dot 
size and/or intensity to 
produce apparent resolu- 
tions of 1000 to 3000 
dpi. Color images pro- 
duced on these systems 
can rival conventional op- 
tical-based printing 
techniques, Villalobos 
said. 

• Meanwhile, CSS Labs 
(Irvine, CA) is coming 
out with a laser printer 
controller card that has 
its own INMOS Trans- 
puter and could, the com- 
pany says, crank out 45 
pages per minute. The 
GRIP board for IBM 
PCs and compatibles will 
work with several laser 
engines, the company 
said. When not working 
on printing tasks, the 

continued 



user when selected. For ex- 
ample, active objects could 
be used to monitor the data- 
base system to keep track of 
who's using it and for what 
purposes, or for more mun- 
dane tasks such as automati- 
cally sending electronic 
mail to other users of the 
database network. Parc- 
Place is also working on de- 
velopment tools for C + + 
(an object-oriented language 
based on C), which Gold- 
berg said "complements 
Smalltalk-80 and gives C 



programmers the chance to 
look at extensible data 
types." 

In the last year, Parc- 
Place has made available a 
version of Smalltalk-80 for 
the Macintosh, and the com- 
pany expects to have an 
MS-DOS version in beta test- 
ing this summer. Priced be- 
tween $695 and $1295, the 
Smalltalk versions for the 
Macintosh and MS-DOS are 
fully compatible with the 
versions of Smalltalk run- 
ning on Sun, Apollo, and 



Hewlett-Packard work- 
stations. 

In any case, Goldberg 
has high hopes for Smalltalk. 
She points to software de- 
velopers, such as Borland's 
Philippe Kahn, talking 
about incorporating "Small- 
talk-like features" in their 
products. And she sees the 
move in the microcomputer 
world toward graphical inter- 
faces and the need for por- 
tability across operating sys- 
tems as golden oppor- 
tunities for Smalltalk. 



Synchronous SCSI Seen as Coming Standard 
for Peripherals 



As CPU performance 
keeps increasing, the 
I/O speed of disks and 
other peripherals is becom- 
ing the major bottleneck in 
system performance. The 
best solution to the I/O 
bottleneck is the synchronous 
small computer system in- 
terface (SCSI), according to 
some product designers. 
Adaptec (Milpitas, CA), a 
major manufacturer of disk 
controllers, sees increasing 
use of embedded SCSI con- 
nections in hard disk and tape 
drives, as well as in other 
peripherals such as printers, 
said product manager 
Danial Faizullabhoy. "In a 
year or so," he said, "SCSI 



will be the de facto periph- 
eral interface. " 

Synchronous SCSI is at- 
tractive because it is about 40 
percent faster than asyn- 
chronous SCSI and also out- 
performs "native bus inter- 
faces" such as the IBM PC 
AT bus and IBM's Micro 
Channel, proponents say. 
While the standard AT bus 
has a maximum data transfer 
rate of 1 megabyte per sec- 
ond and the Micro Channel 
transfers at about 3 mega- 
bytes per second, synchro- 
nous SCSI clocks in at 
about 5 megabytes per sec- 
ond. Although Faizullab- 
hoy does not see SCSI replac- 
ing native bus interfaces, he 



said that Adaptec expects 
most major computer 
manufacturers, including 
IBM, to have built-in syn- 
chronous SCSI ports in the 
next product cycle, if they 
don't have them already. 

Adaptec will soon be an- 
nouncing new controller 
products using synchronous 
SCSI. According to Faizul- 
labhoy, the next phase in 
the development of SCSI will 
be moving up to 16-bit 
bandwidths. In the 1990s, he 
said, we'll see 32-bit-band- 
width SCSI interfaces. Mean- 
while, ESDI will drop off, 
leaving primarily SCSI and 
native bus interfaces domi- 
nating the market, he said. 



AMD's Database Manager Chip Replaces 
Software Routines 



Anew microprocessor 
peripheral that could 
speed up database manage- 
ment tasks by replacing soft- 
ware with hardware has 
been developed by Advanced 
Micro Devices (Sunnyvale, 
CA). The Am95C85 Content 
Addressable Data Manager 
(CADM) coprocessor is de- 
signed to take over from the 
CPU such data-manipulation 
tasks as sorting, searching, 
inserting, and deleting 



records. It could be used in 
networking and communica- 
tions, file serving, high- 
speed graphics systems, and 
other areas that require fast 
data manipulation. 

The Am95C85 uses 1.6- 
micron CMOS technology 
and contains IK byte of 
RAM and a control unit. The 
control unit enables a single 
command to access the 
CADM's memory without 
having to provide physical 



addresses. According to the 
company, the chip can pro- 
vide content-addressable 
searches for 8-byte fields in 
less than 10 microseconds. 
The chip's architecture en- 
ables cascading up to 16 of 
the devices for large database 
systems. 

AMD has been working 
on the processor for 4 years, 
said Dave Horton, a devel- 
opment manager for the chip. 
continued 



12 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 



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component values, and run worst-case 
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AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 13 



MICROBYTES 



NANOBYTES 

on printing tasks, the 
board could be used as a 
high-speed coprocessor. 

• In a move seen as a 
crucial step in U.S. ef- 
forts to overtake Japan's 
leadership in the semicon- 
ductor industry, the De- 
partment of Defense will 
boost its funding of 
Sematech (Austin, TX), 
the chip-research con- 
sortium, by $100 million 
a year through 1992. 
Sematech chairman 
Sandy Kane responded 

to criticism that the Penta- 
gon will pull the group's 
research into defense- 
oriented projects. "Our 
work is not going to be de- 
fense-related," he said. 
According to Kane, the 
Pentagon recognizes that 
"a healthy U.S. semicon- 
ductor industry will ulti- 
mately be good for the 
national defense." 

• "Ifyouaskmewhat 
the future of the micro- 
computer is, it is in 
multitasking and parallel 
processing," says Henri 
Rubin, chief operating of- 
ficer of Commodore In- 
ternational (West Chester, 
PA). In an interview 
with BYTE, Rubin said 
that Commodore's use 

of coprocessor communi- 
cations is an indication 
of where the company is 
going technologically. 
The Amiga maker has 
been a leader in support- 
ing both Motorola and 
Intel processors within 
the same computer, he 
said. "Some people say 
we just have two com- 
puters in a box," he 
said, "but that's not true. 
It's more than that. " 

• Our trend signaler 
isn't blinking brightly yet, 
but we could be seeing a 
drop in prices of galli- 
um-arsenide chips. 
GigaBit Logic (Newbury 
Park, CA) has cut prices 
of its high-speed GaAs 

continued 



"We saw the need to off- 
load some tasks from the sys- 
tem CPU," he said. "One 
of the problems we faced, 
though, was like the chick- 
en and the egg: The hardware 
people didn't want to build 
boards when there was no 
software to access the chip, 
and the software folks didn't 
want to port their code 
when there was no hardware 
to use it." 

The chip uses a new 
memory cell that's "sort of a 
cross between RAM and 



FIFO," Horton said. "The 
cells enable us to split 
memory at a certain point, 
holding all memory above 
the split constant while let- 
ting us shift the remaining 
memory up or down, adding 
or deleting records. " Hor- 
ton theorized that the first 
PC application board prob- 
ably would have one or two 
chips on-board, with sock- 
ets for a total of up to 16. 
Currently, AMD has a 
demonstration board and 
software available. The 



The Electric Cadaver 



Two doctors at Stanford 
Medical Center have de- 
veloped an electronic text- 
book for anatomy students 
that clearly demonstrates 
the potential power of hyper- 
text and multimedia con- 
cepts in electronic publish- 
ing. The Electric Cadaver 
was developed by Dr. Robert 
Chase, a specialist in anat- 
omy, and Dr. Steven Freed- 
man, a physician with a 
long-standing interest in elec- 
tronic publications for med- 
ical practice and training. 

Built on a Macintosh II 
with Apple's HyperCard, the 
Electric Cadaver is a dy- 
namic cross-referencing sys- 
tem that describes the 
structure and function of 
each part of the human 
anatomy. (Freedman built 
the first version 4 years ago 
on an IBM PC AT using Ash- 
tonTate's Framework). 
Images are displayed in digi- 
tized form on the computer 
screen and simultaneously in 
analog form on a videodisk 
player. The user can click on 
any part of the human body 
and then select from an index 
of topics on the screen. 

Most parts of the anat- 
omy are presented both in 
x-ray and bone structure 
form; many parts are shown 
from different angles and 
magnifications. In addition, 
results of physical injuries 
can be visually described. 
For example, clicking on 



the facial nervous system dis- 
plays a normal human face 
on the screen. By then click- 
ing on indicated "injury 
zones" on the map of facial 
nerves, you can see the re- 
sulting types of paralysis in 
the face on the screen. 

The HyperCard applica- 
tion includes an indexing sys- 
tem that can select any 
image on the videodisk play- 
er via serial communica- 
tion. The Electric Cadaver 
has a "Frame Editor" that 
lets users customize the elec- 
tronic textbook by adding 
or editing frames, adding 
text, and creating animated 
sequences. The system dem- 
onstrated to Microbytes in- 
cluded video movies, devel- 
oped by Chase, of various 
anatomical functions, as well 
as still-frame images. 

The still-frame images 
are derived primarily from a 
database of 1600 anatomi- 
cal images (which was devel- 
oped with the help of the 
man who invented the View- 
Master). The images were 
converted in two-dimensional 
format to a videodisk by 
photographing each frame on 
a high-quality video cam- 
era, adding captions with a 
character generator, and 
converting the videotape to 
videodisk. 

According to Chase and 
Freedman, the Electric 
Cadaver is a tremendous 
timesaver as a teaching and 



first commercial product that 
will use the chips will be a 
network bridge, from a Euro- 
pean company, that will de- 
tect packet-address informa- 
tion in real time and direct 
it along the correct path in 
the network. In such an ap- 
plication, there is no time for 
the conventional lookup 
table approach. 

CADM prices are $49.20 
for the 12-MHz version and 
$66.50 for the 16-MHz ver- 
sion in quantities of 100. The 
chips are available now. 



reference tool for medical 
students. "Traditionally," 
Freedman said, "students 
develop their own 'meta- 
books' by excerpting, com- 
piling, and cross-referencing 
source material from multi- 
ple text books and other ref- 
erences. This is an incredi- 
ble waste of time." 

The electronic textbook 
eliminates the need for this 
kind of tedium and provides 
a much more visual and in- 
structive presentation of the 
information to be learned, 
Freedman said. The system 
is also useful as a reference 
for physicians and sur- 
geons; for example, a doctor 
could use the system to 
compare a CAT scan or x-ray 
of an unhealthy patient with 
a corresponding image of a 
normal anatomy in the 
Electric Cadaver. 

Chase and Freedman 
hope to digitize the 
Cadaver's images in three 
dimensions, using a system 
like Digital Video Interac- 
tive, which would allow the 
graphics to be dynamic and 
adjustable so that students 
could change parameters 
(such as bone density). The 
doctors plan to add images 
from microscopic anatomy 
and are also exploring the 
use of bar code readers and 
other pointing mechanisms 
so that the system could be 
connected to a real cadaver. 
continued 



14 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 



Insist on a 

Sysgen 5 Vi" 

drive for 

your PS/2. 



Here's why: 



A Sysgen™ Bridge-File"' gives a PS/2™ full access 
to your current data and software, with unparalleled 
5Va" disk drive performance and reliability. You get: 
A larger capacity drive. Two modes — a 360Kb and a 
powerful 1 . 2 Mb — assure you comprehensive transfer cap- 
abilities and convenience for total office needs. Others, 
like IBM®'s, offer only 360Kb. Proven reliability. In 
fact, Sysgen is the choice of over 100,000 satisfied Bridge- 
File and tape back-up 
users. No slot loss. 
The Sysgen 5Va" 
drive adapter card 
doesn't take any 
additional slot space. 
IBM's does. Built- 
in flexibility of an 
external connector. 
You can add another 
Bridge-File drive or 

Sysgen 's high-performance tape back-up system, 
Bridge-Tape™ (As a Bridge-File owner, you receive a 
total savings of $135 on Bridge-Tape!) What's more, 




Sysgen's footprint is smaller. A full 50% smaller than 
IBM's. For the best PS/2 access to 5W disks, and the 
best value at only $325 , insist on Sysgen Bridge-File. 

Sysgen offers the only complete family of data 
transfer products: Including the 3W Bridge-File 
floppy disk drive, for transferring information from any 
PS/2 to any PC. And the Bridge-Tape subsystem that's 

PC and PS/2 com- 
patible, giving you 
total tape back-up 
and data transfer 
flexibility. 

Call for Sysgen 
literature or for 
the location of the 
Sysgen dealer 
nearest you. 

INFO HOTLINE 1-800 -821-2151 



SYSGEN 

I NCOR PORATED 



Circle 229 on Reader Service Card 



Sysgen Incorporated, 556 Gibraltar Drive, Milpitas, CA 95035, (408) 263-4411. © Copyright Sysgen. Inc., 1988. 
Trademarks: PS/2 — IBM Corporation, Sysgen, Bridge-Tape, Bridge-File — Sysgen, Inc. Registered trademarks: IBM — IBM Corporation. 



MICROBYTES 



NANOBYTES 

percent. GBL cut its 
16G040 2-gigabit-per- 
second Clock and Data 
Recovery chip from 
$180 to $75, and its 
12G014 lK-byte static 
RAM chip (2.5-ns cycle 
time) from $92.80 to 
$45. 

• MIDI Expo West is 
set for September 10-11 
at the Anaheim (CA) 
Marriott Convention Cen- 
ter. Last year's New 
York version attracted 
3500 musicians, com- 
posers, software writers, 
and equipment design- 
ers. This year, the pro- 
gram's educational track 
will cover such topics as 
MIDI basics, computer 
music, and sampling tech- 
niques. For more infor- 
mation, contact Tc.iy 

continued 



YARC Claims 50-MHz Operation for Mac II Booster Board 



YARC Systems (West- 
lake Village, CA) has 
developed a coprocessor 
board for the Mac II that the 
company says can cause ap- 
plications to run about 10 
times faster than on a stan- 
dard Mac II. The McCray 
board is based on Advanced 
Micro Devices' 32-bit 
Am 29000 processor and 
Am29027 floating-point pro- 
cessor. YARC claims that a 
Mac II equipped with one of 
the $4295 boards can out- 
perform many expensive 
workstations. 

The McCray takes ad- 
vantage of the NuBus multi- 
ple-master capability that 
enables boards to access the 
bus directly, put addresses 
on the bus, and communicate 
with other boards to facili- 
tate parallel processing, said 
YARC president Trevor 
Marshall. The standard Mac- 



intosh interface remains in- 
tact, he said. 

Marshall noted that the 
McCray 's 50-MHz operation 
is beginning to strain the 
current printed-circuit-board 
technology. "While the 
board is only about 12 inches 
long, propagation delays at 
50 MHz along the signal 
paths had to be accounted 
for when we were adjusting 
timing," said Marshall. 
When asked about potential 
radio-frequency interfer- 
ence from the McCray, Mar- 
shall said that because the 
board has no link to the out- 
side, such as a serial con- 
nector, radiation would not 
be a problem. 

The McCray has 2 mega- 
bytes of instruction RAM in 
a "mostly zero-wait-state" 
configuration and 512K 
bytes of one-wait-state data 
memory; a daughterboard 



slated to be available soon 
will increase data memory to 
2.5 megabytes. 

The McCray requires a 
Mac II with 1 megabyte of 
memory, a hard disk drive, 
a color or monochrome 
display, the Apple 32-bit 
ROM upgrade (for early ma- 
chines), and an average of 
10 watts of power. The stan- 
dard operating system is the 
Macintosh Finder. An as- 
sembler, linker, and debug- 
ger are also available. 

You can load up all the 
available slots in the Mac II 
and expansion chassis with 
McCray boards and let the 
Mac's MultiFinder and 
68020 assign parallel pro- 
cessing tasks. 

YARC, which spells 
Cray backward, stands for 
Yet Another Ruddy Copro- 
cessor, the firm says. 

continued 



Keceiving 
Report 



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PATT0N&PATT0N 



•'■- 81 Great Oaks Blvd., San Jose, CA 95119 
1-800-525-0082, Outside California 
408-629-5376, California/International 
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Excellence in ct 



16 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 



Circle 170 on Reader Service Card 



)nte%gS e Mp il ER 



The Intelligent Tool for Intelligent Application 
Development: So Powerful, Yet so Easy to Use. 



\ 



An Ounce of Innovation is Worth 
a Pound of Code. 

As well as being an expert system tool, 
Intelligence/Compiler is a very high level 
language. Programs written in it are 20 to 50 
times shorter than typical database or 
programming languages, and a lot more 
intelligent. 

k k product. Its unique and advanceo 

Sf-Shore Technology Corpo.at.on. 

UThe IntelUgence/Compiler's 
combination of ruleW 

editing and debugging faciUties J J 

are a bonus. 

Review in Al Expert Magazine, 
February 1988. 

amSs of time otherwise spent }} 

I 0nd SSco m pu t e r Un g ua g e Marine, 
Marchl98T_ 



Expert Systems as High Level 
Programming Tools. 

Intelligence/Compiler gives you unprecedented 
power, flexibility and ease of use for building 
intelligent applications. 

It is the first and only intelligent database 
system to uniformly combine logic 
programming, object oriented programming 
and intelligent interfaces. 



• Intelligent Interface 

• Dynamic Mentis 

• Popup Screens 




• Logical Reasoning 

• Links to Microsoft C 

• Fortran and Pasca 



Frames and Objects 
Multiple Inheritance 
Attached Procedures 



• Direct Link to dBASE™ 

• Lotus D1F™ and Ascii Files 

• SQL Queries 



An Open Architecture for Open Minds 



FT YES! I WANT TO | 

DEVELOP INTELLIGENT 
APPLICATIONS FAST. 

Rush me copies of 






The underlying technology 
of Intelligence/Compiler is so 
outstanding, we have written a book 
about it. It is being used in many 
leading universities as the standard 
text book. Ask for the book "Expert 
Systems for Experts" by K. Parsaye 
and M. Chignell, published by John 
Wiley, at your local book store. 



Painless Application Development 

Don't look any further. Intelligence/Compiler is the tool 

you need to build royalty free applications. Find out how easy 

and painless it is to build intelligent applications, now! 

Intelligence Ware, Inc. 

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Intelligence/Compiler at $490 each. 

Name: 

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Number: 

Expiration Date: 

Shipping and handling; US: $9.00, Canada/ 
Hawaii Air: $20.00, Overseas Air: $50.00. 
California residents please add 6.5% tax. 

System Requirements: IBM PC, PC/XT, 
PC/AT or PS2 with 640K memory. 

Please send coupon to: 
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9800 S. Sepulveda Blvd. Suite 730, 
Los Angeles, CA 90045. 
FAX: (213) 417-8897. 
[Telephone: (213)417-8896. I 



Circle 108 on Reader Service Card 



AUGUST 1988 • BYTE 17 



MICROBYTES 



NANOBYTES 

mation, contact Tony 
Scalisi at Expocon, 3695 
PostRd.,Southport, CT 
06490, (203) 259-5734. 

• Discovery Systems 
(Dublin, OH) has cut the 
price of mastering CD- 
ROM disks to $1500 and 
the cost of duplication to 
$2 per platter. The optical 
disk manufacturer says 
the CD-ROM business is 
gaining momentum, 
what with Apple's CD- 
ROM drive and Tandy's 
decision to sell such 
drives in its retail stores. 

• Understanding Neural 
Networks: A Primer is 
now available from 
Graeme Publishing (Am- 
herst, NH). The publish- 
er says the $95 report is 
an "easy-to-read over- 
view of scientific and 
commercial develop- 



Mac II Operating System Will Interface with NuBus 



Apple Computer (Cu- 
pertino, CA) is readying 
a new operating system for 
the Mac II. Multitasking 
Realtime DOS (MR DOS) 
is a message-based operating 
system that can interface 
with the NuBus used in the 
Mac II. Apple is trying to 
avoid unnecessary NuBus in- 
terface work on the part of 
card makers by giving them a 
standard set of communica- 
tion services to applications. 

Apple first used MR 
DOS internally on the Mac- 



APPC card, which per- 
forms LU 6.2 gateways to 
IBM machines. Diagnostics 
such as code downloaders 
and dumpers are included, 
as are the schematics for the 
board's hardware (which 
has its own 68000 processor 
and local memory). The 
card has 24 square inches of 
prototyping surface. 

"We've taken the hard 
part of making a NuBus mas- 
ter and encapsulated it, pro- 
viding an area where devel- 
opers can add their value," 



TECHNOLOGY NEWS WANTED. The news staff at BYTE is 
always interested in hearing about new technological and 
scientific developments that might have an impact on micro- 
computers and the people who use them. We also want to keep 
track of innovative uses of that technology. If you know of ad- 
vances or projects relevant to microcomputing and want to 
share that information, please contact the Microbytes staff at 
(603) 924-9281, send mail on BIX to Microbytes, or write to us 
at One Phoenix Mill Lane, Peterborough, NH 03458. 



said an Apple representative. 
"The more mundane things 
are done, so you now have a 
standardized platform. The 
operating system was re- 
leased to help this standard- 
ization. It also allows us to 
move various products 
across different types of 
[Apple] cards. Communica- 
tions stacks for different pro- 
tocols can be ported easily 
now. We are committed to 
having intelligent cards. 
That may not be the only way 
to go, but that's the way we 
are going in the communica- 
tions and networking envi- 
ronment at Apple. " 

Since source code to the 
operating system will not be 
released, developers will 
have to depend on Apple to 
maintain the operating 
system for them as the Mac 
hardware platform 
changes. 



Computers For The Blind 

Talking computers give blind and visually impaired people access to 
electronic information. The question is how and how much? 

The answers can be found in 'The Second Beginner's Guide to Personal 
Computers for the Blind and Visually Impaired" published by the National 
Braille Press. This comprehensive book contains a Buyer's Guide to talking 
microcomputers and large print display processors. More importantly it 
includes reviews, written by blind users, of software that works with speech. 

This invaluable resource book offers details on training programs in 
computer applications for the blind, and other useful information on how to 
buy and use special equipment. 

Send orders to: 

National Braille Press Inc. 

88 St. Stephen Street 

Boston, MA 02115 

(617) 266-6160 

$12.95 for braille or cassette, $14.95 for print. ($3 extra for UPS shipping) 
NBP is a nonprofit braille printing and publishing house. 



18 BYTE* AUGUST 1988 



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Enter customer information? (V/N): N 

Enter billing address? (V/N): N 

Enter marketing information? (V/N): N 



Time: lb: 43: IS 



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No. PRODUCT 



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6 UDLfl Windows for Data Lattice 
UDTC HhkSows for Data Turbo C 

8 UDXE Windows f™ n»+» vfniv 



ill Windows for Data - XENIX 

UD3B2 Windows for Data - 3B2 Unix 

WDSU2 Windows for Data - Sun Unix 

WDVM3 Windows for Data - MicroUax 

WDUM4 Windows for Data - Uax 780 



QUANIITV PRICE AMOUNT 



18 295.80 2958.88 

5 295.88 1475.08 

2%. 88 1475.88 

2 795.88 1598.88 



Subtotal: 
Shipping: 



TOTAL : 
Payment : 



11325.88 
0.88 



exits choice menu 






i 



f you program in C, take a few 
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Which means, now you can concentrate 




eiyone who's 
any work done. 



File View Hem <-:;:■:■.-::■. Print Utilily System Quit 
Column, Section, Management, Info 



Packaging 




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of October. 



• Materials r Make sure synthetic materials are 
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research results into best case/worst 
case scenarios. 

• Distribution • Tom will have his report in by a week 
Vendors from Friday; make sure il covers 
Pricing pricing, strategy, distribution, and 

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for typesetting and printing. 

• Distribution X Do Tom and Bob think we need to 
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• Tom * Marketing 
Bob Sales 



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Letters 



Efficient Recursion 

In his article on benchmarks ("Problems 
and Pitfalls," June 1988, page 217), Al- 
fred Aburto Jr. remarks on the signifi- 
cant performance difference between a 
simple loop to compute Fibonacci num- 
bers and the recursive algorithm used in 
the benchmark. The inference he draws 
from this, that "Apparently, recursive 
function calls are highly inefficient, " is 
a common misapprehension of such data. 
Instead, it is recursive algorithms that 
are often laughably inefficient and non- 
linear. A loop for the 24th number re- 
quires only 24 iterations, whereas a re- 
cursive algorithm for the same number 
involves 92,735 procedure calls, typi- 
cally extravagant for recursive state- 
ments of simple problems. (Why are Lisp 
programs slow?) It seems that his func- 
tion calls are in fact quite efficient if 
something done nearly 3900 times as 
often takes only 4500 times as long. 

Greg Bailey 
Santa Barbara, CA 

Bit-Map Assistance 

I have found "Better Bit-Mapped Lines" 
(March) very helpful in implementing an 
extremely fast line-drawing routine. 
While coding the Pascal into assembly 
language, however, I noticed that the 
dx_diag and dy_diag increments in oc- 
tant 4 should be interchanged (see figure 
4 on page 253). 

This could have introduced a subtle 
bug, and I thought maybe others could 
avoid problems, especially when coding 
in assembly language, where it is tempt- 
ing to turn these dx and dy increments 
into INCs and DECs. 

David Miller 
Cedar Falls, IA 

Test Facilities 

I was delighted to hear about your new 
testing facilities (Editorial, April). 
Benchmark comparisons and manufac- 
turers' statements of Mean Time Be- 
tween Failures are fine for choosing 
among a group of similar machines, but 
what an ever-increasing number of peo- 
ple in science and industry really need to 



know about their potential purchase is, 
"Just how much abuse can this machine 
take?" Computers originally intended 
for home and the office are turning up in 
ever more exotic environments, with 
ever-decreasing margins between opera- 
tion and failure. The big concern then be- 
comes what kind of safety margin is left 
to work with. 



WE WANT TO HEAR FROM YOU. Please 
double-space your letter on one side of the 
paper and include your name and address. 
We can print listings and tables along with a 
letter if they are short and legible. Address 
correspondence to Letters Editor, BYTE, 
One Phoenix Mill Lane, Peterborough, 
NH 03458. 

Because of space limitations, we reserve 
the right to edit letters. Generally, it takes 
four months from the time we receive a letter 
until we publish it. 



A lab of the type you describe could 
supply people with some much-needed 
information. The thought of running ex- 
pensive computer equipment into the 
ground may seem a little drastic, but the 
savings in time, money, and equipment 
might well be worth it. I hope you aren't 
reluctant to push your tests to the limit. It 
could be of value to many of us. 

Eric J. Pilger 
Honolulu, HI 

Clearly Fuzzy 

The idea of "fuzzifying" Prolog as pre- 
sented in "When Facts Get Fuzzy" by 
Bradley L. Richards (April) is certainly 
appealing. Unfortunately, the author's 
Prolog code lacks clarity and precision; 
rather than adding separate predicates 
such as fuzzyy(TruthValue) and 
threshold(ThresholdValue) , it is sim- 
pler to add an extra argument to each 
fuzzy fact. 
For instance, rather than 

scary(king_kong) :-fuzzy(0.5) 

it is simpler to write 



scary (king_kong, 0.5) 

and then pass the truth value as an argu- 
ment, rather than performing obscure 
manipulations of the database with "as- 
sert" and "retract." 

Stewart Rosenberg 
Trouy, France 

Corrected Attribution 

In Pete Wilson's otherwise interesting 
comparison of processor architectures 
("The CPU Wars," May), there is an 
error. 

The 6502 was not "originally de- 
signed by Mostek. " It was designed by 
M.O.S. Technology, which did not later 
contract its name or otherwise become 
Mostek. As early as 1977, M.O.S. Tech- 
nology had already been purchased by 
Commodore (copyright page and intro- 
duction to The First Book of KIM.) Mos- 
tek is still a separate company. The 6502 
has been made by several companies, in- 
cluding Rockwell. 

It is my understanding that the 6502 
and M.O.S. Technology were created by 
a team that broke off from Motorola, I as- 
sume after losing some design arguments 
over the 6800. The team created a ma- 
chine with one accumulator rather than 
two, but— far more important in the real 
world— two index registers, including 
one with the powerful capability of in- 
dexing indirectly from page zero for 
rapid (if not automatic) movement of 
gstrings and blocks. The first model 
(6500) was plug-compatible with the 
6800 but priced at about one-fifth the 
6800. The second model, the 6502, was 
much better because it had a built-in 
clock, reducing the chip count. 

Perhaps most important, while Motor- 
ola was uptight and bureaucratic about 
samples of its $90 chips, M.O.S. Tech- 
nology gave away samples of the 6502 
($20 each, list), including to two guys 
named Steve who put it in the Apple. It 
was also put in a lot of video games and 
controllers. (So maybe the comment on 
page 239 about 6502s being in closets is 
correct. I'm writing this letter on an 

continued 



22 BYTE* AUGUST 1988 



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Apple He with 192K bytes of memory, 
and AppleWorks with a bunch of mem- 
ory is a wonderful tool: fast and easy to 
use. It's a pity Scully doesn't agree.) 

Mike Firth 
Dallas, TX 

WORM Standards 

I welcomed "A Quintet of WORMs" by 
Wayne Rash Jr. (February), but I was 
surprised that it said nothing about stan- 
dards—or the lack of them. It seems to 
me that WORMs will not take off as a 
form of data storage until there is an 
agreed standard format, as has happened 
with the High Sierra format for CD- 
ROM. There has been a massive develop- 
ment of CD-ROM since the adoption of 
this standard, such that it could easily be- 
come a standard feature of PCs in the 
next few years. 

I work in a social research unit, and in 
the near future I expect we'll be using 
desktop machines to analyze large data 
sets for which we currently use main- 
frames. For example, data from the next 
census in both the U.S. and the U.K. is 
likely to be distributed on CD-ROM. 
However, the initial mastering costs will 
probably make it prohibitively expensive 
to produce some of the smaller, less 
widely used data sets on CD-ROM, such 
as the U.K. General Household Survey 
or the U.S. Health Interview Survey. 
WORMs would be a convenient and rela- 
tively low-cost way of distributing such 
data sets. Yet this is unlikely to be attrac- 
tive to either the users or the distributors 
of such datasets when there is no stan- 
dard format. With no agreement on a 
standard, presumably IBM's own format 
will become a default standard, even 
though IBM produces only a one-sided 
WORM drive while others are producing 
double-sided drives. 

The other drawback, from the user's 
point of view, is the proliferating number 
of drives that seem to be required— flop- 
py disk drives, CD-ROM drives, and 
WORM drives— not all of which are 
likely to fit into one box. I have noticed 
that WORM cartridges look quite differ- 
ent from CD-ROM disks. Is it at all like- 
ly that there will be a single drive that 
will read both CD-ROMs and WORMs? 
Charlie Owen 
London, England 

Hartley's Limitations 

Before you discard the Fourier transform 
in favor of the Hartley, be aware of some 
serious limitations ("Faster Than Fast 
Fourier" by Mark A. O'Neill, April). 
The trivial nature of the so-called oas 

continued 



24 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 



Circle 99 on Reader Service Card 





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function (cosine x + sine x) should give 
rise to some suspicion: It is no more than 
a "colorized" sine function, with 45 de- 
grees added to the angle and an ampli- 
tude equal to the square root of 2. The 
plain sine function would serve just as 
well. 

The Fourier transform uses cos x + j 
sin x, which preserves all the original 
signal information in two orthogonal 
functions— but which the Hartley simply 
lumps together. Consequently, any at- 
tempt to take the inverse transform is 
fraught with hazard— the original infor- 
mation has been lost. (The sum of two 
numbers is 7— what are the numbers?) 

Anyone considering using this trans- 
form should be aware of its limitations. 
John C. Polasek 
Orlando, FL 

Bigram vs. N-Gram 

I read Roy E. Kimbrell's "Searching for 
Text? Send an N-Gram!" (May) with 
interest. 

I wonder whether the developers con- 
sidered using a "least-common bigram" 
(LCB) approach similar to that described 
by E. Onderisin {Proceedings of the ACM 
Annual Meeting, 1971) and implemented 
at IITRI (LARC Reports, 7 (1), 1974). 
The LCB method yielded improvements 
over traditional methods. Perhaps an 
LCB or a "least-common trigram" ap- 
proach would be simpler and less re- 
source-intensive here, too. 

Peter Halpin 
Great Falls, VA 

You Call That Fast? 

Mark O'Neill ("Faster Than Fast Fou- 
rier," April) claims that the fast Hartley 



transform (FHT) is twice as fast as the 
fast Fourier transform (FFT). The tim- 
ings in table 1 compare O'Neill's algo- 
rithm with a simple (complex number) 
FFT for one forward and one reverse 
transform. 

These timings show that there's more 
to speed than a smaller number of arith- 
metic operations. In particular, speed of 
array access is often crucial in "real" nu- 
merical applications. 

In a comment on Bracewell's work, 
Bold {Proceedings of the IEEE, 73 (12), 
1863-4) points out that a real FFT can be 
performed by a complex FFT on nil 
points, considerably faster than the times 
above. If speed really is crucial, FFT al- 
gorithms can be tuned to the architecture 
of the machine in use. 

B. D. Ripley 
Glasgow, Scotland 

Elusive Shareware 

I have been given a copy of a very good 
backup program called Hardsave 1.0a. 
It has a message saying "Shareware from 
Andrew P. Wimple, Donations $20 
please." 

I would like to send Mr. Wimple a do- 
nation, but he has not left his address 
anywhere in the software. Do you or any 
of your readers know where he can be 
contacted? 

Jeremy Brown 
Leichhardt, Australia 

Data Liberation 

I am writing this letter to request a new 
Freedom of Information Act. I am refer- 
ring to the availability of data structures 
for software. 

continued 



Table 1: Timings comparing O'Neill's algorithm with a simple (complex 
number) FFT for one forward and one reverse transform. 




n 


= 256 


n = 


1024 


FHT 


FFT 


FHT 


FFT 


IBM PS/2 60 
Turbo Pascal 4.0 
+ 80287 


5.16 
0.88 


3.62 
1.09 


23.51 
4.02 


19.56 
5.54 


RM Nimbus VX 
16-MHz 80386 
+ 80387 


2.47 
0.33 


1.76 
0.33 


10.98 

1.54 


9.28 
1.81 


Atari ST 

Prospero Pascal 2.12 


5.36 


4.01 


24.75 


21.03 


Sun 3/160 + 68881 
+ 1164/5 


0.32 
0.25 


0.38 
0.18 


1.55 
1.17 


1.90 
0.83 


VAX 8650 


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0.270 



26 BYTE* AUGUST 1988 



The change 
to a pure language 



Now, C programmers can move 
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M ANSI C Superset 

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^r C++ as shown ^^ 
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Zortech C++ is compatible 
with 'Codeview' - Microsoft's 
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debugger. 

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As stated in 'The C++ 
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able for a single person to cope 
with 25,000 lines of code" 

■ Other benefits 

Here's just a few: Operator 
overloading, overloading function 
names, default arguments to 
functions and better type checking. 

ESSENTIAL READING! 
This 325 page book 'The C++ 
Programming Language' by Bjarne 
Stroustrup contains the original 
definition of C++. All the examples 
shown in this book have been suc- 
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with the Zortech C++ Compiler. 



To: ZORTECH INC. 361 Massachusetts Ave., Arlington, MA 02174. 
Tel: 617-646-6703. Fax: 617-648-0603. 



/ CALL THE ORDER HOTLINE 1-800-848-8408 




A Number of Reasons A Number 




1 Designed 
• for the 80386 There's a 

revolution taking place in desktop computing. A revolution 
that's been launched by a square wafer of silicon known as the 
80386 microprocessor chip. It puts minicomputer potential at 
PC users' fingertips. It's a fact that virtually every leading PC 
manufacturer has built a "box" around this chip. And it's a fact 
that the "New Operating System" will, supposedly, even run 
on it. But, it's also a fact that their system wasn't designed for 
the 80386. Ours is. And it's, j called PC-MOS/386™ 

4 



4 Thousands of DOS Programs PC-MOS/386™ 
§ gives you the best of the past, and the best for your 
future. Which means that while PC-MOS/386™ totally replaces 
your old DOS, you won't have to replace the programs you've 
spent a lot of time learning. 

And it all happens so effortlessly. You'll continue 
to reap the benefits of your favorite DOS programs, 
while entering a new arena of power. 

Think of it! Programs like dBASE III, 
WordPerfect, Lotus 1-2-3 and Sym- 
phony, WordStar, MultiMate... literally 
thousands of DOS programs-all com- 
patible and multi-user available. 




2. 



compatible with the millions of 
PC-compatibles. Power without 
nothing less from the new standard bearer. 



PC and PS/2 
Compatible 

In designing PC-MOS, we 
knew our first priority was 
to exploit the minicomputer 
capabilities of 80386-based 
PCs&PS/2s.Butwewent 
further, and developed a 
system which would be fully 
existing PCs, PC ATs, and 
sacrifice. You'd expect 





Familiar 
Commands 
Like DIR and COPY 

Just as you don't have to 

learn a whole new array of 

software to take advantage of PC-MOS/386™ neither do you 

have to learn an entirely new set of commands. 

Instead, the system builds on the knowledge you already 
have. "COPY" still copies files, and "DIR" still gives you a 
directory listing. As you might expect, we didn't stop there. 
There's a wealth of features that have strengthened the com- 
mands you know, making them more powerful and easier to use. 



3 One, Five, Up to Twenty-five Users 
• From the beginning, PC-MOS/386™ was 
designed as a versatile operating system which 
could support twenty-five users as easily 
as it supports one. The system comes in 
single, five, and 25-user modules, so 
you're able to start with what you need 
and expand when you're ready. 

In a multi-user setting, PC-MOS/386™ uses the 
computing power of the host PC to drive workstations 
linked to standard RS-232 ports. 




You can choose from a variety of work- 
stations. Mix and match dumb terminals 
costing under $500 each with PCs and 
PS/2s running our terminal emulation 
software. 

All of the host's resources can be 
shared. Programs, data, hard disks, 
tape backup units & printers (including 
^ high speed laser printers) are suddenly available to all 
users. An 80386-PC has minicomputer potential. 
With PC-MOS/386™ you can "mini" your micro. 



28 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 



of Users Wffl Choose PC-MOS/386. 



6 



Concurrently Supports Virtual 8086 and 
• 80386 32-Bit Mode 




80386-based PCs & PS/2s are dual-personality computers. To 
run DOS programs, they act as PCs with a 640K memory limit. 
But to take advantage of their minicomputer capacity, they operate 
in true 80386 mode which lets them address up to four gigabytes 
of memory. PC-MOS enables the 80386-host and its workstations 
to independently switch between these modes-making DOS 
compatibility and 80386 power simultaneously possible. 



dBflEE 



*J Multi-Tasking 

I • While it's true you could look else- 
where for multi-tasking, why would you 
want to? The other multi-tasking operating 
system is not now, nor is it planned to be, 
multi-user. It won't even run multiple DOS appli- 
cations in multi-tasking mode. 

Now consider PC-MOS/386™ At the touch of a key, J 



you can switch between up to 25 different tasks. And if you have 
workstations connected to a host, they get multi-tasking, too. 
Finally.. .a system that won't hold you back. 




8, 



File/Record Locking and 

U Security When you decide to 
implement either a network or a multi- 
user system, there's a two-fold problem 
which must be solved: protecting 
your work from accidental misuse 
and securing it from intentional theft. 
PC-MOS/386™ solves both aspects of this problem. Password 
protected security allows you to assign file, directory, and task 
access to each user Plus, files and records are locked using either 
PC-MOS' proprietary system or NETBIOS emulation. 




9 Remote 
• Access 

It's been said that information is 
power... which makes PC-MOS/386™ a deadly weapon to your 
competition. Imagine on-the-road salespeople being able to file 
call reports and access your latest inventory data. Picture execu- 
tives being able to access your corporate database from across 
the country, or around the world-giving them the information 
they need, when they need it. 

Visualize branch offices tapping time-critical data with 
nothing more than a modem and a workstation. Working at a 
home office in the evening or over the weekend suddenly gets 
awfully productive. And that makes good business sense. The 
kind of sense you can't afford to be without. 



i-E-3 



WORD 
PERFECT 



10, 



The Price... As you 

r§ evaluate operating systems, 
ask yourself if it's reasons you're consider- 
ing... or rhyme. Ask if you're getting a 
system for tomorrow, or one that was made 
for yesterday. See if you're being forced to buy 
new hardware because of their software. 
'And consider this. 

Only one operating system in the world can 
give you the raw power, features, and functionality that you 
demand. Its name is PC-MOS/386™" n >-^~j^= — : ^ - -^ 
And it's immediately available in ^pC^J fc JQ /. _'~"-\ 
one, five and 25-user versions starting fc"^!^^ 

at $195. " \ 



PC-MOS/386'" is a trademark of The Software Link, Inc. PS/2, PC AT, NETBIOS, dBASE III, 
MultiMate, WordPerfect, Lotus 1-2-3 & Symphony, & WordStar are trademarks of IBM Corp., AshtonTate, 
WordPerfect Corp., Lotus Development Corp., & MicroPro, respectively. Prices and technical specifications 
subject to change. Copyright ©1987. All Rights Reserved. 

For the dealer nearest you, In Georgia: International/OEM Sales: Resellers/VARs: 
CALL: 800/451-LINK 404/441-2580 404/263-1006 404/448-5465 

3577 Parkway Lane, Atlanta, GA 30092 Telex 4996147 SWLINK FAX 404/263-6474 




&mx>mm 



The Software Link/Canada CALL: 800/387-0453 



DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 



^■MODULAR OPERATING SYSTEM ^M 

yJO) THE SOFTWARE LINK 



Circle 222 on Reader Service Card (DEALERS: 223) 



AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 29 



LETTERS 



As a software developer and consul- 
tant, I am often called upon to aid indi- 
viduals converting from one software 
package to another. The only problem is, 
very often it's difficult or impossible to 
obtain the data structure of the existing 
software package. 

Recently I was asked to help a physi- 
cian convert from one medical billing 
and insurance program, sold by one of 
the largest companies in the U.S., to a 
different package from a different ven- 



dor. This physician had used the original 
program for several years and had accu- 
mulated several thousand patient ac- 
counts in the system. 

Both a colleague and I contacted the 
vendor and requested a map of the pro- 
gram's data structure. We did not re- 
quest source code or any proprietary in- 
formation, and we were willing to pay 
any necessary costs. Our request was 
firmly refused, and no amount of plead- 
ing, cajoling, or threatening could pry 



If you think you can buy a 
better C compiler, don't. 
Well buy it for you. 



Buy Let's C with csd" 
for just $75. If you're 
not satisfied, get 
Turbo C or QuickC. Free.* 




Why are we making this incredible offer? Because we're absolutely cer- 
tain Let's C and csd C Source Debugger are the best C programming tools 
you can own. 

Rest assured that, like its competition. Let's C features incredibly fast 
in-memory compilation and produces extremely tight, high quality code. 
The differences lie in how much faster you can perform other programming 
chores. 

Our debugger, for example, can cut development time in half. But that's 
not all: 

"csd is close to the ideal debugging environment . . . a definite aid to 
learning C and an indispensable tool/or program development." 

-William G. Wong, BYTE 

And comparatively speaking: "Wo debugger is included in the Turbo C 
package ... a serious shortcoming. " 

-Michael Abrash, Programmer's Journal 

Unlike our competition, Let's C includes its own full-featured assembler, 
features documentation with complete examples and technical support with 
complete answers— the/irst time you call. 





LET'S C AND csd FEATURES 




LET'S C: 




csd: 


• Now compiles twice as last 


• Full UNIX compatibility and complete 


• Debug in C source code, not assembler 


■ Integrated edit-compile cycle: editor 


libraries 


• Provides separate source, evaluation. 


automatically points to errors 


• Many powerful ulilities including make, 


program and history windows 


• Includes botn small and large memory 


assembler, archiver 


• Ability to set trace poinls and monitor 


model 


• MicroEMACS full screen editor with 


variables 


• Integrated environment or command 


source code included 


• Can interactively evaluate any C expression 


line interface 


• Supported by dozens of third party 


• Can execute any C function in your program 


• 8087 sensing and support 


libraries 


• Trace back function 



So if you're thinking about buying any other C compiler, think again. 
But this offer is only available for a limited time. So think fast. And see your 
software dealer or call 1-800-MWC- 1700 soon. (1-312-472-6659 in Illinois.) 

lb exchange Let's C and csd for TUrbo C or QuickC, return registration card within 15 days of purchase 
date, notify Mark Williams Company that you are returning products and receive a return authorization 
number. Products must be returned within 30 days of purchase date or within 30 days of shipping date 
on telephone orders. 

' I Mark 
] Williams 
Company 

1430 West Wrightwood, Chicago, Illinois 60614, 312-472-6659 
) 1988 Mark Williams Company 




the data structure from this prestigious 
vendor. Needless to say, the resulting 
data conversion was difficult and expen- 
sive, and it involved a great deal of man- 
ually reentering data. 

I honestly do not know why this com- 
pany refused our request, but I have run 
across this response countless times with 
numerous software houses. Could it be 
that paranoia has become so widespread 
that it totally obscures the judgment of 
major software developers, or are they 
simply so petty that they will hold their 
existing users as unwilling captives so 
they can continue to milk them for up- 
grade and maintenance fees? 

Whatever the reason is, it has no justi- 
fication. It is inconceivable to me that 
any software vendor could refuse to fur- 
nish a data map, particularly when the 
data is as vitally important as accounts 
receivable. 

Furnishing the data structure of a pro- 
gram is not at all comparable to furnish- 
ing source code. The data structure tells 
little, if anything, about how the pro- 
gram works— it merely shows the owner 
of the data just where and how it is 
stored. Furthermore, a map of the data 
structure is useful only to individuals 
who already own the program. In no way 
could furnishing data structures ad- 
versely affect the sales or proprietary 
rights of any software vendor. Quite the 
contrary: In my opinion, the failure to 
furnish data structures should serve as a 
strong deterrent to buying the program in 
the first place. 

I think the time has come for all soft- 
ware vendors to furnish data structures 
with their programs. As more and more 
people become increasingly dependent 
upon computers for storing their vital 
data, they should have free access to that 
data. Even the most wonderful program 
might be obsolete next year, and even the 
largest vendor may be in Chapter 1 1 next 
week. 

I strongly advise individuals consider- 
ing the purchase of any software that may 
have a major impact on their lives to de- 
mand that the data structure of the pro- 
gram be furnished at the time of pur- 
chase. Whether they are programmers or 
not, if they need to convert to a different 
program in the future, they'll have to pay 
a programmer far less if the data struc- 
ture is already available. 

Evan P. Provisor 
Sharon, CT 

Quattro and Benchmarks 

Your comparison review of Quattro and 
Surpass ("Double Threats to Lotus 

continued 



30 BYTE' AUGUST 1988 



Circle 137 on Reader Service Card 



Circle 14 on Reader Service Card 



Vith 


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- specify. Remit defaults 

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tms I to Ntm to Ut Mil kli mm. 



:■-- 



LETTERS 



1-2-3" by Diana Gabaldon, June) re- 
quires some amplification. 

First, you didn't mention the two add- 
ins that are bundled with Quattro at no 
extra charge: Menu Builder and Tran- 
script. Menu Builder lets users create 
menu trees that are customized to their 
specific needs. Quattro is shipped with 
both its own menu tree and one that emu- 
lates Lotus 1-2-3. 

If your readers have ever lost valuable 
data, they'll appreciate Transcript. It 



provides a log file of keystrokes and com- 
mands selected throughout the spread- 
sheet session. Errors can be handled eas- 
ily with the undo command. Transcript 
also protects against power failure or sys- 
tem crashes and audits changes made to a 
spreadsheet. 

Second, Quattro provides a macro 
record and debugging environment. The 
macro record is an excellent way to 
create macros quickly and easily. It sim- 
ply records the user's actions as they are 



ONLY FORTRON 
COMES WITH 

ONE FULL YEAR 
OF SERVICE. 

FREE. ON-SITE. 

When you buy any Fortran 286 and 386-based IBM-compatible, 
one full year of service at your site is part of the package. Just call 
the service hotline, and we'll take care of you from a network of 
300 service locations throughout the country. 
Because we design and build our systems right here, ourselves, 
you always know exactly who to call for any kind of support you 
need. And you'll get it. Fast. 

Call toll-free for more information, and for the name of your 
nearest Fortran dealer: 800-821-9771. In California, (408) 432-1191. 




Small Footprint 80286 



80386, 16 MHz or 20 MHz 



PCRTRCN 

2380 Qume Drive, Ste. F 
San Jose, CA 95131 



80286 12, 16, or 20 MHz 



performed. With the Quattro debugger, 
users can execute macros in slow motion 
(step by step), pausing as they go along, 
and set breakpoints that "freeze" a 
macro when it reaches a cell or satisfies a 
given condition. Users can execute a 
macro at full speed until it reaches a 
breakpoint, then continue either in slow 
motion or at full speed until the next 
breakpoint. 

Your benchmark appears to be a his- 
torical "all cells dependent on one cell" 
model and is not representative of a real- 
world spreadsheet. 

Lastly, your review summed up Quat- 
tro as being the first-time user's 
choice. On the contrary, our research 
shows that more than 50 percent of cur- 
rent Quattro users are previous Lotus 
1-2-3 users. 

Becky Jones 

Product Manager 

Borland International 

Scotts Valley, CA 

We 're glad you mentioned the bench- 
marks: Our traditional spreadsheet 
benchmarks are deliberately not opti- 
mized for any one kind of operation — 
historically, we've made no assump- 
tions about how a spreadsheet will be 
used. While this approach has the ad- 
vantage of being open-ended and allows 
head-to-head comparisons of spread- 
sheets over time, these benchmarks cer- 
tainly aren't perfect. For one thing, they 
lack fine detail that might allow readers 
to, for example, differentiate between 
performance in routine business mat- 
ters versus performance in statistical 
number crunching. 

We're changing our benchmarks: In 
our June issue, we rolled out BYTE's new 
system benchmarks for hardware. These, 
the first second-generation micro- 
computer benchmarks, produce results 
(from the most general to the most de- 
tailed levels) that are valid indicators of 
real-world performance in a variety of 
applications. 

We 're now in the process of doing the 
same thing for our suite of software 
benchmarks. Watch for our new, second- 
generation software benchmarks later 
this year. — Eds. 



FIXES 



Sorry, Wrong Number 

In the June What's New on page 88, we 
printed the wrong telephone number for 
Plu*Perfect Systems. The correct num- 
ber is (213) 395-4584. 



32 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 



Circle 90 on Reader Service Card 




Compaq presents 
high-performance computing 
for everyone. 




Introducing the 

COMPAQ DESKPRO 386 s. 

New technology delivers affordable 80386 

performance for anyone considering 

80286 PC's. 




Getafftoa 
fast start 



Now, breakthrough technology from Compaq brings the 
power and potential of 80386-based personal computing 
to millions of business PC users. 

Introducing the COMPAQ DESKPRO 386 S. It's the 
first personal computer powered by the revolutionary 
new Intel® 386SX* microprocessor. It's also the first 
designed specifically as an affordable, high-performance 
alternative to 80286-based PC's. 

The COMPAQ DESKPRO 386 S will run the software 
you have today— such as MS-DOS s and Microsoft ® Oper- 
ating System/2 from Compaq— up to 60% faster than 
most 10-MHz 80286 PC's. It will also run the 32-bit 
software that 80286 PC's won't run at all. Microsoft 
Windows/386, for example. 



You can tailor the COMPAQ DESKPRO 386 S to your 
exact needs. Choose high-performance storage options 
such as 20-, 40-, or 110-Megabyte Fixed Disk Drives. 
Tape backup options. Even diskette drives in 5V4-inch and 
3V2-inch sizes. 

VGA graphics are built in. So is one megabyte of high- 
speed memory expandable to 13 megabytes without 
using a single expansion slot. You can also add a mouse, 
printers and more without using additional slots. 

All these features and more are packed into a sleek 
new design that fits places the competition can't. 

So get into the PC passing lane, and head for all the 
80386 power and performance you really want, with the 
revolutionary new COMPAQ DESKPRO 386 S. 



A 



v \ \ \ 

\ \ 



I 



Introducing the 
COMPAQ DESKPRO 386/25. 
The most powerful 
PC available. 




Never bok 
back 



Once again, Compaq introduces a PC that leaves every 
other in the dust. With its new Intel 25-MHz 386* micropro- 
cessor and exclusive 32-bit COMPAQ Flexible Advanced 
Systems Architecture, the new COMPAQ DESKPRO 386/25 
runs up to 60% faster than most 20-MHz 80386 PC's. 

FLEX Architecture uses separate memory and 
peripheral buses operating in concert to maximize system 
performance, while maintaining compatibility with 
industry-standard hardware and software. The 25-MHz 
cache memory controller keeps data instantly accessible, 
so the processor works at wait states 95% of the time. 

With the addition of a 25-MHz Intel 387* or Weitek™ 
coprocessor, you can match the numeric processing of a 
dedicated workstation, at a fraction of the cost. 



You can go from one standard megabyte of high-speed 
RAM to 16 megabytes. And, for storage-hungry applica- 
tions such as most networks and multiuser systems, you 
can get up to a massive 1.2 gigabytes of storaget Internal 
tape backup options are also available. 

For CAD/CAE, as a file server and for multiuser 
systems, the new COMPAQ DESKPRO 386/25 is the ulti- 
mate solution. And, for intense PC users who don't have a 
millisecond to spare, nothing less will do! 



comma 



It simply works better. 



Now there's room 

for everyone 
on the fast track. 







mssmi 



When Compaq 
pioneered high- 
performance personal 
computing and introduced 
the industry's first 80386- 
based PC's, we gave 
performance-hungry busi- 
ness users, engineers, 
analysts and software 
developers the tools they 
needed to perform intense 
applications faster and better. 

Now, with the new 
COMPAQ DESKPRO 386s and 
COMPAQ DESKPRO 386/25, 
we're not just pushing 
80386 technology forward; 
we're widening it. So 
that PC users at every 
level can take advantage 
of the industry's highest 
performance— Compaq 
80386 performance. 

The new COMPAQ 
DESKPRO 386 S lets anyone 
considering 80286 PC's 
head straight for 80386 per- 



formance. The 
original COMPAQ 
DESKPRO 386 and 
COMPAQ DESKPRO 386/20 
deliver even higher per- 
formance for more de- 
manding applications. 
And now, at the top of our 
line is the new COMPAQ 
DESKPRO 386/25. The 
most powerful personal 
computer available. 

Together, they create 
the highest-performing PC 
line available. In each one, 
our exclusive design lets 
every component run at 
optimum speed. This pro- 
vides a substantial per- 
formance edge, while 
maintaining compatibility 
and connectivity with your 
current hardware and 
software. 

Now, you'll run your 
current MS-DOS 81 applica- 
tions at top speed. Plus new 
80386 software, such as 
Microsoft Windows/386. 
With MS 8 OS/2, UNIX 8 or 
XENIX? you'll simultane- 
ously run multiple programs, 



switching 
between them 

instantly. And, with a 
COMPAQ 80386 PC, you'll 
do it all faster. 

Now, with legendary 
Compaq performance and 
quality available to every- 
one, the fast track is wider 
than ever. So accelerate. Call 
1-800-231-0900, Operator 
64. In Canada, call 1-800- 
263-5868, Operator 64. 
We'll give you the location 
of your nearest Authorized 
COMPAQ Computer Dealer 
and a free brochure for any 
COMPAQ 80386-based 
computer. 

COMPAQ" and COMPAQ DESKPRO 386* are 
trademarks of Compaq Computer Corporation. 
Microsoft? MS-DOS? XENIX' and MS* are 
trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. MS'' OS/2 
and MS* Windows/386 are products of Microsoft 
Corporation. Product names mentioned herein 
may be trademarks and/or registered trademarks 
of their respective companies. "Registered U.S. 
Patent and Trademark Office. COMPAQ 
DESKPRO 386/25 graphics ©1988 Accent Soft- 
ware, Inc. ©1988 Compaq Computer Corpora- 
tion. All rights reserved. 

•Hereafter referred to as 80386SX, 80386 and 
80387 respectively. 

tUsing two optional COMPAQ 300-/600- 
Megabyte Fixed Disk Drive Expansion Units. 



COMPAQ. 



It simply works better. 



Circle 25 on Reader Service Card 



Chaos Manor 
Mail 



Jerry Pournelle answers questions about his column 
and related computer topics 



BIX in Europe? 

Dear Jerry, 

I'm a student of economics and com- 
puter science, studying at the University 
of Karlsruhe. 

There are three reasons why I'm writ- 
ing to you. First, I really enjoy reading 
BYTE, because it's one of the best (if not 
the best) available computer magazines. 

My second reason for writing is be- 
cause I'd love to take part on BIX, but as 
you know, the German Bundespost 
("post" is the "abbreviation" for Public 
Organization for the Suppression of 
Technology) is very restrictive concern- 
ing computer communications and, of 
course, is charging fairly high fees for 
any long-distance call. 

Perhaps BYTE or McGraw-Hill could 
encourage activities to bring BIX to Eu- 
rope. I'm thinking of a BIX bulletin 
board somewhere in Europe, whose con- 
tents would be sent to America once or 
twice a day and vice versa. This would 
already be a big leap forward, although it 
would not be as interactive as the original 
BIX. 

Perhaps— and now I might just be day- 
dreaming— BIX could advance to be- 
come IBIX (International BYTE Infor- 
mation Exchange), bringing together 
computer users from all over the world. 

My third reason to write to you is that 
I've recently bought an inexpensive add- 
on board for my IBM PC AT. To find out 
what kind of board I'd bought, I went 
through all my issues of BYTE to locate 
any reference to Definicon Systems, the 
name on the board. I was lucky to find a 
pointer to an older BYTE in which the 
DSI-32 coprocessor board had been re- 
viewed. I was very glad to realize that I 
now own a "tiny VAX" to plug into my 
computer (a DSI-32 board running at 10 
MHz, complete with memory manage- 
ment unit and 2 megabytes of RAM) . 

I've already written to Definicon Sys- 
tems for further information and soft- 
ware, and I hope to get enough to help get 
the board running. Since BYTE tried to 
encourage buying this board by having 
arranged special prices for Green Hills 
software, I believe there still may be 



many people who use the DSI-32 board. 
Perhaps some of them would be willing 
to exchange information or programs 
with me. Readers can get in contact with 
me at the address below. 

Axel Mock 

Dahlienweg 8E 

7513 Stutensee 1 

Federal Republic of Germany 

Thanks for the suggestions. I find De- 
finicon stuff blazingly fast. 

I passed your comments on to George 
Bond, executive editor of BIX, who had 
this to say; 

"We're interested in worldwide partic- 
ipation in BIX, too. Already BIX has 
members from North and South America, 
Europe, Africa, Asia, and Australia. We 
do recognize the high costs of BlXing 
from outside the U. S. , and we are contin- 
ually looking for ways to help users re- 
duce them. 

"Incidentally, although BIX is not 
available directly in Europe, another 
BYTE service— BYTEnet Listings— is. 
BYTEnet Listings is a BBS with code de- 
scribed in BYTE articles in its download 
areas. There currently are BYTEnet List- 
ings boards in more than 30 nations 
worldwide. "—Jerry 

Solving Problems with ASK 

Dear Jerry, 

Last year, you wrote about having 
troubles with your resident software and 
gave an example of a batch file that re- 
writes the AUTOEXEC.BAT file. That's one 
solution, but I think I've got a better one. 

The advanced edition of the Norton 
Utilities includes the program ASK, 
which is very useful for solving such 
problems in a tidy way. With ASK, you 
can build menus in a batch file, input into 
the batch file, and set the errorlevel 

continued 

Jerry Pournelle holds a doctorate in psy- 
chology and is a science fiction writer 
who also earns a comfortable living writ- 
ing about computers present and future. 
He can be reached do BYTE, One Phoe- 
nix Mill Lane, Peterborough, NH 03458. 



H 



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AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 33 



CHAOS MANOR MAIL 



according to your input. (For a better ex- 
planation, just look it up in the Norton 
Integrator.) A better solution to your 
problem could look like this: 

ECHO 1. Ready! , SuperKey, SideKick 

ECHO 2. Lightning, SideKick 

ECH0 3-DESQview 

ECHO 4. Windows 

ASK "What shall I load, "1234 

if errorlevel 1 then goto 

if errorlevel 2 then goto 



If you want to stick to your method, 
you could write a little program that re- 
boots the system via interrupt 25. 

When you're using DOS 3.3, you can 
write better code using call instead of 
goto. This way your code will be much 
more readable. 

Now to your discussion about word 
processors. I do almost all my editing 
with the Norton Editor (yes, I'm a Peter 
Norton fan), which can do all I need and 
is very small. It also supports a mouse if 




connected. Just press the left mouse but- 
ton, and you can move the cursor around; 
press the mouse button again, and you 
drop the cursor at the new location. I find 
that very useful. When it comes to out- 
put, I use TeX. My second-choice editor 
is MicroStar from the Turbo Editor 
Toolbox because it cooperates with 
Lightning so nicely. 

P.S. Just in case you are interested, I 
am 14 years old. 

Konrad Neuwirth 
Vienna, Austria 

Actually, I find that DESQview does 
pretty well on an 80386 for nearly every 
normal operation; when I want to run 
without DESQview, I generally want to 
change the CONFIG.SYS file as well, and 
ASK won 't do that. 

I'm a Peter Norton fan also. —Jerry 

XyWrite's the One 

Dear Jerry, 

With rising frustration, I have read all 
the columns in your series on your search 
for a word processor that is transparent to 
you as a writer and yet has all the features 
that you as a hacker might want. 

I am a practicing attorney, and as such 
I need to create nonstandard documents 
from scratch with reasonable regularity. 
I also lecture and have to prepare appro- 
priate outlines in varying detail, tailored 
to the particular course. 

Six or so years ago, I was introduced 
to Xy Write by the head of our word-pro- 
cessing department, in which we ran 
Atex at the time. I switched over from my 
then-beloved WordStar, and I've stuck 
with it ever since. 

The key to XyWrite, which I don't be- 
lieve you have yet had an opportunity to 
appreciate, is the ability to configure the 
program in just about any way you 
choose. 

Do you want a keyboard that gives you 
all the editing functions without remov- 
ing your hands from the keyboard? 
That's what I have. The keyboard driver 
for XyWrite is an ASCII file that loads 
when the program boots and can be re- 
written to put all the editing functions 
under whatever mnemonic or ergonomic 
design you choose. 

Suffice it to say that I have assigned to 
the Control key (or, in a few cases, Con- 
trol-Alt or Alt-Shift) combinations of my 
choice all the following functions: 

• Cursor movement: one space up, 
down, forward, or back; one word for- 
ward or back; one sentence forward or 
back; one paragraph forward or back; top 

continued on page 201 



34 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 



Circle 218 on Reader Service Card 



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When you want to talk computers 



ATARI COMPUTERS 



65XE 64K Computer 109.99 

130XE 132K Computer 149.00 

520ST-FM Monochrome Syst. . 699.00 

1040ST Color System Call 

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Atari 520 
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Degas Elite 39.99 

Soft Logik Corp. 

Publishing Partner 64.99 

Timeworks 

Swiftcalc/Wordwriter 47.99 

VIP 

Professional Gem 139.00 

Word Perfect Corp. 

Word P erfect 189.00 

Absoft 

AC Basic 139.00 

Aegis Development 

Animator/Images 89.99 

Draw Plus 149.00 

Sonix 49.99 

Discovery Software 

Marander II 31.99 

Electronic Arts 

Deluxe Video 1.2 89.99 

Gold Disk Software 

Pagesetter w/Text ed 89.99 

Micro Illusions 

Dynamic Cad 349.00 



AMIGA SOFTWARE 



AMIGA SOFTWARE 



Mimetics 

Amigen Gen Lock 159.00 

New Tek Inc. 

Digi-View 2.0 149.00 

Digi-Paint 44.99 

Sub-Logic Corp. 

Flight Simulator II 39.99 

Word Perfect Corp. 

Word Perfect 199.00 



MACINTOSH PRODUCTS 



EVEREX 6 __ 

60MB Tape Backup *899 

Hard Drives 
CMS 

MacStack 60 899.00 

EvGrex 

40MB SCSI 999.00 

PCPC 

MacBottom HD45 1149.00 

Floppy Drives 
Central Point 

Magnum 800k 209.00 

Mirror Technologies 

800K Floppy External 199.00 

Monitors 

Network Specialties 

High Top FPD 1199.00 

Radius 

Full Page Display 995.00 

Two Page Display 1595.00 

Sigma Designs 

Laser View Display for II 1 ,749.00 

Memory Upgrades 
Dove Computer 

Mac Snap 2SE 359.00 

Scanners 
AST 

Turboscan 1,349.00 

Datacopy 

730 Flatbed Scanner 1,199.00 

Ast Premium 286 & 386 Call 

Compaq Deskpro and Portbls. . . .Call 

IBM PS/2 25, 30, 50, 60, 80 Call 

Leading Edge 899.00 



MS/DOS SYSTEMS 



NEC APC-IV Powermate . . . .2,399.00 
PC-TOO 80286 1.2MB, 51 2K. .899.00 

Toshiba T-1000 Laptop 799.00 

Zenith Laptops Call 





NEC 

Multispeed- 

HD 



$2489 



MULTIFUNCTION CARDS 



AST 

6-Pak Plus 576 Board 149.00 

Hot Shot 286 Accelerator 349.00 

Hercules 

Color Card 169.00 

Graphics Card Plus 199.00 

Intel 

Inboard 386 Board 799.00 

5th Generation 

Logical Connection 256K 339.00 

Quadram 

Quad386XT 80386 PC-Upgr. . .799.00 

Video 7 

Vega V.G.A. Adapter 299.00 

Zuckerboard 

Color Card w/ Parallel Port 89.99 

Ashton-Tate 

d-Base III+ 389.00 

Borland 

Quattro 129.00 

5th Generation 

Fastback Plus 84.99 

Fox Software 

Fox Base & Development . . . .219.00 

IMSI 

Optimouse w/dr. Halo 89.99 

Logitec 

Hi-Res Buss Mouse 99.00 

Lotus 

Lotus 1.2.3 299.00 

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First Choice 99.99 

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36 BYTE* AUGUST 1988 



When you want to talk price. 



MONITORS 



Amdek 

Video 210A 12" Amber 89.00 

Video 410 12"A/G/W (ea.) 139.00 

Magnavox 

7BM623 12" TTL Amber 99.00 

CM8505 14" RGB/Composite .189.00 
CM8515 14" RGB/Composite .269.00 

9CM053 14" EGA 379.00 

9CM082 14" VGA Display. . . .459.00 

NEC 

GS-1400 14" Monochr. TTL . .219.00 

JC-1402 Multisync-ll 599.00 

Packard Bell 

PB-1418F 14" Flat TTL A/GA/V 

(ea.) 119.00 

PB-1420CG 14" Mid-Res CGA 269.00 
PB-1422EG 14" Hi-Res EGA. .369.00 
PB-8426-MJ Uniscan Monitor .399.00 
Princeton Graphics 

Max-12 12" TTL Amber 149.00 

Seiko 

CM-1430 14"VGA Display . . . .649.00 




Magnavox CM 8762 
14" RGB/Comp. 



DRIVES 



$269 



Atari 

AA314 DS/DD ST Disk 219.00 

SHD204 20MB ST Hard Drive .619.00 
C.LTD (For Amiga) 

C.LTD 20MB (A2000) 769.00 

C.LTD 33MB (A2000) 879.00 

C.LTD 44MB (A2000) 1099.00 

C.LTD 50MB (A2000) 1139.00 

C.LTD A500 SCSI Controller . .179.00 
Indus 

GT Disk Drive Atari XL/XE 199.00 

GTS-100 ST Drive 219.00 

Racore 

Jr. Expansion Chassis 299.00 

Seagate Technologies 

ST-225 20MB Drive 249.00 

Supra 

Atari ST 20MB Hard Drive . . . .589.00 

Amiga 2000 20MB Hard/Drive .629.00 



MODEMS 



Anchor 

6480 C64/128 1200 Baud 99.99 

520 ST520/1 040 1200 Baud ..129.00 
1200E 1200 Baud External . . .129.00 
Atari 

XMM301 XL/XE 300 Baud 44.99 

SX-212 St Modem 99.99 

Avatex 

1200 He External 99.99 

2400 External 189.00 

Best Products 

2400 Baud Vz Card w/software 149.00 

Everex 

Evercom 2400 Baud External . 209.00 







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2400 Stand Alone $189 

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Smartmodem 300 Ext 159.00 

Smartmodem 1200 Int 279.00 

Packard Bell 

1200 External 89.99 

2400 External 169.00 

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1 200 Baud External 11 9.00 

1200 Baud Internal 79.99 

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2400AT 2400 Baud Atari 169.00 

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Direct 1200 Baud External 109.00 

Direct 2400 Baud External 199.00 



DISKETTES 



Maxwell 

MD1-M SS/DD 5V4" 8.49 

MD2-DM DS/DD 5 1 /4" 9.49 

MF1-DDM SS/DD 3V 2 " 12.49 

MF2-DDM DS/DD 3 1 /2" 18.49 

MC-6000 DC-600 Tape 23.99 

Sony 

MD1D SS/DD 5 1 / 2 " 6.99 

MD2D DS/DD 5 1 /2*' 7.99 

MFD-1DD SS/DD 3V 2 " 11.99 

MFD-2DD DS/DD 3V2" 16.99 



PRINTERS 



Atari 

XDM-121 Letter Quality XL-XE 209.00 
XM-M801 XL-XE Dot Matrix . . .199.00 

XM-M804 ST Dot Matrix 199.00 

Brother 

M-1109 100cps Dot Matrix. . . .169.00 

M-1509 180cps 132col 389.00 

HR-20 22cps Daisywheel 379.00 

Citizen 

120D 120cps Dot Matrix 159.00 

Premier-35 35cps Daisywheel .479.00 
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LX-800 150cps, 80 col 179.00 

FX-86e 240cps, 80 col Call 

FX-286E 240 cps, 132 col Call 

LQ-500 180 cps, 24-wire Call 

LQ-850 330 cps, 80 col Call 

LQ-1050 330 cps, 24-wire Call 

FX-850, FX-1050 New 

Hewlett-Packard 

2225A Thinkjet 369.00 

NEC 

P2200 Pinwriter 24-wire 379.00 

P660 Pinwriter 24-wire 459.00 

P760 Pinwriter 132 col 679.00 

Okidata 

Okimate 20 color printer 129.00 

ML-182 180 cps, 80 col 249.00 

ML-320 300 cps, 80 col 379.00 

ML-390 24 wire, 270 cps 519.00 




Panasonic KX-P1080i 

144 cps, 80 col. $ 169 



Panasonic 

KX-P109H 194 cps, 80 col. . 
KX-P1092i 240 cps, 80 col. . 
KX-P1595 200 cps, 132 col. 
Star Micronics 
NX-1000 140 cps, 80 col 
NX-1000C C64/128 Interface 

NX-15 120 cps, 132 col 

Toshiba 

P321-SL 216 cps, 24-wire . . 

P351-SX 300 cps, 24-wire . . 



.199.00 
.339.00 
.479.00 

.179.00 
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.499.00 
. 999.00 



In the U.S.A. and in Canada 



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A108 
Circle 55 on Reader Service Card AUGUST 1988 • BYTE 37 



Ask Byte 



Circuit Cellar 's Steve Ciarcia answers your questions on microcomputing 



A Drive for All Seasons 

Dear Steve, 

I'm looking for a 3 '/2-inch floppy disk 
drive capable of coping with the IBM 
1.44-megabyte format as well as the 
Apple 800K-byte format. I have asked 
most of the major brand representatives 
in Europe about this, but so far I've been 
without luck. I think there must be quite 
a market for such a device, so I don't 
understand why it should not exist. 

H. Anjou 
Gothenburg, Sweden 

There 's an old saying in this country 
that there 's an oddball in every crowd. In 
the computer crowd, the oddball is Apple 
Computer. Apple's disk system for all its 
computers uses an unusual data encoding 
method called group coding, whereas 
modified frequency modulation (MFM) 
encoding is the basis for the dominant in- 
dustry standard dictated by IBM. Apple 's 
method is very software-intensive, using 
a variable-speed 80-track drive to obtain 
its 800K-byte-per-disk capacity. 

The IBM 1.44-megabyte disk drive 
uses industry-standard controllers. The 
differences between the systems make de- 
signing a single drive to work with both a 
bit adventurous. At least two companies 
have attempted to market controllers that 
permit industry-standard 40-track dou- 
ble-sided drives to be used with the Apple 
II series; both failed. It seems highly un- 
likely that anyone will design and market 
a disk drive that works with both kinds of 
controllers with acceptable reliability. 
I'm not saying it can 't be done— just that 
no one is likely to do it. — Steve 

Alive and Kicking 

Dear Steve, 

Do you know where I can get software 
to let me use my Osborne 1 with a hook- 
up to an IBM PC XT? I've tried several 
sources without success. 

Steven Takle 
Fridley, MN 

I don't know of any specific software 
package that links Osborne or other 
CP/M machines to IBM PCs. Maybe you 



can find something on CP/M bulletin 
board systems (BBSes), CompuServe, or 
The Source. You can find a large list of 
user groups and BBSes in Computer 
Shopper magazine. 

You can operate a PC from a remote 
computer of almost any type with some 
communications programs. Procomm, for 
example, has a host mode that provides 
many of the features of BBS control pro- 
grams, and it has a shell-to-DOS func- 
tion that allows the remote user full ac- 
cess to the PC. All I/O is redirected to the 
COM port. This would allow you to use 
Modem! or some other program on your 
Osborne to run the PC remotely. Pro- 
comm is available on most local BBSes, 
or you can order it from Datastorm Tech- 
nologies, Inc., 1621 TowneDr., Suite G, 
Columbia, MO 65205. One advantage of 
downloading from a local BBS is that you 
can try it before you buy it. —Steve 



IN ASK BYTE, Steve Ciarcia, a computer con- 
sultant and electronics engineer, answers 
questions on any area of microcomputing and 
his Circuit Cellar projects. The most repre- 
sentative questions will be answered and pub- 
lished. Send your inquiry to 

Ask BYTE 

One Phoenix Mill Lane 

Peterborough, NH 03458 

Due to the high volume of inquiries, we 
cannot guarantee a personal reply. All letters 
and photographs become the property of 
Steve Ciarcia and cannot be returned. 

The Ask BYTE staff includes manager 
Harv Weiner and researchers Eric Albert, 
Tom Cantrell, Bill Curlew, Ken Davidson, 
Jeannette Dojan, Jon Elson, Frank Kuech- 
mann, Tim McDonough, Edward Nisley, Dick 
Sawyer, Robert Stek, and Mark Voorhees. 



Protocol Problems 

Dear Steve, 

My computer is a Hewlett-Packard 
IPC, a machine that is apparently a poor 
stepchild. 

My problem concerns connecting an 
external disk drive. According to the 
manuals, any drive that uses the Amigo 



or SS-80 protocol can be directly con- 
nected (via the HP-IB or IEEE-488) and 
operated using drivers in the operating 
system. Since I don't want to pay HP's 
price for its drives, I've been looking for 
another source. Unfortunately, no one 
has heard of the required protocols. 

Do you know of a source of informa- 
tion? I've already tried HP and local 
dealers. I've also written to drive manu- 
facturers, to no avail. 

James A. Hazel 
Bremerton, WA 

A field that is evolving as rapidly as 
microcomputers creates its inevitable or- 
phans and unsupported, expensive, and 
hard-to-find products. 

For a number of reasons (but mostly by 
accident), the Seagate ST506 and ST412 
hard disk drive interfaces have largely 
dominated, with a strong showing by the 
Shugart Associates system interface 
(SASI) and small computer system inter- 
face (SCSI). The HP-IB/IEEE-488 inter- 
face, though usable with hard disk 
drives, was developed to connect labora- 
tory instruments to minicomputers; it is 
therefore less than optimal for hard disk 
drive applications. The newer, simpler 
Seagate and SCSI drives have dominated, 
with run length limited (RLL) coming on 
fast as a variant. 

With this in mind, it should be no sur- 
prise to you that I haven 't been able to lo- 
cate any third-party drives that would be 
compatible with your system. Your 
choices would seem to be as follows: Go 
without a hard disk drive, buy HP's ver- 
sion, or get a different computer — such 
as a PC or PC compatible— for which 
bargain-priced drives are offered by 
dozens of suppliers. —Steve 

Identical Printers 

Dear Steve, 

What is the difference between Epson- 
and IBM-compatible printers with regard 
to the Centronics interface? Is this differ- 
ence a hardware- or software-dependent 
feature? 

Also, is it possible to interface an 

continued 



38 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 



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ticles by leaders in the programming industry. 
How to Get Your FREE Copy: 1 ) Use the reader ser- 
vice card provided by this journal; 2) Mail us a card 
or letter with your name and address; or 3) Call one 
of our convenient toll free telephone numbers. 
If you haven't yet received your copy of the 
Programmer's Connection Buyer's Guide, act 
now. Increasing your knowledge about these 
products could be one of the most powerful 
things you'll ever do. 



USA 800-336-1166 

Canada 800-225-1166 

Ohio & Alaska (Collect) 216-494-3781 

International 216-494-3781 

TELEX 9102406879 

FAX 216-494-5260 

Business Hours: 8:30 AM lo 8:00 PM EST Monday through Friday 

Prices. Terms and Conditions are subject to change. 

Copyright 1988 Programmer's Connection Incorporated 




Established 1984 



386 products List 0urs 

386 ASM/386 LINK by Pbar Lap Software 495 389 

Z&6 DEBUGGER by Ptw Lap Soltxare 195 145 

NDPC-386&yMcroWay 595 529 

NDPForTran-386r;y/W/croU'ay 595 529 

PC-MOS/386 Single-User by TlKSolt,'jareUnk 195 179 

PC-MOS/3865-l/ser6ynieSo/TivareLrt 595 539 

PC-H\OS/ZB625-UserbylbeSoltv/arebnk 995 869 

VM/386fty/GC New 245 219 

blaise products 

ASYNCH MANAGER Specify Cor Pascal 175 135 

C TOOLS PLUS/5.0 129 99 

PASCAL TOOLS/TOOLS 2 175 135 

Turbo ASYNCH PLUS/4.0 129 99 

Turbo C TOOLS 129 99 

Turbo POWER SCREEN 129 99 

Turbo POWER TOOLS PLUS/4.0 129 99 

VIEWMANAGERSpec/fyCorfasca/ 275 219 

borland products 

EUREKA Equation Solver 167 115 

Paradox 2.0 by Ansa/Borland 725 525 

Paradox 386 by Ansa/Boiland 895 639 

Paradox Network Pack by Aim/Borland 995 725 

Quattro: The Professional Spreadsheet 247 179 

Sidekick Plus 200 125 

Turbo Basic Compiler 100 68 

Turbo Basic Support Products AllVarieties 100 68 

Turbo C Compiler 100 68 

Turbo Pascal Compiler 100 68 

Turbo Pascal Database Toolbox 100 68 

Turbo Pascal Developer's Toolkit 395 285 

Turbo Pascal Editor Toolbox 100 68 

Turbo Pascal Gameworks Toolbox 100 68 

Turbo Pascal Graphix Toolbox 100 68 

Turbo Pascal Numerical Methods Toolbox 100 68 

Turbo Pascal Tutor 70 49 

Turbo Prolog Compiler New Version 150 115 

Turbo Prolog Toolbox 100 68 

Other Borland products CALL CALL 

c language 

CJalkoyCA/S 150 129 

Eco-C88 Modeling Compiler byEcosolt 100 69 

Lattice C Compiler Iran Lattice 450 289 

Mark Williams Let's C witb FREE csd 75 54 

Uniware 68000 C Cross Compiler OySDS 995 899 

UniwareZ-80C Cross Compiler bySDS 995 899 

WATCOMC6.0oyW47COM Group 295 269 

database management 

Clipper by Nantucket 695 379 

ABASE III Plus byAstlton-Tate 695 439 

iBFas\dBASEIIIPIusCompbydBFasl NewVers 99 89 

FoxBASE+ by Fox Software 395 249 

FoxBASE+/386oyftMrSoftvare 595 399 

Circle 182 on Reader Service Card 



FrontRunneroy4sn/on-7ate New 195 CALL 

Geniler bybytel 395 249 

Tom Rertig's Library by Tom RettigS. Assoc 100 89 

digitalk products 

Smalltalk/V 100 84 

Smalltalk/V 286 200 175 

Smalltalk/V Support Utilities All Vaneties CALL CALL 

golden bow products 

Vcache 60 55 

Vteature Hard Disk Utility 80 74 

Vleature Deluxe Hard Disk Wily 120 111 

Vopl Hard Disk Optimization Utility 60 55 

komputerwerk products 

Finally BASIC routines 99 85 

Finally Modules 99 85 

Finally XGral 99 85 

lahey computer products 

F77L-EM/16 695 639 

F77L-EM/32 895 799 

F77L-F0RTRAN Compiler 477 429 

Lahey Personal Fortran 77 95 85 

wittiToolkit 119 99 

logitech products 

Logitech HI RE2 Mouse New 149 119 

Logitech Mouse with Plus Software 119 98 

WithLOGICADD 189 153 

With LOGICADD and LOGIPAINT 219 179 

Willi LOGIPAINT 149 119 

Logitech Series 2 Mouse with Plus Software 99 79 

Other Logitech Products CALL CALL 

microsoft products 

Microsoft BASIC Compiler New Version 295 219 

Microsoft C Compiler 5 w/CodeView 450 299 

Microsoft COBOL Compiler »« COBOL Tools 700 465 

Microsoft FORTRAN Optimizing Comp 450 299 

Microsoft Macro Assembler 150 105 

Microsoft Mouse AllVarieties call CALL 

Microsoft OS/2 Programmer's Toolkit 350 239 

Microsoft Pascal Compiler 300 199 

Microsoft QuickBASIC 4 99 69 

Microsoft QuickC 99 69 

Microsoft Windows 99 69 

Microsoft Windows 386 195 129 

Microsoft Windows Development Kit 500 329 

Other Microsoft products CALL CALL 

persoft products 

SmartMOVE New 149 135 

SmarTERM 220 New 195 179 

SmarTERM 240 New 345 309 

CALL for Products Not Listed Here 



ORDERING INFORMATION 

FREE SHIPPING. Orders within the USA (including 
Alaska & Hawaii) are shipped FREE via UPS. Call 
lor APO, FPO, PAL, and express shipping rates. 
NO CREDIT CARD CHARGE. VISA, MasterCard 
and Discover Card are accepted at no extra cost. 
Your card is charged when your order is shipped. 
Mail orders please include expiration date and 
authorized signature. 

NO COD OR PO FEE. CODs and Purchase Orders 
are accepted at no extra cost. No personal checks 
are accepted on COD orders. POs with net 30-day 
terms (with initial minimum order of $100) are 
available to qualified US accounts only. 
NO SALES TAX. Orders outside of Ohio are not 
charged sales tax. Ohio customers please add 5% 
Ohio tax or provide proof of tax-exemption. 
30-DAY GUARANTEE. Most of our products come 
with a 30-day documentation evaluation period or 
a 30-day return guarantee. Please note that some 
manufacturers restrict us from offering guarantees 
on their products. Call for more information. 
SOUND ADVICE. Our knowledgeable technical 
staff can answer technical questions, assist in 
comparing products and send you detailed product 
information tailored to your needs. 
INTERNATIONAL ORDERS. Shipping charges for 
International and Canadian orders are based on the 
shipping carrier's standard rate. Since rates vary 
between carriers, please call or write for the exact 
cost. International orders (except Canada), please 
include an additional $20 for export preparation. 
All payments must be made with US funds drawn 
on a US bank. Please include your telephone num- 
ber when ordering by mail. Due to government 
regulations, we cannot ship to all countries. 
MAIL ORDERS. Please include your telephone 
number on all mail orders. Be sure to specify com- 
puter, operating system, diskette size, and any ap- 
plicable compiler or hardware interface(s). Send 
mail orders to: 

Programmer's Connection 

Order Processing Department 

7249 Whipple Ave NW 

North Canton, OH 44720 






periscope products 

Periscope I wittiBoard 455 369 

Periscope II witb NMI Breakout Switch 175 139 

Periscope \l-X Software only 145 105 

Periscope III WMHzversion 1395 1119 

peter norton products 

Advanced Norton Utilities 150 89 

Norton Commander 75 55 

Norton Editor 75 59 

Norton Guides Spec//y Language 100 65 

ForOS/2 150 109 

Norton Utilities ico 59 

txm products 

DATABACK New 70 67 

MACK DOS New 60 58 

Turbo G GRAPHICS Development Library New 80 75 

with Source Code New 150 135 

other products 

Actor by Trie Whitewater Group 495 439 

APL'PLUS PCbySTSC 695 529 

Brief by Solution Systems 195 CALL 

Dan Bricklin's Demo II fly Somwra Garden 195 179 

Desqview from Quarterdeck 130 115 

Desqview API Products AllVarieties New CALL CALL 

EXTEND FORT 77 Extens by Design Decisions New 149 129 

Flow Charting II+ 6yf&rron5 R?fton 229 189 

GRASP byPaul Mace Software 99 85 

HALO 88 by Media Cybernetics 325 CALL 

Instant Replay III by Nostradamus 150 129 

MaceUtilitiesoyftu/MaceSoffware 99 85 

MathCAD byMathSolt 349 319 

Microcompatibles Products All Varieties CALL CALL 

Microport Products All Varieties CALL CALL 

MICROSTAT-IISHtef/csPartoyR'Osoff New 395 359 

Opt-Tech Sort fly Opt-TechDaiaProc 149 99 

Peabody by Copia Intl. Specily Language 100 89 

PC Tools Deluxe by Cenleral Point Soil New 79 69 

PMI Products All Vaneties CALL CALL 

Quinn-Curtis Products AllVarieties call CALL 

STATGRAPHICS OySTSC 895 699 

1UB Version Conlm\ by Burton Systems Software 100 89 

5 Station LAN New 300 269 

TurboGeometry Library by Disk Soltware 100 89 

XENIX System V All Varieties hy SCO CALL CALL 

AUGUST 1988 'BYTE 39 



Circle 107 on Reader Service Card 



Integrand's new Chassis/System is not another 
IBM mechanical and electrical clone. An 
entirely fresh packaging design approach has 
been taken using modular construction. At 
present, over 40 optional stock modules allow 
you to customize our standard chassis to nearly 
any requirement. Integrand offers high quality, 
advanced design hardware along with 
applications and technical support all at prices 
competitive with imports. Why settle for less? 



ASK BYTE 



Rack & Desk 




Rack & Desk Models 



Accepts PC, XT, AT Motherboards and 

P assive Backplanes 

Doesn't Look Like IBM 

Rugged, Modular Construction 

Excellent Air Flow & Cooling 

Optional Card Cage Fan 



Designed to meet FCC 



204 Watt Supply, UL Recognized 
145W& 85Walso available 



Reasonably Priced 



RESEARCH CORP. 



Call or write for descriptive brochure and prices: 

8620 Roosevelt Ave. • Visalia, CA 93291 

209/651-1203 

TELEX 5106012830 (INTEGRAND UD) 

EZLINK 62926572 

We accept BankAmericard/VISA and MasterCard 

IBM. PC. XT. AT trademarks of International Business Machines. 
Drives and computer boards not included. 

40 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 



Epson-compatible printer with an IBM 
PC? If so, how is this done? 

Finally, I'd like to know the intrica- 
cies involved if you use a serial interface 
(RS-232C) for the printer. 

V. Shyamasunder 
Bangalore, India 

The hardware for an Epson interface is 
identical to an IBM-compatible printer 
interface. This interface was originated 
by Centronics. The commonly used sig- 
nals include 8 data bits, an active-low 
data-available strobe, an active-low ac- 
knowledge strobe, an active-high level 
busy signal, and ground signals. The dif- 
ference between the two types of printers 
lies in the graphics mode each supports; 
the graphics mode is controlled by the 
computer via the high bit of data sent to 
the printer. 

In graphics mode— high bit set — an 
IBM-compatible printer will reproduce 
the high-ASCII screen graphics character 
of the IBM PC family; a non-IBM-com- 
patible Epson will produce different 
characters. In text mode, high bit clear, 
the two printers will produce the same 
output. You can use an Epson-compatible 
printer with an IBM-type computer, if the 
IBM graphics characters are not re- 
quired, simply by connecting the com- 
puter and printer with a cable that has 
suitable connectors at the ends, typically 
either a 36-pin Amphenol-type connector 
or a DB-25 connector. 

You can use a serial printer with an 
IBM-type computer via a COM port and a 
suitable cable— usually with a DB-25 
connector on the printer end and a DB-9 
or DB-25 connector at the computer end. 
Since many serial printers follow DTE 
(data terminal equipment) protocol 
rather than DCE (data communications 
equipment), you'll need a null modem 
adapter or cable for successful opera- 
tion. These adapters interchange the data 
and handshaking lines. While it's easy 
for experienced users to construct cables 
and adapters for serial interfacing, it is 
frequently frustrating and time-consum- 
ing for novices. Sources such as Jameco 
Electronics and JDR Microdevices (both 
advertise in BYTE) carry ready-made 
cables and adapters that will prevent or 
eliminate most problems.— Steve 

Polylingual Clone 

Dear Steve, 

I'm interested in buying an IBM AT 
clone. However, I need the system to op- 
erate in English and Japanese (my key- 
board has four character types: English, 
kanji, katakana, and hiragana). In Japa- 
nese mode, I need to be able to select the 



character I need from a shift/function 
key and have this character displayed on 
the CRT or printer. 

Many printers can print in different 
languages (e.g., the Epson can print in 
German and French), but Epson USA 
couldn't help me. I need this system to 
operate as a regular computer or word 
processor. 

M. J. Cavanaugh 
Steger, IL 

A PC clone that writes in English and 
three different Japanese character sets 
sounds like a tough item to find in the 
U.S. market. The old Epson MX-80 
printers sold in the U.S. a few years ago 
did include a katakana character set, but 
I haven 't seen any other printers with this 
feature. 

You may be able to use Microsoft Win- 
dows if you can get a copy of the Japanese 
version. Microsoft Systems Journal 
(March 1988) contains an article on im- 
plementing Windows for Japanese com- 
puters. The article vaguely implies that a 
Japanese version of the PC AT or clone is 
required. It is not necessary for the 
printer to have the Japanese characters, 
however, because Windows uses its own 
fonts and prints in graphics mode when 
you use a dot-matrix printer. 

You may be able to find out if this ap- 
proach is feasible by calling Microsoft at 
(800) 426-9400. -Steve 

Computerized Slide Show 

Dear Steve, 

I am attempting to store some docu- 
ments that are four to eight pages long on 
my IBM PC. The documents contain 
mostly text, but some have line drawings, 
graphs, and maps. I'd like to retrieve 
these documents and display them on the 
screen with as little extraneous display as 
possible. Most word processors and 
desktop publishing software display 
more than the document on the screen. 
What options do I have for storing and 
displaying documents in this manner? 

I'm using an IBM PC AT with an EGA 
card. 

Doyle L. Jones 
Clinton, MS 

If I understand correctly, you want to 
display documents page by page on your 
PC, but not necessarily for editing. In 
other words, you want a slide show. 

There are a few programs that are de- 
signed especially for this kind of task. 
Two are Show Partner and Show Partner 
Professional by Brightbill-Roberts & 
Co. , 120 East Washington St. , Suite 421, 

continued 

Circle 185 on Reader Service Card — ► 



NASA FLIES WITH 
AND SO CAN YOU 



The National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration is a regular Proteus 
buyer. So are thousands of profession- 
als, as well as small and large businesses 
nationwide. Including Xerox, GE, 
Dupont, the U.S. Government, MIT and 
Harvard. And with good reason: 

NAnONALLYACClAIMED~ 

Performance And support. 

"The Proteus is one of the fastest desk- 
top computers we tested. Quality has not 
hem compromised, yet this performance sys- 
tem par excellence was „.«-,-, 
priced so low. d«„ « world 

"The Proteus 386116MHz is markedly 
faster than any other PC we've worked 

with— including the Compaa , , 

Deskpro 386120!" jar,., m 

Compatibility Guaranteed. 

Every Proteus is American made from 
the ground up. And guaranteed 
compatible with all IBM PC/AT 
software and add-on prod- 
ucts. As well as with 
DOS, OS/2, UNIX, 
XENIX, NOVELL and 
all major 
CAD sys- 
tems. None 
is alien to 
Proteus! 



The Most Extraordinary 
Support In The Industry. \ 

We don't leave you out in orbit 
after we make the sale, either. 
Proteus has a contract with a nation- 
wide computer maintenance company. 

If something should go wrong with 
your Proteus system during the first 15 
months, we'll send a qualified techni- 
cian to your site to fix it. Free! 

Just call our toll-free technical support 
hotline any time you have a question or 
need help. We'll take care of the rest. 




OTEUS PCs. 



Proteus 386A opt. 2omhz 



w«SS "A 16MHz, zero wait state 



'hot rod'!" "Among the top 
100 products of the year!" 



MONOCHROME SYSTEM $ J Qftft 
WITH A 40MB, 28MS HARD DISK *;/VO 

EGA COLOR SYSTEM $33?Q 
WITH A 40MB, 28MS HARD DISK g JZ> y 

VGA SYSTEM (800x600) $ 3QA/l 
WITH A 40MB, 28MS HARD DISK S? yUU 



PROTEUS 286GTX 




Satisfaction 
Guaranteed. 

If you're not fully 
satisfied with your 
Proteus purchase, re- 
turn it during the first 
30 days for a ' 
refund. 



Standard Features: 



INTEL CPU 



SPEED MHZ 



KAITSTATE 



SYSTEM MEMORY 



CACHEMEMORYSIZE 



KBD.SLLECTABLESPEEDS 



COPROCESSORSUPPORr 



32BITSLOTS 



I6BITSLOTS 



8BITSLOTS 



SERIAL PORTS 



PARALLEL PORT 



HARDDLSK/FD.CTLR. 



1.2MB 5'A" OR 1.44MB 3.5 "ED. 



ROM BASED SETUP/DIAGNOSTICS 



POWER SUPPLY 



ENHANCED 101 -KEYKBD. 



80386 
20/16/6 

ZERO 
!024Ktof6MB 

64KB 

YES 
80287/387 

6 

2 

2 

I 
YES 
YES 
YES 
200W 
YES 



80386 

20/16/6 

ZERO 

I024KIOI6MB 

64KB 

YES 

80387 

I 

4 

1 

2 

I 

YES 

YES 

YES 

200W 

YES 



80286 

12/0 

ZERO 

640Ktol6MB 

32KB 

YES 
80287 

6 

2 

2 

1 
YES 
YES 
YES 
200W 
YES 



80286 

8/6 

I 

640Kto 16MB 

YES 
80287 

6 

2 

2 

1 

YES 
YES 
YES 
200W 
YES 



SEAGATE, MINISCJUBE, MAXTOR HARD DISKS EROM $279. VGA/EGA ADAPTORS: VIDEO 7, SIGMA, ATI, EVEREX 
EROM $149. MEMORY UPGRADES, COPROCESSORS, MODEMS AT LOW PRICES. 





Custom Configured With 
Tomorrows Technology. 



Proteus computers were custom con- 
figured to meet NASA's specs. And 
whether you need only one system 
or a hundred, we'll custom config- 
ure to your exact specifications, too. 
From a long list of third party, 
brand name components. 
k Including 3.5' microfloppy 

drives, high-speed 1:1 interleave 
controllers with ESDI and SCSI 
hard disks and 800x600/640x480 
resolution VGA graphics. 

INN): 201 -288-8629 
Fortech support:! -800-541 -8933 



keep its PC/AT 
and PS/2 com- 
puters; Til take the 
Proteus 286GTX before those any time. I 
never want to be without it 

„„„;„!" CompuServe' 

again: Ernest Mau, Editor on line today 

"Fastest machine in the 

i i i „ INFO 

comparison. A superb value world 

MONOCHROME SYSTEM SlTkAC 

WITH A 40MB HARD DISK IW J 

EGA COLOR SYSTEM Sl/lftC 
WITH A 40MB HARD DISK Z*t"j 

VGA SYSTEM (800x600) $VTfHC 

WITH A 40MB HARD DISK LI J J 

Proteus 286E 

"The Proteus 2S6E is the clear winner. 
We recommend it. " world 

MONOCHROME SYSTEM Sf/iO 
WITH A 20MB HARD DISK jPIZ 

EGA COLOR SYSTEM $7AOC 

WITH A 20MB HARD DISK i-V V J 

Order By Phone. Irs Easy. 

You don't even have to leave your desk 
to order a Proteus system. Or systems. 
Just call us direct. 

The exact configuration you want will 
quickly land on your doorstep. All you 
have to do is plug it in, turn it on and 
blast off into trie wild, blue yonder! 

1-800-782-8387 




AH prices and terms subject to change. All trademarks recognized. All rights reserved. 



The Intelligent Conclusion! 



377 Rt. 17 So, Airport 17 Ctr, Hasbrouck Hts, N] 07604 • Telex 510-610-0960 • FAX 201-288-9518 
Electronic catalog and 24-hour tech support: set your modem to 1200B/1/8/N dial 201-288-8577 
VAR/Reseller/volume discounts available. Payment methods: credit card, COD, company POs 



too* 




>g Business Since 1980 A Division of CW Marketing, Inc. 



...AND IT ALL 
ADDS— UP TO 

THE BEST 

PRICES AND 

DELIVERY EVER! 




com 

ujfira 



SOFTWARE 



DATA BASE MANAGEMENT 

Clipper $ 368 

dBase III Plus 369 

dBase III LAN 599 

DB-XL Diamond 105 

Eureka 88 

Genifer 188 

Nutshell 72 

Paradox 2.0 415 

PFS: Professional File 119 

Q&A 185 

Quickcode Plus 129 

Rapid File 179 

Revelation 459 

Revelation Bump Disk 239 

Rflase Clout (New Ver.) 175 

R:Base For DOS 425 

Reflex 78 

VP Expert Call 

VP Info 56 

PROJECT MANAGEMENT 

Harvard Total Project Mgr. II . . $ 309 

Microsoft Project 4.0 287 

Timeline 2.0 259 

WORD PROCESSORS 

Easy Extra $ 52 

Word (Microsoft) 185 

Multimate Advantage II 249 

PFS: Professional Write 102 

Volkswriter 3 132 

Volkswriter Deluxe Plus 57 

Webster New World Writer .... 53 

Webster Spell Checker 32 

Webster Thesaurus 37 

Word Perfect Call 

Word Perfect Executive Call 

Word Perfect Library Call 

Wordstar Pro Pack 4.0 Call 

Wordstar 2000 Plus Personal . . 205 

DESKTOP PUBLISHING 

Newsmaster II $ 39 

Pagemaker Call 

PFS: First Publisher 65 

Ventura Publishing 475 



GRAPHICS 

Energraphics $186 

Freelance Plus 309 

Generic CAD w/Dot Plot 3.0 .. . 72 

Harvard Graphics 2.1 239 

In-A-Vision 259 

Microsoft Chart 3.0 229 

News Room 30 

News Room Professional 42 

Printmaster Plus 29 

PrintShop 32 

Turbo Graphix Tool Box 58 

VP Graphix 56 

Windows Draw!! w/Clip Art ... . 159 

MICE 

PC Mouse w/Paint 

(Buss or Serial) 85 

PC Mouse 

w/Autosketch (Buss or Serial) . 99 

Microsoft Buss Mouse 1 .0 ... . 92 

Microsoft Serial Mouse 1 .0 ... . 92 

MS Buss Mouse w/CADD .... 107 

MS Serial Mouse w/CADD .... 107 

MS Buss Mouse w/Windows ... 122 

MS Serial Mouse w/Windows . . 122 
Optimouse 

(PC Mouse) w/Dr. Halo III . . . 78 

INTEGRATIVE SOFTWARE 

137 
352 



349 
113 
76 

Best Price 
... 435 



Ability Plus . . . 
Enable 2.0 ... 
Framework II . . 

MS Works 

PFS: 1st Choice 
Smart Software System 

Symphony 

ACCOUNTING 

ACCPAC Call 

Computer Associates Call 

DAC Easy Accounting 52 

DAC Easy Payroll 38 

In-House Accountant 105 

One Write Plus 2.0 117 

One Write A/R, A/P, Payroll ... 117 
Time Slips III 109 

MONEY MANAGEMENT 

Dollars & Sense w/Forcast .... $ 92 
Tobias Managing Your Money 4.0. 114 



UTILITIES 

1 DIR Plus $ 46 

Bookmark 56 

Brooklyn Bridge 69 

Carousel 2.0 38 

Copy II PC 18 

Copywrite 39 

Corefast 89 

Cruise Control 29 

Cubit Call 

Disk Optimizer 2.0 Call 

Disk Technician 56 

Double DOS 4.0 Call 

DS Back-Up Plus 46 

Fastback 75 

Fastback Plus 86 

Keyworks 53 

Mace Utilities 47 

Microsoft Windows 2.03 57 

Norton Commander 35 

Norton Editor 35 

Norton Utilities 4.0 46 

Note It Plus 45 

PC Tools Deluxe 36 

Printworks for Lasers 67 

Referee 38 

Sidekick Plus Call 

Sideways 37 

Smart Notes 43 

SQZ Plus 53 

Superkey 58 

Take Two MGR 66 

Turbo Editor Tool Box 58 

Unlock AT 36 

Unlock D Plus 49 

XTree Professional 61 

COMMUNICATIONS 

Carbon Copy Plus $ 105 

CompuServe Subscription Kit . . 19 

Crosstalk XVI 87 

Crosstalk Mark IV 109 

Mirror II 33 

Remote 87 

Smartcom III 136 

ACCESSORIES 

Copy II Option Board Deluxe ... $ 99 

Masterpiece 79 

Masterpiece Plus 92 

Masterpiece Remote 107 



LANGUAGES 

Basic Compiler (Microsoft) ... $ 175 

C Compiler (Microsoft) 259 

Cobol Compiler (Microsoft) ... 415 

Fortran Compiler (Microsoft) 4.0 . 259 

Lattice C Compiler 209 

Macro Assembler (Microsoft) . . 86 

Pascal Compiler (Microsoft) . . 175 

Quick Basic 4.0 57 

Quick C 57 

Ryan McFarlan Fortran 379 

Ryan McFarlan Cobol 609 

Turbo Basic 58 

Turbo C 58 

Turbo Pascal 4.0 58 

Turbo Prolog 58 

Turbo Prolog Toolbox 58 

TRAINING 
Chuck Yeager 

Adv. Flight Simulator $ 25 

Lets C 38 

Mastertype 23 

Mavis Beacon Typing 29 

MS Learning DOS 29 

MS Flight Simulator 29 

PC Logo 79 

Turbo Tutor 4.0 42 

Typing Instructor II 27 

Typing Tutor IV 27 

SPREADSHEETS 

Cambridge Analyst $ 79 

4 Word 55 

HAL 89 

Lotus 1-2-3 Ver. 2.01 295 

Lotus Manuscript 309 

Lotus Report Writer 67 

MS Excel 285 

Multiplan 3.0 (Microsoft) 113 

PFS Professional Plan 52 

Quattro 138 

Supercalc 4 275 

Twin Classic 32 

VP Planner 47 

VP Planner Plus Call 



SH 



MEMBER 



MMC 

MICROCOMPUTER 

MARKETING COUNCIL 



of the 
Direct Marketing Association inc. 



No Charge for VISA and Mastercard 

We Do Not Charge Your Card Until Your Order is Shipped 

You Pay the Ground Shipping $6.00 (except Alaksa and Hawaii) 
We Pay the Air Difference 

Free Air applies ONLY to orders up to 10 lbs. & Over $50. 
Add 5% for C.O.D. Orders 



All products carry only manufacturer's warranties. We do not honor 

guarantees, rebates, trial period priviledges or promotional programs 

offered by manuafactures. 

No APO, FPO, or international orders, please. 

Call before submitting P.O.'s Ask for National Accounts 

Personal and Company Checks Will Delay Shipping 3 weeks 

Prices, Terms & Availability Subject to Change Without Notice 



•SxSx&x 



UTER 
HOUSE 





PRINTERS 

Alps All models Call 

AST Turbo Lazer $4310 

C.ITOH Call 

Citizen Printers 

120D 139 

180D 189 

MSP 40 319 

MSP 45 465 

MSP 50 399 

MSP 55 529 

Premier 35 509 

Diconix 150 309 

300 480 

Epson Printers Call 

Hewlett-Packard 

Disk Jet 779 

Lazer Jet Series II 1775 

NEC 

P2200 

850 Silent Writer 



Other Models 
Okidata . . 

182+ . . 

192+ . . 

292 .. . 

294 .. . 
Panasonic 

1080 I M2 

1091 I M2 

1092 I . . 
1524 . . 
1592 . . 
1595 . . 
3131 . . 
3151 . . 



329 

1539 

Call 
Call 
209 
325 
355 
715 

165 

199 
325 
560 
409 
469 
305 
475 

Lazer 4450 1635 

Star Micronics Call 

Toshiba 

321 SL 489 

341 SL 655 

351 SX 945 

Page Lazer 2415 



IDEE 



DISK DRIVES 

Bernoulli Box 

10 Meg $ 889 

20 Meg 1015 

40 Meg 1559 

Beta Ext 1015 

Beta Int 775 

PC2Card 139 

Seagate 

20 MG w/WD Controller .... 275 

251-1 469 

AT 40 MEG Full Height ... 550 

Other Models Call 

Teac 

1.2 MEG AT 89 

Floppy F55 BR 79 

Toshiba 

3.5 Dr 720K 95 

3.5 Dr 1.4MB 115 

DISKETTES 

Maxell MD-2 Qty. 100 Call 

Maxell MD-2HD Qty. 100 Call 

Sony 5'/4 Qty 100 $ 65 

Sony 3 1 / 2 Qty. 100 159 

MODEMS 
Hayes 

1200 $ 280 

1200B 245 

2400B 385 

Prometheus 

1200Bw/Software 75 

2400B w/Software 119 

Other Models Call 

US Robotics 

Password 1200 175 

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Courier 2400E 335 

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Keytronics 

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KB5153 149 

KB101 79 



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Xformer 560 

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Hercules 

Color Card 145 

Graphics Card Plus 175 

Incolor 209 




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Inboard 386 PC 

Inboard 386 w/cable .... 

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30 

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130 
239 
355 

269 
180 
475 



285 
369 

439 

S 525 
659 



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COMPUTERS 

AST 

Model 80 

Model 140X 

Model 140 

Model 340 

Model 390 

Other Models 



NEC 

Multispeed EL I 
Powermate . . 



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T-1000 . 
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1200FB . 
T-3120 . 
T-3200 . 
T-5100 . 

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386 

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Amdek Monitors 

NEC 

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Monographic System 
Other Models 



Princeton Ultrasync . . 

Samsung 

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$1695 
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•AUGUST •1988->:'H-Y.-'F.E-y/A3V 



ASK BYTE 



Syracuse, NY 13202, (315)474-3400. 

Another is EGA Paint with EGA Slide 
by RIX Softworks, Inc. , 18552 MacAr- 
thur Blvd. , Suite 375, Irvine, CA 92715, 
(714) 476-8266. 

These products are widely available 
from mail-order suppliers or in computer 
stores.— Steve 

Communication Problems 

Dear Steve, 

I recently purchased a Macintosh SE, 
and I was under the assumption that such 
a sophisticated machine would hook up 
to my printer, a Toshiba P1340. 1 also as- 
sumed that any software— such as Micro- 
soft Works and Lotus's Jazz— would also 
operate with the printer. No such luck. 
Although I have just begun searching, I 
have had equally poor luck in unearthing 
any information that will help me solve 
the problem. 

My Toshiba is a good product, and I'd 
like to continue to use it with the Mac. I 
have an Apple lie and have had no prob- 
lems with any of the printers I have used 
with it. I can't understand why a superior 
machine would present such a frustrating 
limitation. 

I do have an Orange Micro C/Mac/GS 
linked between my Panasonic 1091 and 
the Mac. However, printing is so slow 
that I could write the documents by hand 
faster. I don't consider this a realistic 
solution. I'd appreciate any suggestions. 
David T.Barrat 
Acton, MA 

The success of the Macintosh com- 
puter, after an under-powered beginning, 
has been one of the more interesting phe- 
nomena of the post- 1985 computer scene 
(parallel with, and quite distinct from, 
the overwhelming continued dominance 
of the IBM line and its clones). Perhaps 
the most distinctive characteristic of the 
Mac is its penchant for doing nearly 
everything in a non-IBM way. What 
works with IBM won 't work with the Mac, 
and vice versa. 

The individuality, though perhaps 
somewhat interesting, creates problems 
that aren't easily solved. Attempting to 
use the Mac with other than its own spe- 
cially designed printers graphically illus- 
trates some of those problems. 

Your desire to use your Toshiba printer 
with the Macintosh is understandable, 
but it may not be possible. The Macintosh 
uses software drivers to communicate 
with devices like printers; these drivers 
can be found in the system folder. Apple 
Computer supplies drivers only for its 
Imagewriter and LaserWriter printers. 
To use a different printer, the appropriate 



driver must be installed in the system 
folder of the Macintosh. So far as I can 
determine, there is no driver available for 
your Toshiba printer. Unless you create 
your own driver (a nontrivial task), or 
one becomes available from another 
source, your Mac and Toshiba won 't sing 
the same song or speak the same lan- 
guage. —Steve 

Joyless Joystick 

Dear Steve, 

I'm trying to interface an external de- 
vice to my Amiga 500 through the second 
joystick port. I have experimented and 
read a few books on the Amiga, but I 
can't find any way of doing output 
through the port. I've experimented with 
pokes and peeks, and I've found that I 
can input information through the port 
with the following code: 

LOOP: PRINT PEEKW(l46l4540) 
POKEW 14614582, 
GOTO LOOP 

Could you show me how to do output 
through the port or refer me to some 
source? 

Virender Dayal 
Hoboken, NJ 

I understand your desire to use an un- 
used joystick port on your Amiga for out- 
put. Tinkering with hardware and explor- 
ing new applications is one of the true 
joys of computing. Your desire to get out- 
put, however, isn't practical. 

There are essentially two kinds of con- 
nections to electronic circuits: inputs and 
outputs. Except in the case of specialized 
devices, like transceivers and analog 
switches, the two functions aren 't inter- 
changeable. The Amiga 500' s joystick 
port is for input only, and there is no 
way— short of redesigning, cutting, sol- 
dering, and praying— that you can 
change this.— Steve 

Do-It- Yourself CAD/CAM 

Dear Steve, 

I am an amateur engineer and designer 
with some professional experience in 
FORTRAN programming. I'm inter- 
ested in knowing if I could construct a 1- 
megabyte computer that would have the 
capability for CAD/CAM operations and 
FORTRAN programming. I don't think I 
would need BASIC for my application. 

My goal is to use CAD/CAM software 
to construct an item on the monitor, then 
cut the item in selected locations and use 
FORTRAN to make an engineering 
strength analysis. I could then redesign 
as necessary without removing the item 



from memory or even from the screen. 

I see various companies that sell com- 
puter components. Can I buy a keyboard, 
motherboard, monitor, and other com- 
ponents to put together a system to help 
me with my engineering? I don't need the 
extra space and chips that I guess are 
needed for BASIC or, say, Symphony— I 
would use those resources for CAD/ 
CAM and FORTRAN. 

Joseph Weiss Jr. 
South Hutchinson, KS 

While I think you could construct a 
computer along the lines that you de- 
scribe, I think it would be far more prac- 
tical to purchase a standard one. There 
are a few things you haven 't considered 
that make the decision fairly simple. 

It turns out that all computers are 
pretty much the same under the hood, so 
any machine that can run FORTRAN or 
CAD/CAM programs will also run 
BASIC and other languages. You don't 
need additional hardware gizmos for 
those other programs; as far as the com- 
puter is concerned, they 're all just 
programs. 

By the same token, Symphony and all 
the other programs will run on the same 
IBM PC clone that will handle FOR- 
TRAN or AutoCAD, simply because 
they're programs written to use that 
hardware. In fact, you '11 find that the 
CAD programs tend to have more strin- 
gent hardware requirements, because 
they need high-resolution displays, plot- 
ters, printers, digitizing tablets, and mice 
to handle complex graphic I/O. 

If you 're interested in CAD work, plan 
to buy at least an IBM PC AT clone with a 
40-megabyte hard disk drive, a VGA- 
compatible monitor, and a mouse. That 's 
the minimum hardware for reasonable 
performance. Hard copy output can go to 
either a laser printer or a plotter; the for- 
mer can handle word processing with 
ease. But the tab will run about $5000 for 
all that hardware, and you won 't realize 
significant savings by assembling parts 
from several vendors. 
—Steve 

Sounds in the Silence 

Dear Steve, 

I want to communicate by telephone 
with my cousin, who is hearing im- 
paired. I'd like to be able to use my com- 
puter and a modem, but my cousin has 
only teletypewriter (TTY) equipment, 
and I understand that there is no modem 
that can connect to a TTY. 

The president of the Maryland State 
Society for the Hearing Impaired tells 

continued 



44 BYTE' AUGUST 1988 




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me that the Bell Telephone System has a 
very expensive converter that will allow 
modems and TTYs to connect. He tells 
me further that the deaf community uses 
machines that are based on the TT Y code 
because (a) such machines are readily 
and economically available, and (b) most 
of the members of the deaf community 
cannot afford the Bell System converter. 
I think you can make an enormous 
contribution to the many people who are 
hearing impaired and to the microcom- 
puter community as well. If such a con- 
verter exists, surely you can design 
equipment that will serve the same func- 
tion and that can be made from economi- 
cal and readily available parts. 

George Allison 
Essex, MD 

I've received many useful suggestions 
for Circuit Cellar projects from readers 
such as yourself. I will seriously consider 
your suggestions concerning modem/TTY 
compatibility. 

There are definitely some possibilities 
that deserve consideration and explora- 
tion. The microcomputer world is fre- 
quently afflicted with incompatibilities, 
and the differences between current 
microcomputer modems and the older 
TTY-based equipment illustrate the situ- 
ation nicely. 

While there are viable markets for var- 
ious computer modems and TTY equip- 
ment, there is a much smaller market for 
protocol converters for the two communi- 
cations methods. The small size of the 
market limits the amount of development 
you can accomplish without going broke. 

As you said, there seems to be no gen- 
eral-purpose equipment on the market, 
other than the expensive converters sold 
by the phone company, that permits com- 
munication between a typical microcom- 
puter and a TTY unit used by hearing- 
impaired individuals. Modifying existing 
commercial equipment is usually imprac- 
tical unless the TTY capability has been 
designed into it from the beginning. 

At one time Novation made an internal 
modem called the Apple Cat for Apple II 
series computers. After a simple factory 
hardware modification, you could use it 
with special software (available on disk 
from Novation) to work with the 45.5- 
bit-per-second, Baudot-coded (5-bit) 
protocol used by TTY. However, Nova- 
tion no longer makes it. Texas Instru- 
ments also has a software package avail- 
able for the 77 Professional that lets that 
computer emulate a TTY terminal, but it 
works in conjunction with unique TI 
hardware and thus has little generality. 

—Steve ■ 



46 BYTE' AUGUST 1988 



Circle 24 on Reader Service Card 



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As portable PCs go, ours may look a 
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After all, each 286 and 386 powered 
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Our T3200 has the advantages of a 
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we added an EGA display system and a 29 



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For more information on Toshiba com- 
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And rest assured that whichever Toshiba 
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All of which proves you can maintain 
a position of great power without having 
to throw a lot of weight around. 

Toshiba PCs are backed by the Exceptional Care program (no-cost enrollment 
required). See your dealer for details. 1 BM is a registered trademark of International 
Business Machines Corp. Paradox is a registered trademark of Borland Corp. 




In Touch with Tomorrow 

TOSHIBA 

Ibshiba America Inc., Information Systems Division 



Circle 240 on Reader Service Card (DEALERS: 241) 



AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 49 



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Book Reviews 



The Armchair 
Universe 

by A. K. Dewdney 




W. H. Freeman & Co. , New 
York: 1988, 330 pages, $19.95 
cloth, $13.95 paper 

Reviewed by Hugh Kenner 

For nearly two years, a 
Turbo Pascal program I 
play with on my Zenith Z-100 
has been accumulating short- 
cuts and speedups. It exam- 
ines areas near the border of 
the famous Mandelbrot set and 
represents their detail with 
colored patterns. It began as a 
direct translation into Pascal 
of a program that, being in in- 
terpreted BASIC, was far too 
slow. The author of the BASIC 
program had been guided by a 
short algorithm in the August 
1985 Scientific American. My 
copy of that issue was long ago 
swiped by someone, and the li- 
brary copy I recently con- 
sulted had lost the article to a 
vandal's scissors. I was 
pleased to find it reprinted in 
this first collection of A. K. 
Dewdney 's Computer Recrea- 
tions columns. 

I suspect that's not an un- 
common scenario. Dewdney 
is very likely responsible for 
more filched and mutilated 
copies of Scientific American 
than any other current author. 
He has also prompted, world- 
wide, uncountable hours of 
coding time. That's because 
he doesn't list programs; he 
states some interesting theme 
and shows you how to think 
about implementing it. At the 
back of The Armchair Uni- 
verse is a list of suppliers, and 
Dewdney 's tone dissuades you 
from even thinking about buy- 
ing such canned software— an 
altruistic act, given that 
Dewdney himself might be 
one of the suppliers. He'd like 
us all to get our feet wet and 




our minds stretched by learn- 
ing to program (i.e., think se- 
quentially). He wants us to 
shed the chains of "software 
slavery, " a state "inadvertent- 
ly encouraged" by packagers. 
This collection has some- 
thing for almost everyone. If, 
like me, you're challenged by 
graphics, there are chapters 



entitled "The Mandelbrot 
Set" and "Wallpaper for the 
Mind." Higher Math? Try 
"Golomb Rulers" or "Hyper- 
cubes." Artificial Intelli- 
gence? Try "RACTER," 
"Facebender," "Checkers," 
more. Life? Puzzles? Simula- 
tions? They're all here. And if 
your fantasies run to aliens 



In the Age of the Smart Machine: 
The Future of Work and Power 



Programmer's Guide to the Hercules Graphics Cards 



Manufacturing Intelligence 



HyperCard Power 



snuffing out benign systems, 
three pieces on "Core Wars" 
deal with plagues that propa- 
gate through memory, zap- 
ping anything they find except 
themselves. 

Good Medicine for Pros 

The great merit of Dewdney 's 
approach is his patient, genial 
concentration on how to define 
a project and relax and think 
about it. His book might even 
be good medicine for pros who 
scorn the very idea of recre- 
ational computing. Thus he 
cites the solution of Jon L. 
Bentley (Programming Pearls 
columnist for Communica- 
tions of the ACM) to the prob- 
lem of finding anagrams. As- 
sume the computer has access 
to a dictionary (as it must, to 
know if what it has found is a 
word). The obvious way is to 
exhaust the permutations, 
checking each in the dictio- 
nary. At 120 permutations for 
just 5 different letters, that's 
slow. But here's Bentley's 
"Aha!" way: Sort the letters of 
each dictionary word in as- 
cending order; sort the result- 
ing list; and pair its entries 
with the parent words, like 
this: 

aecrs acres 

aecrs cares 

aecrs races 

aecrs scare 

aecrt cater 

aecrt crate 

That big but uncomplicated 
job once done, any anagram 
problem is reduced to a single- 
letter sort and a quick lookup. 
You want anagrams for acres? 
The sort is aecrs. The lookup 
finds cares, races, and scare. 
And that is all, so far as this 
dictionary knows. 

One pleasure in The Arm- 
chair Universe problems is en- 
joying them in themselves 
(every day, in countless news- 
continued 



ILLUSTRATION: KATHERINE MAHONEY © 1988 



AUGUST 1988 • B Y T E 51 



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papers, anagrams entrance 
the players of a game called 
Jumbles), and another is the 
light they can throw on deeper 
problems. A story I especially 
enjoy has Dewdney in a quarry 
marveling at a fossil trilobite, 
when a man named Smith, a 
professor of paleontology, 
happens by. Why, Dewdney 
asks him, did the trilobites be- 
come extinct? Why, Smith re- 
joins, is the name Smith so 
common? Those turn out to be 
the forms of the same ques- 
tion, and they prompt two re- 
lated algorithms— PALEO- 
TREE, in which genera and 
species survive, mutate, or die 
out; and NEOTREE, in which 
families (and their names) be- 
come extinct, leaving space 
for Smiths to flourish in. The 
chief difference is that NEO- 
TREE has no parallel for new 
species evolving. (Though 
what about Smythe from 
Smith? In fine-tuning that 
program, I'd insert a Vanity 
Factor.) 

Start with 1000 family 
names, and, by NEOTREE's 
showing, in about 23 genera- 
tions three-quarters of them 
wil 1 be extinct . That ' s because 
it's the males who carry on the 
name, and the empirical prob- 
ability is 0.317 that a family 
will produce no males des- 
tined to marry. Half the fam- 
ilies are gone in some 3 gener- 
ations, two-thirds in about 10. 
Thereafter, attrition slows 
down. Will the number ever 
shrink to 1? Perhaps in Goo- 
golplex years (that's 10 to the 
10th to the 100th). Or more 
likely not. If Smiths are a tena- 
cious tribe, so are Joneses. 

Then there's the Voting 
Simulation dreamed up by two 
Britons . We start with a grid of 
randomly colored squares- 
say, blue for Republican, red 
for Democrat. We next as- 
sume that opinions follow 
those of forceful neighbors. 
Select a voter at random; 
select one of his eight neigh- 
bors at random; change his 
persuasion to that of the neigh- 
bor. Silently and rapidly, this 
simulates a lot of argument, a 
lot of malleability , and strange 
things happen. (Voters near an 



edge of the grid still have eight 
neighbors because left wraps 
to join right, top to join bot- 
tom. Yes, that does make the 
country toroidal . I have a feel- 
ing this game could be imple- 
mented on a spreadsheet.) 

"First, large blocks of votes 
develop within the grid. The 
blocks are geographic areas 
where everyone has the same 
opinion." (Recall FDR's old 
Solid South.) "Then the 
blocks migrate around the 
grid, and for a while two 
blocks struggle for domi- 
nance. Finally, the two-party 
system collapses as everyone 
ends up voting the same way. 
The smaller block vanishes as 
democracy votes itself out of 
existence— or does it? This is a 
neat philosophical question. " 

Dewdney hastens to remark 
that as a model of the political 
process, this is "admittedly 
simpleminded." He also re- 
ports that even so simple a 
model leaves democracy look- 
ing pretty tough. Some readers 
reported that after an over- 
night run, considerable differ- 
ence of opinion lingered. In 
Dewdney 's own experience, 
achieving unanimity takes 
"the better part of a day": 
many million acts of random 
persuasion. (And what hap- 
pens, he asks, if each beset 
voter crank ily adopts an opin- 
ion the opposite of that random 
neighbor's? He doesn't tell, 
and I haven't tried it.) 

Simulation vs. Reality 

Many of Dewdney 's chapters 
conjure up the besetting devil 
of Computer Simulations: Do 
I really gain insight into real- 
world events, or am I just 
amusing myself with a model 
so neat I can see how to pro- 
gram it? The chapter entitled 
"Sharks and Fish on the Plan- 
et Wa-Tor" is a good example. 
Fish die of being eaten by 
sharks; sharks die if they 
haven ' t eaten recently enough . 
Both have single offspring at 
fixed intervals (it works best 
when the sharks breed more 
slowly) . Both move at random , 
point to point, north, south, 
east, west, with this complica- 
continued 



52 BYTE* AUGUST 1988 



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BOOK REVIEWS 



tion: A shark will always move 
to (and eat) an adjacent fish 
when there is one. 

I haven't tried this one, 
either, though the program- 
ming looks simple. What 
Dewdney reports is scenarios 
sensitive to geometry. Neither 
the initial distribution nor the 
actual movement seems im- 
portant, but when a tight 
school of fish forms, then the 
sharks discover and destroy it, 
then die themselves for lack of 
food. Result: zero population 
of any kind. (Though some- 
times a smaller school offish, 
elsewhere on the screen, 
would go unnoticed until the 
sharks were extinct. Result: 
an ocean crammed with fish.) 

An evident simplifying as- 
sumption is that nothing ever 
happens to fish, save getting 
eaten by sharks. Still, the 
game exhibits cyclic ups and 
downs that resemble the fluc- 
tuating numbers of predators 
and prey in situations that have 
been tabulated, as when Hud- 
son's Bay Company counted a 
whole half-century's lynxes 
and hares. A lot of hares fed a 
lot of lynxes; then as hares 
drew near extinction lynxes 
died off, too, permitting a re- 
surgent hare population . . . 
You see the pattern. 

A graph of some very 
smooth things called the 
Lotke-Volterra equations 
looks rather similar, and 
they ' ve been invoked to model 
predator-prey fluctuations. 
But by Dewdney 's report, 
graphs derived from the Wa- 
Tor game look more like the 
Hudson's Bay data than 
Lotke-Volterra curves do. 
He's puzzled, though, by cer- 
tain long-term instabilities. 
I'll leave it at that. Computer 
modeling still awaits its 
Leibniz. 



BRIEFLY NOTED 

In the Age of the Smart Ma- 
chine: The Future of Work 
and Power by Shoshana 
Zuboff, Basic Books, New 
York: 1988, 468 pages, 
$19.95. The television intro- 
duced to entertain may end up 



shaping the very schedule of 
our days. The microwave 
bought for convenience may 
change the type of meals we 
eat. Thus, examining a tech- 
nology only in light of its origi- 
nal intentions may obscure the 
actual effects. Such is the case 
with computers: They are in- 
stalled in order to increase 
productivity, but, in fact, they 
fundamentally alter the work 
environment. Shoshana Zu- 
boff takes a long, careful look 
at what happens to the work- 
place when computers are 
introduced. 

Zuboff has two basic ways 
of looking. First, she uses her 
eight in-depth studies (1981 to 
1986) of companies that had 
recently made the transition to 
computerization. Second, she 
puts observations about the 
current work environment in 
light of a history of work in- 
formed by her wide readings 
in philosophy, psychology, 
and sociology. 

Zuboff takes the body as the 
focal point of her history of 
work. At first, work was phys- 
ical labor that required bodily 
effort and bodily skills. As 
work has developed— or at 
least changed— throughout the 
centuries, it has been distrib- 
uted, and the types of knowl- 
edge necessary have changed. 
(Zuboff s analysis of knowl- 
edge develops from her de- 
scription of the different ways 
one's body inhabits one's en- 
vironment, rather than begin- 
ning from an assumption that 
mind and body are fundamen- 
tally apart. This approach 
proves fruitful, in line with 
the work of the French phe- 
nomenologist Maurice Mer- 
leauPonty.) 

Zuboff looks to her case 
studies to find the state of work 
today. Her findings are not 
surprising. For example, at a 
pulp mill where workers went 
from checking on the pulping 
process by sticking their hands 
into the vats to checking a digi- 
tal readout on a computer con- 
sole, the workers have traded 
bodily involvement and skill- 
ful knowledge for a more ab- 
stract relationship with their 
continued 



54 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 



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.... 238 



] 



Circle 248 on Reader Service Card 



AUGUST 1988 • B Y T E 55 



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Secure 



si*kur,' a. [L. securus]: The ability to keep your 
confidential data and your whole personal computing 
environment away from prying eyes and meddling 
associates. 



Securing your personal computer 
files has, until now, been a com- 
plicated and mostly unreliable 
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And when your business keeps 
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The Personal 
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The Tandon Personal Data Pac 
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Circle 236 on Reader Service Card 
(DEALERS: 237) 




We're redefining 

personal computing. 



AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 57 



Circle 145 on Reader Service Card 



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work. Zuboff discovers that 
this has resulted in a certain 
amount of alienation. More in- 
teresting, she describes what 
happens to social relationships 
and work flow when employ- 
ees are moved into cubicles to 
go one-on-one with a CRT. 

Even when the results are 
not surprising, and even when 
the case study accounts go on 
too long, Zuboff keeps it inter- 
esting by putting the results 
into a larger historical and 
philosophical context. (She 
does, however, tend to suffer 
from the Academic Syn- 
drome: She uses lots of jar- 
gon— "textualization" and 
"automaticity"— and dis- 
cusses many marginally rele- 
vant authors.) 

The second part of the book 
moves from the question of 
knowledge to that of power. 
Zuboff maintains that com- 
puterization changes the type 
and justification of manage- 
rial authority. Originally, a 
boss got the right to lord it over 
people because he or she was 
the owner. Then bosses re- 
ceived their legitimacy by vir- 
tue of having worked their way 
up the ladder. Now, bosses (or 
managers) have authority by 
dint of their mastery of the Sci- 
ence of Management. 

Part Three discusses the 
techniques that "can shape 
and control behavior and so 
can be harnessed to the inter- 
ests of those who employ 
them"— the techniques by 
which authority maintains it- 
self in the computer-laden 
workplace. Frequently, com- 
puterization leads to increas- 
ingly centralized control, 
usually accomplished by cen- 
tralizing knowledge (i.e., 
managers become informa- 
tion hogs). Yet Zuboff reports 
that several years after the 
transition, some companies 
were recognizing "the need 
for critical judgment at the in- 
formation interface" and the 
value of "intellective skills" 
in analyzing and responding to 
digital information. 

But the chief technique of 

control is "the information 

panopticon"— the omniscient, 

I objective computerized 



58 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 



Circle 164 on Reader Service Card 



record of all that occurs in the 
workplace or plant. Zuboff is 
particularly good at disclosing 
what life under that unceasing 
eye is like for both workers and 
managers. 

At the end, Zuboff offers a 
brief view of a nonhierarchical 
organization that more uni- 
formly distributes knowledge 
and skill. She also includes a 
section entitled "Dissent from 
Wholeness, " which describes 
the disadvantages of this seem- 
ingly more egalitarian envi- 
ronment: a loss of sense of def- 
inition, rights, and autonomy. 

At times tendentious, at 
times based on too few exam- 
ples, at times too long, In the 
Age of the Smart Machine re- 
mains an important work. 

—David Weinberger 

Programmer's Guide to the 
Hercules Graphics Cards by 

David B. Doty, Addison-Wes- 
ley, Reading, MA: 1988, 370 
pages, $24. 95. This book de- 
livers a comprehensive treat- 
ment of Hercules graphics 
cards. It is occasionally 
marred by a bit of hype and 
homage to Hercules Computer 
Technology, but it overcomes 
this with clear explanations of 
the architecture of each card, 
many solid programming ex- 
amples, and some knowing 
advice on the design of graph- 
ics software. David B. Doty 
describes the original Her- 
cules graphics card, the later 
RamFont card, and the latest 
InColor card in detail . 

Because the Hercules cards 
are programmed without 
using the PC ROM BIOS , writ- 
ing programs for them is de- 
cidedly different than pro- 
gramming for other IBM 
graphics adapters. Doty wrote 
his programming examples in 
Microsoft Assembler and 
Microsoft C, but the assembly 
language functions can be 
readily changed to work with 
the stack frame conventions of 
another compiler. The func- 
tions include detecting a Her- 
cules adapter and its type, 
writing a dot, reading a dot, 
drawing a line, displaying 
text, drawing circles, filling a 
continued 

Circle 232 on Reader Service Card — ► 



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Circle 105 on Reader Service Card 



BOOK REVIEWS 




Development- and System- 
Software 
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Development In MODULA2 ADA C 



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fit* 



messaging to your C compiler. 
D Smalltalk-like Browser for building objects. 

□ Semi-automatic Make for building applications. 

□ Preprocessor for converting objects to standard C source code. 

□ Foundation classes to help you get started. 

Q Professional telephone support from our engineering staff. 

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Software Products Dept. 
7090 Shady Oak Road 
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Tel: (612)944-0170 
Fax: (612)944-0923 
30 day money back guarantee 
MasterCard, Visa 

Shipping: $ 5 - US. 
S 25 - Intl. 

Cjalk is designed lor an IBM' 
PC (or compatible) with : 
Microsoft* C, Lattice C. Turbo 
C, or C86- A system with a 
hard drive and mouse is highly 
recommended- 

IBM is a registered Iradomnrk ot IBM 
Corp MICROSOFT is a registered 
trademark of MICROSOFT CORP 
C Jalk is a trademark ol CNS, Inc 




"■'■'■"■'"'-"I 



VI 



closed shape, printing a 
screen, and saving and restor- 
ing an image to and from a file . 
The source code contained in 
the book is available directly 
from the author for $30. 

Today, Microsoft's C 5.0 
and Borland's Turbo Pascal 
4.0 provide comprehensive 
support for the original Her- 
cules card, but Doty's book 
provides thorough back- 
ground information, even for 
users of these languages. 
Whether the RamFont and In- 
Color cards will succeed in the 
market as well as the original 
is still unclear, but for some- 
one who needs to program for 
either, the book is essential. 
—Ben Myers 

Manufacturing Intelligence 

by Paul Kenneth Wright and 
David Alan Bourne, Addison- 
Wesley, Reading, MA: 1988, 
352 pages, $40.95. This book 
is not only an excellent text for 
the engineer learning about 
factory automation, but it also 
serves as a good basis for an 
engineer about to specify an 
automation project. The au- 
thors ask all the necessary 
questions to determine what 
an automation project should 
accomplish. Written for the 
manufacturing engineer as 
well as the software engineer, 
Manufacturing Intelligence 
provides enough knowledge so 
that each can understand the 
mechanical and computation- 
al tasks required in factory 
automation. 

The book is divided into 
four sections. The first de- 
scribes the present and imme- 
diate future state of the ma- 
chine tool industry. It also 
highlights one of the author's 
developments, Cell Manage- 
ment Language (CML), a 
software environment offer- 
ing a high-level solution for 
controlling a number of in- 
compatible machine tools and 
robots. 

The second section goes 
over the different parts needed 
for intelligent machines to 
function. These include vi- 
sion, machine control, and 
manipulators. The third sec- 
tion looks at how the knowl- 



edge and talent of a skilled 
craftsman can be transferred 
to an intelligent machine. In- 
cluded here are examinations 
of artificial intelligence, flex- 
ible fixtures, and sensor tech- 
nology. The last section of the 
book speculates on the future 
of manufacturing technology. 
The book offers both a glos- 
sary and a good bibliography. 
The chapters are well cited, so 
readers can pursue any issue 
that is presented. 

—Keith H. Erskine 

HyperCard Power by Carol 

Kaehler, Addison-Wesley , 
Reading, MA: 1988, 435 
pages, $17. 96. This book is a 
review of the widely ac- 
claimed Macintosh program 
for the novice and entry-level 
HyperCardarian. Copiously 
illustrated, it has great breadth 
of subject matter, but little 
depth. Carol Kaehler devotes 
only paragraphs to concepts 
such as passing messages to 
the next handler, yet she sup- 
plies practical and indexed 
hints. For instance, she ex- 
plains how to make sure a card 
inherits the correct back- 
ground—not a trivial task in 
some situations. She provides 
utility scripts in one chapter, 
but leaves the reader to extend 
them. 

The book covers some of the 
HyperTalk language at the in- 
troductory level in one brief 
appendix. HyperCard Power 
is at its best when it shows sim- 
ply and step by step how to ac- 
complish unified HyperCard 
tasks.— Larry Loeb ■ 



CONTRIBUTORS 

Critic and author Hugh Ken- 
ner lives in Baltimore, Mary- 
land. David Weinberger 

works for Interleaf and lives in 
Brookline, Massachusetts. 
Ben Myers designs and writes 
IBM PC graphics applications 
and lives in Harvard, Massa- 
chusetts. Keith H. Erskine is 
a program coordinator for Sun 
Microsystems in Billerica, 
Massachusetts. Larry Loeb 
is a dental surgeon in Walling- 
ford, Connecticut. 



60 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 



Circle 43 on Reader Service Card 
(DEALERS: 44) 




WHEN YOUR juP CODE DEMANDS THIS KIND OF 
PERFORMANCE, SPEED IS OF THE ESSENCE. 



AVMAC™ assemblers can make 

your high-performance design 

a winner, too. 

In Formula 1 racing, performance is 
everything. And the sport's jiP-based 
instrumentation is no exception. 

That's why SRD Co., Inc. chose the 
AVMAC 8096 assembler to develop their 
state-of-the-art racing dynamometer — 
a device sophisticated enough to simul- 
taneously calculate every parameter of 
Formula 1 performance — all before the 
vehicle has moved 4 inches! 

In the critical assembly language 
phase of development, AVMAC "was 
a must." 

The race is on: in personal /iP 

development tools, Avocet 

sets the standards. 

AVMAC's standard-setting speed 
and sophistication were needed to write 
the complex multi -tasking operating sys- 
tem at the heart of SRD's dynamometer 
(patent pending). When you need a 
macro assembler that really performs, 
AVMAC can give you the same advantage. 

AVMAC supports all the most 
popular chip families and offers you en- 
hanced compatibility with Intel, Motorola, 
Hitachi, and other chip makers. 



THE SOURCE 

Circle 16 on Reader Service Card 



What's more, every package comes 
complete with our AVLINK™ linker, 
AVLTB™ librarian, AVREF™ cross-refer- 
ence generator, HEXFORM™ object file 
utility, plus a 250+ page user's guide. 

The last lap: 
Compatible simulation/debugging. 

When it's time to test your target 
code, choose our unique AVSIM™ simu- 
lator/debugger. It offers detailed, full- 
screen CPU simulation that eliminates 
the need for additional hardware. 

Best of all, AVSIM is designed for 
compatibility with AVMAC and our new 
Avocet C Compilers— the ideal combina- 
tion for cost-effective code development 
—from start to finish. 




AVf)CET 



Our Racy New Catalog 

FREE! 




Call Toil-Free 
1-800-448-8500* 

For your free catalog, to order, or for more 
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Avocet products. 



Getting to the finish line: 
try before you buy. 

When you order AVMAC or AVSIM, 
we'll include a special demo kit that you 
can try for 30 days. 

If you're not satisfied for any reason, 
return the unopened software for a full 
refund— less the $35 demo/documenta- 
tion which is yours to keep. 

Discover the power of AVMAC and 
the entire line of Avocet /uP/^C develop- 
ment tools. Affordably priced. With 
comprehensive technical phone support. 
And delivery in 48 hours, even overnight. 

If you're in the development race, 
we'll get you to the checkered flag in 
record time. 

Avocet Systems, Inc., 120 Union Street 
P.O. Box 490AT, Rockport, Maine 04856 
"In Maine, or outside U.S., call (207) 236-9055 
TLX: 467210 Avocet CI • FAX: (207) 236-6713 

i WHH Avol-ci Systems. Inc All rights reserved Avoeei logo and name, AVMAC 
AVSIM. AVL1NK. AVUB. AVREF and HEXFORM are registered trademarks o) 
Avocet Systems, ine 



SYSTEMS, INC." 
FOR QUALITY PERSONAL M P DEVELOPMENT TOOLS. 

AUGUST 1988 



BYTE 61 




The new NEC 
desktop publishing monitors 



For those getting start 



r 



mm 



nd fo 






who can't stop 



^.-f 



MultiSync GS 
The ideal way to b 
~"':top publishing. 




/XT/AT/386 to PS/2. 



NEC has the perfect monitor for any desktop. For starters, 
there's our MultiSync® GS. It offers up to 64 gray scales for supe- 
rior monochrome text and graphics, a flat 14" diagonal screen for 
minimal glare, and compatibility with just about any system you 
may be using, including PC/XT/AT/386 and PS/2. 

Then there's our MonoGraph™ System, for the ultimate in 
desktop publishing. It includes a graphics board that works with 
PC/XT/AT/386 (or 100% compatibles) and runs software like 
Microsoft Windows, Ventura Publisher and PageMaker. Its square 
16" screen offers 1024 x 1024 resolution and the best of both por- 
trait and landscape-style displays; there's room for a whole page 
of material, with space alongside for menus, icons and scrap. 

Hi'.' !'•■> giiiphic 'jcn.'pri w;r, ticilM using Dr HAL O which is ,i rriyissrrecl I r. idem rut .mil r; ui'.cd coufli'sy nf Wilu i ;y!ieinelics 

Best of all, with either monitor you get a feature no one else can 
give you at any price: NEC. For literature or a dealer call 
1-800-447-4700. For technical details call NEC Home Electronics 



IracJemaih ot Ventura Soflwar 



(USA) Inc. 1-800-NEC-SOFT. 



NEC is a regisiered IfBdamarii or NEC Coipoianon 

I® 



CsC 

Compuiers and Communications 

Circle 157 on Reader Service Card AUGUST 1988 'BYTE 63 



NEC 



Double Your 
Productivity With 
Carbon Copy Plus 




L-arbon Copy Plus™ -the industry standard in remote 
control software -easily lets two PCs share the same 
application program over ordinaiy phone lines. 

So now you can share the same keyboard, screen and 
disk with a remote user thousands of miles away, allow- 
ing you to give effective product demonstrations, sup- 
port remote customers or train new users-without ever 
having to leave your office! 

Remote control and much more! 

Of course, Carbon Copy Plus offers other advanced remote 
communications features, including remote printing, 
remote access to a local area network and remote ses- 
sion capture and playback. But Carbon Copy Plus also 
offers many of the same features found in "standard" 
communications programs, such as file transfer, terminal 
emulation and complete scripting macros. And much more! 

Introducing Version 5.0 

If you thought Carbon Copy Plus was powerful before - 
wait until you see the new Version 5.0. Carbon Copy Plus 
has always been able to transmit text or graphics, but 



A separate Carbon Copy Plus is required for each PC location 

Carbon Copy Plus is a trademark of Meridian Technology. 

All other products referenced are trademarks of their respective companies 



now our new universal graphics translator merges incom- 
patible graphics formats. So you can jointly update a CAD 
diagram using your CGA, EGA, VGA or MCGA system 
with an associate who is using the Hercules™ standard, 
just as important is our new background file transfer 
capability. This lets you easily send or receive files, at 
any time, without exiting your current application. Now 
you can double your productivity by working on one 
spreadsheet file while an associate sends you another! 

Twice as easy 

Find out why Carbon Copy Plus has become the industry 
standard in remote communications and is fast becom- 
ing one of the most popular communications programs 
overall. Call us today. We'll show you how easily you can 
increase your productivity. 



J I 



II 



a 



Fully translated foreign versions now available! 

MERIDIAN TECHNOLOGY INCIIIIIIIIII 

A SUBSIDIARY OF MICROCOM 

7 Corporate Park Suite 100 Irvine, CA 92714 (714)261-1199 



64 BYTE • AUGUST 1988 



Circle 144 on Reader Service Card 



BYTE 



Products in 
Perspective 



67 


What's New 


89 


Short Takes 




Dell System 220 




T-DebugPLUS4.0 




Cambridge Computer Z88 




Grammatik III 




Watcom C 6.0 




Paradox OS/2 




Expert Advice: 


101 


Computing at Chaos Manor 




by Jerry Pournelle 


115 


Applications Plus 




by Ezra Shapiro 


121 


Down to Business 




by Wayne Rash Jr. 


125 


Macinations 




by Don Crabb 


131 


OS/2 and You 




by Mark Minasi 


135 


COM1: 




by Brock N. Meeks 




First Impressions 


140 


Compaq Deskpro 386/25, 




Everex Step 386/25, Intel 




SYP302, andSimpleNet's 




Netpro 386/25 




Reviews 


148 


Stand-alone communications 




packages 


162 


Tatung TCS-8000, Proteus 3 86 A 




and Everex Step 386/20 


173 


PC-Trac, FastTRAP, Trackball 




Plus, and Felix 


185 


Unix for the Mac II 


195 


VersaCAD on a Mac 


200 


Review Update 




AUGUST 1988 • B Y T E 65 



IT'S TIME TO DO SOME 
SERIOUS 386 BUGBUSTING! 



PROBE'S menu 
bar and pull- 
down menus set a 
new standard for 
debugger 
interfaces. 



PROBE has 
source-level 
debugging to let 
you "C" your 
program. 




POP registers up 
and down with a 
single key. 



This is an 
out-of-range 
memory-overwrite 
bug. Since it is 
interrupt related, 
it only appears in 
real time. 



Welcome to your nightmare. Your company has bet 
the farm on your product. Your demonstration 
wowed the operating committee, and beta ship- 
ments were out on time. Then wham! 

All your beta customers seemed to call on the same day. 
"Your software is doing some really bizarre things',' they say. 
Your credibility is at stake. Your profits are at stake. Your 
sanity is at stake. 

THIS BUG'S FOR YOU 

You rack your brain, trying to figure something out. Is it a 
random memory overwrite? Or worse, an overwrite to a stack- 
based local variable? Is it sequence dependent? Or worse, 
randomly caused by interrupts? Overwritten code? Undocu- 
mented "features" in the software you're linking to? And to 
top it off, your program is too big. The software debugger, 
your program and it's symbol table can't fit into memory at 
the same time. Opening a bicycle shop suddenly isn't such a 
bad idea. 

THIS DEBUGGER'S FOR YOU 

Announcing the 386 PROBE™ Bugbuster,*from Atron. Nine 
of the top-ten software developers sleep better at night 
because of Atron hardware-assisted debuggers. Because they 
can set real-time breakpoints which instantly detect memory 
reads and writes. 

Now, with the 386 PROBE, you have the capability to set a 
qualified breakpoint, so the breakpoint triggers only if the 
events are coming from the wrong procedures. So you don't 
have to be halted by breakpoints from legitimate areas. You 
can even detect obscure, sequence-dependent problems by 
stopping a breakpoint only after a specific chain of events has 
occurred in a specific order. 

•Versions for COMPAQ. PS/2-KOs and compatibles. Copyright ©, 1987 by Atron. 386 PROBE is 

Circle 15 on 



Then, so you can look at the cause of the problem, the 386 
PROBE automatically stores the last 2K cycles of program 
execution. Although other debuggers may try to do the same 
thing, Atron is the only company in the world to dequeue the 
pipelined trace data so you can easily understand it. 

Finally, 386 PROBE's megabyte of hidden, write-protected 
memory stores your symbol table and debugger. So your bug 
can't roach the debugger. And so you have room enough to 
debug a really big program. 




NIGHT'S SLEEP 
PUT YOU IN THE TOP TEN? 

Look at it this way. Nine of the top-ten software products in 
any given category were created by Atron customers. Maybe 
their edge is - a good night's sleep. 

Call and get your free, 56-page bugbusting bible today. 
And if you're in the middle^ f of a nightmare right now, 

give us a purchase order 

number. We'll FEDEX 

you a sweet dream. 




BUGBUSTERS 



A division of Northwest Instrument Systems, Inc. 
Saratoga Office Center • 12950 Saratoga Avenue 
Saratoga, CA 95070 • Call 408/253-5933 today. 



trademark of Atron. Call 44-! 

Reader Service Card 



-855-888 in the UK and 49-8-985-8020 in West Germany. 



What's New 



SYSTEMS 



The Incredible 
Shrinking 
System Unit 

Claimed to be the 
"world's smallest," Ad- 
vanced Logic Research's lat- 
est systems are the FlexNode 
286 and the FlexNode 386. 
Both occupy AVi by 15 inches 
of desktop real estate and 
perform at 20 MHz with zero 
wait states by using paged 
interleaved cache memory. 

The systems have 1 .44- 
megabyte PS/2-compatible 
3 '/2-inch floppy disk drives 
and industry-standard 101-key 
keyboards. Both have four 
full-length 16-bit expansion 
slots, as well as an optional 
expansion unit that provides an 
additional four slots and sup- 
port for a second hard and 
floppy disk drive. Within 
those additional slots, you can 
place ALR-designed ARC- 
net, Ethernet, or token-ring 
adapter cards. 

The FlexNode 286 comes 
standard with 512K bytes of 
RAM, expandable to 5 mega- 
bytes with add-in cards. The 
386 comes standard with 1 
megabyte of RAM and can be 
expanded to 13 megabytes 
with an optional ALR RAM- 
Pak. There is also room for 
an optional math coprocessor. 

Both machines include a 
four-slot backplane with a sin- 
gle RS-232C serial port, a 
parallel port, and a floppy disk 
controller. 

Price: $1990 for basic 286; 
$2549 with 30-megabyte hard 
disk drive and controller; 
$2990 with 50-megabyte hard 
drive and controller; $3490 
for basic 386; $3990 with 30- 
megabyte hard drive and con- 
troller; $4449 with 50-mega- 
byte hard drive and 
controller. 

Contact: Advanced Logic 
Research, Inc., 10 Chrysler 
Ave., Irvine, CA 92718, 
(714) 581-6770. 
Inquiry 751. 




The FlexNode system has a 5- by 15-inch base. 



Laptop Makers 

Shed Light 

on Their Screens 

Mitsubishi's mp286L lap- 
top features a fluores- 
cent backlit liquid crystal 
display (LCD) and four slots 
for add-in capabilities. The 
12-/8-MHz, one-/zero-wait- 
state machine comes stan- 
dard with a 6V2- by 9 W-inch 
display and 640- by 400-pixel 
resolution. 

Features include dual 
1 .44-megabyte 3 'A -inch floppy 
disk drives and 640K bytes of 
RAM that you can expand to 



2.6 megabytes. 

The CGA controller is in 
one slot, additional memory 
is in a second, and a built-in 
Hayes-compatible 2400-/ 
1 200-/300-bit-per-second 
modem is in the third. The 
fourth slot could be used for 
a local-area-networking card. 

Weight is 16 pounds, not 
including the optional 
7-pound battery pack. 
Price: $3195; OS/2, $325. 
Contact: Mitsubishi Elec- 
tronics America, Inc., Com- 
puter Systems Division, 991 
Knox St. , Torrance, CA 
90502, (800) 556-1234; in 
California, (800) 441-2345. 
Inquiry 752. 



SEND US YOUR NEW PRODUCT RELEASE 

We 'd like to consider your product for publication. Send us full 
information, including its price, ship date, and an address and 
telephone number where readers can get further information. Send 
to New Products Editor, BYTE, One Phoenix Mill Lane, Peter- 
borough, NH 03458. Information contained in these items is based 
on manufacturers ' written statements and/or telephone interviews 
with BYTE reporters. BYTE has not formally reviewed each product 
mentioned. These items, along with additional new product 
announcements, are posted regularly on BIX in the microbytes.sw 
and microbytes.hw conferences. 



Multiuser 386 

Power in 

an 11 -inch Cube 

Housed in an 1 1 -cubic- 
inch box, the Unix-based 
QB2 386 from Cubix has the 
advantage of being MS-DOS- 
compatible while acting as a 
file server for up to eight pro- 
cessors or terminals. 

It runs with zero- or one- 
wait-state performance be- 
cause of an alternative bank- 
ing scheme. When configured 
with 4 megabytes of memory, 
it runs with zero wait states. 
When configured with 8 
megabytes, it runs with one 
wait state. The standard 
package includes an 80387 co- 
processor and an Ethernet 
controller. 

The QB2 386, as the name 
implies, is based on Intel's 
80386 processor. It runs 
Unix version 3.0 and comes 
standard with 2 megabytes of 
RAM, expandable to 8 mega- 
bytes. In a standard config- 
uration, it includes an 80- 
megabyte hard disk drive, a 
60-megabyte tape drive for 
backup, and a 1. 44-megabyte 
5 14 -inch floppy disk drive. 

The built-in power-fail 
system involves nickel-cad- 
mium batteries for 10-minute 
on-line protection. If the power 
stays off for longer than 10 
minutes, another battery sub- 
system kicks in for up to an 
hour. Software that automati- 
cally shuts the system down 
is activated next, but not before 
the system tells you it's time 
to quit because it's operating 
on batteries. 
Price: $8995. 

Contact: Cubix Corp., 2800 
Lockheed Way, Carson City, 
NV 89706, (702) 883-7611. 
Inquiry 753. 

continued 



AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 67 



WHAT'S NEW 



PERIPHERALS 



Compact Keyboard 
Conserves Desktop 
Real Estate 

By compressing row 
spacing, Mechanical En- 
terprises has designed an 
IBM PC AT- and XT-compat- 
ible 100-key keyboard that's 
60 percent smaller than tradi- 
tional AT-enhanced 
keyboards. 

The microtype keyboard 
measures only 1 1 by 6 inches 
and weighs less than 2 
pounds. Mechanical Enter- 
prises says its studies show 
that touch typists achieve nor- 
mal typing speed after a 
short familiarization period. 
Price: $150. 

Contact: Mechanical Enter- 
prises, Inc., 461 Carlisle Dr., 
Herndon, VA 22070, (703) 
435-9496. 
Inquiry 754. 



End Those 
Scrolling Blues 

A dual-page landscape 
monitor from Nutmeg 
Systems lets Macintosh desk- 
top publishing aficionados 
view two complete pages 






ni - J / 



Space-saving 100-key PC-compatible keyboard. 



when they write, edit, and pre- 
pare layouts. 

The Nutmeg 19, available 
for the Mac Plus, SE, and II, 
has a 79-dpi resolution in a 
1024- by 768-pixel paper- 
white phosphor display. The 
horizontal refresh rate is 63.65 
kHz, and the vertical scan 
rate is 63.73 kHz. 

The monitor measures 17 
by 19 by 18 inches and weighs 
42 pounds. Nutmeg also uses 
a proprietary video interface 
that lets you easily upgrade 
your monitor if you move up to 
a Mac II. 

Price: $1899 for use with the 
Mac II; $1699 for use with 
either the Plus or SE. 
Contact: Nutmeg Systems, 
Inc. , 25 South Ave. , New 
Canaan, CT 06840, (203) 
966-3226. 
Inquiry 755. 



A Passport 

to Portable Data 

Plus Development's latest 
technological innovation 
is called the Plus Passport. 
It's a removable hard disk sys- 
tem that lets you insert 1 '4- 
inch thick, 3'/2-inch 20- or 40- 
megabyte hard disks into the 
company's custom chassis like 
you insert video cassettes 
into a VCR. 

You then have an MS- 
DOS- and OS/2-compatible 
hard disk subsystem that 
works on all the IBM ma- 
chines and compatibles, in- 
cluding systems with Micro 
Channel architecture. 

The drives use 1-to-l in- 
terleave for efficient data 
throughput and are rated for 



Put Up to 8.4 Gigabytes in the Palm of Your Hand 



While the battle over 
digital audio tape 
(DAT) for recording music 
rages in both Congress and 
the music industry, a Cali- 
fornia company has adopted 
DAT technology for storing 
truly massive amounts of 
computer data. 

Gigatape's Giga 1200 
DAT subsystem writes from 
1.2 to 8.4 gigabytes on a 
standard 4-millimeter digi- 
tal tape cartridge. The com- 
pany claims that the unit is 
compatible with all the 
IBM machines and compat- 



ibles, including the PS/2s, as 
well as with the Macintosh, 
MicroVAX, and other 
workstations. 

The Giga 1200 uses heli- 
cal scan technology, origi- 
nally developed for the VCR 
industry, and the latest digi- 
tal recording techniques. 
Helical scan technology in- 
volves using two read/write 
heads on a drum that rotates 
at 2000 rotations per minute. 

The tape speed is 0.32 
inches per second, and the 
data transfer rate averages 
192K bytes per second. But 



read/write is sustained even 
through 1.5-megabyte-per- 
second bursts. That means 
an entire tape can be loaded 
with information in less than 
2 hours. Error correction is 
handled with a proprietary 
code that the company 
claims keeps bit and burst 
errors to less than one in 
10 15 . 

Price: $6500. 

Contact: Gigatape, Inc., 
5266 Hollister Ave., Santa 
Barbara, CA 93 11 1,(805) 
964-8990. 
Inquiry 788. 



shocks of up to 150 g's. If you 
use the Passport for booting 
up other drives, you can back 
up as much as 40 megabytes 
of data in less than 5 minutes, 
says Plus Development. 

The drive cartridges fit 
into a drive subsystem that fits 
into a standard 5 '4 -inch half- 
height bay. 

Price: 20-megabyte PC ver- 
sion, $1250; 40-megabyte PC 
version, $1450; 20-megabyte 
Micro Channel version, $1350; 
40-megabyte Micro Channel 
version, $1550. 
Contact: Plus Development 
Corp., 1778 McCarthy Blvd., 
Milpitas, CA 95035, (408) 
434-6900. 
Inquiry 756. 



Yes, We Have No 
DataDesk Keyboards 

DataDesk International 
keyboards were incor- 
rectly associated with EECO 
keyboards in the June What's 
New section on page 70 
("123-Key Keyboard Remem- 
bers Macros"). 

DataDesk is an indepen- 
dent designer and manufac- 
turer of two popular key- 
boards: the Turbo-101 for IBM 
PC compatibles, and the 
Mac-101 for Macintosh 
computers. 

The two keyboards togeth- 
er are compatible with just 
about everything on the mar- 
ket, including the Tandy 1000, 
AT&T PC 6300, and IBM 
PCjr. The two keyboards are 
101 -key units with firm keys 
that produce a definite 
"bounce feeling" that many 
users prefer over PC-clone and 
Macintosh keyboards. 
Price: Turbo-101, $149.95; 
Mac-101, $169.95. 
Contact: DataDesk Interna- 
tional, 7651 Haskell Ave., Van 
Nuys,CA 91406, (818) 
780-1673. 
Inquiry 757. 

continued 



68 BYTE* AUGUST 1988 





Ymr pad or ours? 



If you perform 
calculations, the answer 
is obvious. 

MathCAD 2.0. 

It's everything 
you appreciate about 
working on a scratch- 
pad-simple, free-form 
math -and more. More 
speed. More accuracy. 
More flexibility. 

Just define your 
variables and enter your 
formulas anywhere on the screen. MathCAD 
formats your equations as they're typed. 
Instantly calculates the results. And displays 
them exactly as you're used to seeing them- 
in real math notation, as numbers, tables 
or graphs. 

MathCAD is more than an equation 
solver. Like a scratchpad, it allows you to add 



© 1987 MalhSoft. Inc. 

Circle 138 on Reader Service Card 




text anywhere to 
support your work, 
and see and record 
every step. You can 
try an unlimited 
number of what-ifs. 
And print your 
entire calculation as 
an integrated docu- 
ment that anyone 
can understand. 
Plus, MathCAD 
is loaded with powerful 
built-in features. In addition to the usual trig- 
onometric and exponential functions, it 
includes built-in statistical functions, cubic 
splines, Fourier transforms, and more. It also 
handles complex numbers and unit conver- 
sions in a completely transparent way. 

Yet, MathCAD is so easy to learn, you'll 
be using its full power an hour after you begin. 

Requires IBM PC* or compatible, 512KB RAM, graphics card. 

IBM PC® Inlernalional Business Machines Corporation. 
MalhCAD* MalhSofl, Inc. 



What more could you ask for? How 
about the exciting new features we've just 
added to MathCAD 2.0... 

• Built-in equation solver 

• Full matrix operations 

• Two to four times increase in 
calculating speed 

• Easier full-page text processing 

• Auto-scaled plots 

• Memory enhancements 

• Additional printer and plotter 
support 

• And more. 

If you're tired of doing calculations by 
hand or writing and debugging programs, 
come on over to our pad. MathCAD. The 
Electronic Scratchpad. 

Call for a detailed spec sheet and the 
name of a MathCAD dealer near you. 
1-800-MathCAD (In MA: 617-577-1017). 

MathCAD' 

MalhSofl, Inc., One Kendall Sq.. Cambridge, MA 02139 
AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 69 



WHAT'S NEW 



A D D - I N S 



Manipulate Video 
on Your Mac II 

Now you can use your 
Mac II to display video 
captured from standard video 
sources, then manipulate that 
image and add graphics with 
the ColorCapture board by 
Data Translation. 

The board allows real-time 
video that's been captured on 
video cameras, VCRs, and 
still-video equipment to be dis- 
played on the Mac II. Two 
versions are available — one for 
the National Television Sys- 
tem Committeee (NTSC) stan- 
dard in North America and 
Japan, and one for the Phase 
Alternate Line (PAL) stan- 
dard in western Europe. 

Once you capture the 
image, you can crop the pic- 
ture, add text or graphics, ex- 
port color images to other ap- 
plications, sharpen and 
soften edges, adjust brightness 
and contrast, add or subtract 
images, print hard copies, 
animate, and output to a 
videotape. 

Resolution is 640 by 480 
pixels, and images can be dis- 
played from a palette of 
32,768 colors. The board fits 
into a single Mac expansion 
slot with a cable that extends 
from the board to plug into 
video cameras, VCRs, or elec- 




Real-time Mac II video translation. 



tronic still-video equipment. 
For live display, you can attach 
composite or RGB monitors 
directly to the board. 

Additional specialized 
functions include a zoom/pan/ 
scroll controller, which 
allows instantaneous magnifi- 
cation and close-up examina- 
tion of image regions. There's 
also a graphics memory 
plane for merging text and 
drawing lines, arcs, curves, 
boxes, icons, and so on. 
Price: $2995. 
Contact: Data Translation, 
Inc., 100 Locke Dr., Marl- 
borough, MA 01752, (617) 
481-3700. 
Inquiry 758. 



Low-Cost, High- 
Speed Modem 

The ATI Technologies 
2400etc is a 2400-bit-per- 
second internal modem that 
allows for the equivalent of 
4800-bps data transmission 
with its data-compression 
techniques. 

Only modems with MNP 
Class 5 error correction will 
communicate with this 
modem at maximum speed, 
however. MNP Class 5 pro- 
vides for what the company 
calls " 100 percent error-free 
data transfer." This IBM 



Add PostScript to Your Laser Printer 



The ConoDesk 6000, a 
PostScript-compatible 
printer controller, outputs 
PostScript code 10 times 
faster than competing units, 
the manufacturer claims. 

Scalable fonts for Ventura 
Publisher, PageMaker, and 
Windows let you scale every 
typeface to all standard Post- 
Script point sizes and rotate 
them to any angle. 

The controller uses a pro- 
prietary 32-bit microproces- 



sor and 2.5 megabytes of 
RAM and works with the 
IBM XT, AT, Compaq 386, 
and compatibles. It supports 
Hewlett-Packard LaserJet 
and Canon-engine printers. 
There are 13 typefaces 
with PostScript-compatible 
metrics and a 228-character 
set for Ventura Publisher and 
PageMaker. Optional soft- 
ware includes ConoScript, 
the interpreter that allows 
the printer to print Post- 



Script files. Optional hard- 
ware includes HP LaserJet 
Series II and Canon LBP-8II 
video interface boards. 
Price: $2995 for the base 
system with interpreters for 
Windows and PageMaker; 
$695 for the ConoScript in- 
terpreter; $100 to $700 for a 
floating-point processor. 
Contact: Conographic 
Corp., 16802 Aston, Irvine, 
CA 92714, (714)474-1188. 
Inquiry 789. 



PC-compatible unit fits into 
a standard half slot and also 
operates at 1200 and 300 bps. 
Price: $239. 

Contact: ATI Technologies, 
Inc., 3761 Victoria Park Ave. 
Scarborough, Ontario, 
Canada M1W3S2, (416) 
756-0711. 
Inquiry 759. 



Serial Mice Can 
Now Take the Bus 

The Pointing Device 
Adapter (PDA) lets you 
convert your serial mouse to 
work on a standard PC bus, 
freeing up that serial port for 
other things. 

This MicroSpeed product, 
a Vi -length card with software 
for Microsoft, Logitech, 
Mouse Systems, and compat- 
ible rodents, is compatible 
with the IBM AT, XT, PS/2 
Model 30, and compatibles. 

The PDA's features are 
many. They include an I/O ad- 
dress that's the same as that 
for bus mice, and interrupt se- 
lection for IRQ 2, 3, 4, 5, or 
7. MicroSpeed 's MAP (multi- 
axis pointer) driver with bal- 
listic gain support is included, 
allowing you to better control 
the pointer on the screen with 
the mouse. While the ballis- 
tic gain feature has been avail- 
able on the Macintosh mice 
for some time, MicroSpeed 
says this is the first time you 
can buy a mouse for PC com- 
patibles with variable speed 
control. 

Finally, there's a device 
driver for Windows applica- 
tions, an AutoDesk device in- 
terface driver for AutoCAD, 
and MicroSpeed's KeyMAP 
keyboard emulator software. 
Price: $69. 

Contact: MicroSpeed, Inc., 
5307 Randall Place, Fremont, 
CA 94538, (800) 232-7888; 
in California, (415) 490-1403. 
Inquiry 760. 

continued 



70 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 



Get Sprint and you'll never 
be afraid of the dark! 




Nothing holds a candle to Sprint! 



Features 


Sprint 


WordPerfect 


MS Word 


WordStar 


MultiMate 


• = Yes O = No 


1.0 


4.2 


4.0 


4.0 


Adv. 1.0 


Maximum file size 


Disk 


Disk 


Disk 


4MB 


128K 


Thesaurus (integrated) 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


Windows Open (maximum) 


6 


2 


8 


1 


I 


Files Open (maximum) 


24 


2 


8 


1 


I 


Cross-Reference (dynamic) 


• 


O 


O 





O 


Indexing Options 


7 


1 


3 


3 


O 


Columns: Parallel 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


Snaking (chg. * same page) 


• 


• 


Not same pg. 


O 


• 


H-P LaserJet Support 


Full 


Partial 


Full 


Partial 


Full 


PostScript Support 


Full 


Text 


Full 


O 


Text 


Mouse Support (integrated) 


• 


O 


• 





O 


Dynamic Shortcuts 


• 


O 


O 





O 


Alternative User Interfaces 


• 


O 


O 


o 


O 


Verify Spelling as you type 


• 


o 


o 


o 


o 


Programmable Macro lang. 


• 


o 


o 


o 


o 



Save File' 


5.9 


41.1 


9.7 


4.4 


1.0 


Top to Bottom 2 


7.5 


7.5 


49.4 


8.1 


21.0 


Search and Replace 3 


1.6 


6.6 


4.6 


17.1 


13.4 


Find Unique Word 


3.3 


6.2 


7.0 


13.8 


20.6 



Suggested List Price 



$199.95 S495.00 $450.00 $495.00 $565.00 



File size 103K. "1636 lines. ' 14 occurrences. Times shown are in seconds. 



Time tests were performed on an Acer 286 (8 MHz). 640K RAM. 
(Benchmark details available upon request.) 

Trices and specifications snhjeci to change without notice. 

•Customer satisfaction Is our main concern; if within 60 days of purchase this product docs not perform in accordance with our claims, call our customer service 
department, and we will arrange a refund. 

All Borland products are trademarks or registered trademarks of Borland International. Inc. Other brand and product names arc trademarks of their respective 
holders. Copyright ©1988 Borland International. Inc. Bl 1 



rorgetting to "Save" is a fact 
of life as are power outages, and 
it used to be that a power outage 
could wipe out everything you've 
done. Not any more. Your work 
is always safe when you Sprint.® 

Sprint's "Auto-Save" auto- 
matically saves your words as 
you type, so if the lights do go 
out, you may be in deep dark- 
ness but not deep trouble. 

Sprint's Auto-Save is more 
than "insurance," it's also 
invisible. You know it's there, 
but it does its job without 
interrupting yours. 

Sprint: It's the word processor 
with everything! 

You name it, Sprint's got it. 
Incredible speed, Auto-Save, a 
customizable user interface, and 
professional output. Sprint even 
includes a bonus pack of alter- 
native user interfaces that make 
it act like WordStar, 8 MultiMate, 9 
WordPerfect,® Microsoft® Word, 
or other familiar word proces- 
sors—a $99 value free! 

Sprint has all this and does 
all this for only $199.95 instead 
of the up to $600 that some 
companies demand. Sprint auto- 
matically saves your words; 
it also automatically saves 
your money. Sprint— The fast 
track to performance word 
processing. 

60-Day Money-back Guarantee* 

For the dealer nearest you 
Gall (800) 543-7543 




BORLAND 



Circle 30 on Reader Service Card (Dealers: 31) 



N 7 i R H & T I H A I 

AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 71 



WHAT'S NEW 



HARDWARE • CONNECTIVITY 



An Affordable and 
Expandable Fiber- 
optic Network 

Eight XT- or AT-compat- 
ible computers, eight 
printed circuit boards, one 
networking hub, and fiber- 
optic cabling constitutes 
the simplest form of the new 
Ethernet local-area net- 
work (LAN) from lONet 
Communications. 

But you can expand that 
with more fiber-optic cabling, 
more boards, and more hubs. 
Each hub supports eight com- 
puters. To form a 392-com- 
puter, 10-megabit-per-second 
(mbps) LAN with as much as 
6 kilometers between any two 
nodes, you'll need 54 hubs, 
392 boards, and lots of 
cabling. 

To expand the network 
even further, you can add a re- 
generative repeater and link 
two 392-computer networks. A 
second repeater allows you to 
link more than 1000 com- 
puters. The boards use Intel's 
82586 Ethernet controller chip 
and have Hewlett-Packard 
LED sources and positive- 
intrinsic-negative (PIN) 
photodiode receivers to trans- 
mit and receive 850-nano- 
meter light pulses through 
62.5-micron multimode fi- 
ber-optic cabling with recom- 
mended SMA or ST connec- 
tors. Total delay between two 
hubs on 392-computer clus- 
ters is 25 nanoseconds. 

Repeaters, which restore 
amplitude (like the hubs) and 
retime the signals, add 750 ns 
to transmissions. Repeaters 
also allow connection of fi- 
ber-optic to coaxial or cheaper- 
net (thin coaxial) cabling. 

If you add two more full- 
length cards to one of the com- 
puters, you have a bridge that 
will link clusters of lONet 
1-mbps LANs with several 
types of networks, including 




Ethernet local-area network from lONet Communications. 



Ethernet, Token Ring, and 
ArcNet. The networking soft- 
ware is lONet's existing 
package, lONet 4.0, which in- 
cludes an electronic mail 
package called Network Cou- 
rier from Consumers 
Software. 

Price: PC board with soft- 
ware, $1295; hub, $2995; re- 
peater, $1395. (Fiber cabling 
and installation not included.) 
Contact: lONet Communica- 
tions, 7016 Corporate Way, 
Dayton, OH 45459, (513) 
433-2238. 
Inquiry 765. 



Ethernet Stalks 
the Twisted Pair! 

If you're considering in- 
stalling Ethernet but the 
hassle of running coaxial 
cable through the walls and 
floors is giving you pause, 
Hewlett-Packard has a simple 
solution. Its newest product, 
HP StarLAN 10 PC Link, uses 
the already-installed tele- 
phone wiring in your building 
to network your PC or com- 
patibles at 10 mbps. 

PC Link includes a half- 



length PC card and software 
called OfficeShare, which 
provide the transport mecha- 
nism between MS-DOS- or 
Unix-based systems, as well as 
the twisted-pair Ethernet net- 
work that HP introduced last 
year. With PC Link, you can 
locate as many as 12 PCs up to 
100 meters from the network- 
ing hub. And those capabilities 
will increase when repeaters 
and bridges become available, 
since StarLAN 10 can sup- 
port a total of 1024 PCs or 
Unix devices. 

You can also connect your 
PCs using existing coaxial 
Ethernet networks with a de- 
vice called the Twisted-Pair 
Media Access Unit. Accord- 
ing to HP, before its all- 
twisted-pair products became 
available, such coaxial-to- 
twisted-pair devices were the 
only way to connect PCs to 
Ethernet. 

Price: PC Link, $695; hub, 
$2995; Twisted-Pair Media 
Access Unit, $295. 
Contact: Hewlett-Packard 
Co., Customer Information 
Center, Inquiry Fulfillment 
Dept. , 193 10 Pruneridge Ave. , 
Cupertino, CA 95014, or 
call the HP sales office listed 
in your telephone directory 
white pages. 
Inquiry 766. 



Your PC or PS/2 
Can Now Talk 
AppleTalk 

The first IBM PC- and 
PS/2-based AppleTalk 
file server supports up to 30 
machines at 230 kilobits per 
second (kbps). It consists of a 
board and software for the host 
and the clients. 

The Tangent Technologies 
card, dubbed the Tangent- 
Share, eliminates the need 
for a dedicated Macintosh file 
server or for individual hard 
disk drives at each work- 
station. As a nondedicated 
file server, it allows you to 
store files and applications 
from any IBM PC, PS/2, or 
Macintosh on the AppleTalk 
network host, to use the host as 
a local disk drive, or to trans- 
fer files between incompatible 
systems. 

TangentShare provides 
both "administrator" and 
"super user" privileges from 
any IBM or Apple machine on 
the network. Administrator 
machines can perform such 
management functions as 
adding users to the network 
and changing passwords. The 
super user machines, desig- 
nated by the administrator 
machines, have complete ac- 
cess privileges to all directo- 
ries in the network. There can 
be multiple administrators 
and multiple super users on 
each network. 
Price: $700 for board and 
file server software; $325 for 
board and IBM PC client 
software; $400 for board and 
PS/2 client software. 
Contact: Tangent Technol- 
ogies, 5990-K Unity Dr., 
Norcross, GA 30071, (404) 
662-0366. 
Inquiry 767. 

continued 



72 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 




Gut yourself a better deal, 



Buy MICRO CADAM 
CORNERSTONE R. 1.3, send 
us your obsolete PC CAD 
software, and get a $1,000* 
check from CADAM! 



If you've always wanted real 
mainframe-based CAD power for your 
IBM® PS/2,'" PC/AT® or compatible system, 
here's a sharp new offer from CADAM® 

Buy new MICRO CADAM 
CORNERSTONE R. 1.3 now. Compare its 
productivity, ease of use, and mainframe- 



based features with your conventional PC 
CAD system. (You cm go right to work 
with your existing CAD files, thanks 
to MICRO CADAM CORNERSTONE'S new 
DXF data translator.) 

Then cut up your obsolete software 
and send us the half with the label, along 
with your completed rebate coupon and 
proof of purchase for MICRO CADAM 
CORNERSTONE R. 1.3. We'll cut you a 
check for $1,000. 

CADAM's rebate offer is the ultimate 
deal on the "ultimate PC CAD production 
tool." But act fast. Rebate expires October 
31, 1988. See your dealer today for 



qualification details and rebate coupon. For 
the location of your nearest dealer, phone 
CADAM toll-free today: 800-255-5710. 

MICRO CADAM CORNERSTONE . . . 
The Ultimate PC CAD Production Tool 



cflDnm inc 

A LOCKHEED COMPANY 



•This rebate may nol be combined with any other special CADAM INC promotion or discounts ami is available only in the United States to end users. Certain restrictions apply— see rebate coupon available from your MICRO CADAM CORNERSTONE 

dealer for details and restrictions. All sales will be verified with dealer of record. 
CADAM is a registered trademark and MICRO CADAM CORNERSTONE is a trademark of CADAM INC. AutoCADs a registered trademark of Autodesk, Inc. IBM and PC/AT are registered trademarks and PS/2 is a trademark 

of international Business Machines Corporation £T9SK CADAM INC 



Circle 35 on Reader Service Card (Dealers: 36) 



AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 73 



ONCE IN A BLUE MO 



SCANMAN™ ^ 

Pop any image up to 4"x 11" straight into your IBM PC, XT AT PS/2 or 
100% compatible system. Clip it, crop it, resize and rotate it, color it. Merge 
it. Save It. Store it. Choose between high contrast or high detail. Import 
images into any best-selling DTP application (PageMaker "VenturaTetc). 
Use it in any major publishing program. All you need is $299, a spare card 
slot, and five minutes to set up. 

HOW ON EARTH IS THIS POSSIBLE FOR $299? 

Be comforted. Scan Man carries Logitech's Customer Satisfaction 
Guarantee, and includes all you need to be up 
andrunning in minutes. 








COMES A S T R O 



,* 








MhMU 0-luU Mmac A pamtu-fdciuc 




F C E N 1 MS 







■ M 



lSwJ$*r ' 




g lOmTCHE R 




g K^y/ATCHE R 



k KY\AOTQHE P 



CALL TOLL FREE: (800) 231-771 7 OR (800) 552-8885 IN CALIFORNIA 

Please send me my ScanMan: BY888 

□ ScanMan for IBM PC, XT, AT PS/2 models 25 and 30, and 

100% compatibles $299.00 

O ScanMan for IBM PS/2 model 50 and above and 100% compatibles $349.00 
Shipping and Handling (per item): $ 6.50 

CA Residents add applicable sales tax: $ 

Total: $ 

D Check or Money Order Enclosed □ Visa □ MasterCard 

Card Number Exp. Date 



f «$ 



ScanMan 

Hand-Held Scanner from 

m LOGITECH 

Personal Peripherals. Worldwide. 

PageMaker is a trademark 
of Aldus and Ventura Publisher 
is a trademark of Ventura 
Software Inc. 

Circle 129 on Reader Service Card (Dealers: 130) 



Cardhnldpr Nnmp 




Authampd Signaturp 


[Please print) 


Ship to: 
Namp 




Addrpss 


CitylStntpl7ip 


Offer valid in the U.S. only. Allow 2-3 weeks for delivery. 30-day Money Back Guarantee. DEALER INQUIRIES 
WELCOME. Send to: LOGITECH. Inc. attn: Coupon Redemption Program, 6505 Kaiser Drive, Fremont, CA 94555 



&Jh 



g KYVVATCHE R 



S KYWATCHE R 




WHAT'S NEW 



HARDWARE • OTHER 



Who Can Make 
a 4-inch Scan? 
The ScanMan Can 

With 200-dpi resolution, 
ScanMan provides a 
way for you and your IBM 
PC, AT, XT, PS/2, or com- 
patible to add graphics to desk- 
top publishing, business pre- 
sentations, and other 
documents. Then you can 
store the images in your per- 
sonal database. 

The ScanMan has a 4- 
inch-wide scanning window, 
and it can scan images that 
are up to 1 1 inches long. The 
scanner, interface board, 
graphics editor, and ScanWare 
software are included. 

ScanWare allows for scan- 
ning directly into Microsoft 
Windows or to Logitech's 
Graphics Editor. The Graphics 
Editor allows many manipu- 
lations, including image siz- 
ing, cut and paste, color, re- 
verse and rotate, insert, and 
magnify. Compatible appli- 
cation packages include Aldus 
PageMaker, Ventura Publish- 
er, Logitech PaintShow, Logi- 
tech Publisher, PFS: First 
Publisher, and ZSoft PC 
Paintbrush. 
Price: $299. 
Contact: Logitech, Inc., 
6505 Kaiser Dr., Fremont, CA 
94555, (415) 795-8500. 
Inquiry 761. 




Logitech 's 4- by 11-inch scanner. 



More HP DeskJet 

Memory 

for Soft Fonts 

Expansion memory cards 
for Hewlett-Packard 
DeskJet printers can expand 
your printer memory by 128K 
bytes with one cartridge or 
by 256K bytes with two cards. 

Popular soft fonts such as 
Helvetica require as much as 
256K bytes of memory. In 
fact, a single point size can use 
more than 50K bytes. These 
memory cards, therefore, pro- 
vide for the necessary soft 
font memory. But in addition, 
the memory cards are com- 
patible with hard fonts that fit 
into HP expansion slots. 



Four 32K-byte by 8-bit 
static RAM chips are used in 
each 5- by 3-inch cartridge. 
Each cartridge is specifically 
designed for one of two op- 
tion slots available on each HP 
printer. 
Price: $129. 

Contact: Pacific Data Prod- 
ucts, Inc., 6404 Nancy Ridge 
Dr., San Diego, CA 92121, 
(619) 552-0880. 
Inquiry 762. 



Monitor Testing 
Made Simple w 

One tool now tests moni- 
tors and nothing else. It's 
called the Montest-A5D3, 
and it tests at least six types of 



The IEEE 488 Controller That Stands Alone 



Anew IEEE 488 control- 
ler from IOtech lets you 
control instruments and 
store data in 32K bytes of 
nonvolatile memory. 

Called the Macro488, it 
allows up to 100 macros, or 
instruction sets, to be loaded 
into the unit's memory from 
any computer with an RS- 
232C or RS-422 data port. 

You can control up to 14 
instruments simultaneously 



with the Macro488. It's 
ideal for applications, such 
as vehicle testing, where vi- 
bration, and excessive tem- 
peratures, and humidity can 
cause problems. Because it 
stands alone, its relative im- 
munity to vibration prob- 
lems places the Macro488 at 
an advantage over computers 
in the field. It also operates 
over a temperature range of 
between 0°C and 35°C and a 



relative humidity range of 
between and 70 percent. 

A built-in clock with time 
and date stamping lets you 
collect data at precise times 
or at regular or irregular 
intervals. 
Price: $995. 

Contact: IOtech, Inc., 
25971 Cannon Rd., Cleve- 
land, OH 44146, (216) 439- 
4091. 
Inquiry 790. 



standard personal computer 
monitors: IBM PC mono- 
chrome, Color Graphics 
Display, Enhanced Graphics 
Display, Mac II, IBM PS/2, 
and IBM Professional Graph- 
ics Display. You use it to set 
alignment, convergence, and 
color balance. 

The Montest-A5D3 gener- 
ates four patterns— color bars, 
cross hatch, full raster, and a 
window — and has all the hard- 
ware and adapters needed to 
directly drive either analog or 
digital monitors. The Mon- 
test-A5D3 measures 8 by 6 by 
2 inches and weighs less than 
2 pounds. 
Price: $925. 

Contact: Network Technol- 
ogies, Inc., 19145 Elizabeth 
St., Aurora, OH 44202, 
(216)543-1646. 
Inquiry 763. 



Printer Ribbons 
That Won't 
Fade Away 

Long after most printer 
manufacturers began con- 
centrating on desktop pub- 
lishing applications, one com- 
pany decided to reinvent the 
ribbon. 

Chronos Computers now 
offers Sta-Blk reinking printer 
ribbons for more than 350 
popular printers, including the 
Apple Imagewriter I and II, 
the C. Itoh Pro Writer, and two 
Epson models. The reinking 
technology makes the ribbons 
last at least 20 times longer 
than conventional ribbons, the 
company claims. Besides 
that, the ribbons don't fade. 
Price: $49.95 for the Epson 
printer version; $39.95 for the 
Imagewriter or Pro Writer 
versions. 

Contact: Chronos Com- 
puters, 4186 Sorrento Valley 
Blvd., Suite H, San Diego, 
CA 92121, (619)455-8200. 
Inquiry 764. 

continued 



76 BYTE • AUGUST 1988 




r %3&® P 





Feature: 


dBASE 


ORACLE 


SQL 


Promises, 
no dates 


IBM DB2 
Compatible 


Mainframes 


No Way 


IBMMVS 

& VM/CMS 


Minis 


Nope 


DEC, HP, 
Sun, etc. 


PCs 


All, 

PC Jr. too 


286 & 386 
PCs 


MS/DOS 


<640K 
programs 


>640K 
programs 


OS/2 


Still 
waiting 


Shipping 


Multiuser 


Primitive 


Mainframe 
quality 


Networking 


PC Nets 
only 


PC, mini & 
mainframe 


Fault 
Tolerant 


You must 
be kidding 


CPU & Disk 
Recovery 



THE LAST DBMS 

ONLY $199 
CALL 1-800-0RACLE1 




Oracle Corporation, the world's 
fastest growing software 
company, 1 has just climbed past 
Ashton-Tate to become the world's 
largest supplier of database man- 
agement software and services. 2 

Why? 

• Because ORACLE® runs on PCs, 
plus mainframes and minicom- 
puters from IBM, DEC, DG, HP, 
Prime, Wang, Apollo, Sun, etc. — 
virtually every computer you have 
now or ever will have. AshtonTate's 
dBASE runs only on PCs. 

• Because ORACLE is a true dis- 
tributed DBMS that connects all 
your computers — PCs, minicom- 
puters and mainframes — into a 
single, unified computing and infor- 
mation resource. dBASE supports 
only primitive PC networking. 

• Because Oracle has supported 
the industry standard SQL language 
since 1979. Ashton-Tate promises 
to put SQL into dBASE sometime 
in the indefinite future. 

• Because ORACLE takes advan- 
tage of modern 286/386 PCs by 
letting you build larger-than-640K 
PC applications on MS/DOS that run 
unchanged on OS/2. dBASE treats 
today's 286/386 PCs and PS/2s like 
the now obsolete, original PC. 

Don't go down in flames. Bail out 
from dBASE. Call 1-800-ORACLE1 
and order your S199-PC copy of 
ORACLE 3 today. Or just ask and we'll 
send you information on ORACLE, 
the number one selling DBMS on 
minicomputers and mainframes. 

ORACLG" 

COMPATIBILITY • PORTABILITY • CONNECTABILITY 

Call 1-800-0RACLE1, 
ext. 149 today. 



{Dear Oracle, 

PC ORDER PROCESSING 

Oracle Corporation 

20 Davis Drive • Belmont, CA 94002 

I want ORACLE to be THE LAST DBMS 
for my 286/386 PC. Enclosed is my 
□ Check or □ VISA DMCD AMEX 
credit card authorization for $199 
(California residents add 7% sales tax). 
1 understand this copy is for PC develop- 
ment only. Offer valid only in the US 
and Canada. 



1 Revenue doubled In 9 ol Oracle's 10 years. ' Sales rale over S20D million In current fiscal year. > For PC development use only, Requites a 286/386 PC plus 1-MByte extended memory. Offer 
valid only In US & Canada. © 19S8 by Oracle Corp. ORACLE ' is a ret;, trademark ot Oracle Corp. dBASE Is a reg. trademark of Ashlon-Tate. Microsoft & IBM own numerous reg. trademarks. TRBA 



Company 



Street (P.O. Box numbers no! acceptable) 



Zip 



Credit Card Number 



Card Expiration Date 



Signature BYTE 

I am a value-added reseller (VAR): n YES D NO 



AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 77 



WHAT'S NEW 



SOFTWARE • PROGRAMMING 



Dell Releases OS/2 

Dell Computer reports 
that its version of 
Microsoft's OS/2 is a single- 
user multitasking operating 
system for 80286 and 80386 
systems. It supports VGA 
video adapters based on 
Chips & Technologies, 
Video Seven, and Cirrus 



Logic VGA controllers. 

Dell's OS/2 lets you in- 
stall Microsoft OS/2, MS- 
DOS, and Xenix on the 
same hard disk. Utility pro- 
grams such as Etree and 
Speed are included. Etree 
displays a visual tree of the 
disk directory, and Speed 



lets you change the process- 
ing speed and keyboard re- 
peat rate. 
Price: $324.95. 
Contact: Dell Computer 
Corp., 9505 Arboretum 
Blvd., Austin, TX 78759, 
(512)338-4400. 
Inquiry 770. 



80386 C Compiler 
Creates Protected- 
Mode Code 

The NDP C-386 C com- 
piler from Micro Way is a 
globally optimizing compiler 
that was designed for the Intel 
80386. It generates native 
80386 protected-mode 32-bit 
code that runs under DOS or 
Unix V. 

The compiler is capable of 
running with arrays larger than 
64K bytes and can run pro- 
grams as large as 4 gigabytes. 

NDP C-386 is a full imple- 
mentation of PCC, Bell Lab's 
Portable C Compiler, whose 
syntax is a superset of Ker- 
nighan and Ritchie C. The 
compiler includes all standard 
PCC extensions along with 
supersets of ANSI C and 
Microsoft C extensions. The 
new extensions include a set of 
graphics and BASIC-like 
screen handling functions, in 
addition to hooks to the oper- 
ating system. 

Coprocessors supported 
include the Micro Way /Weitek 
mWl 167 and the Intel 80387 
and 80287 coprocessors. 

MicroWay's C compiler 
runs on any 80386-based com- 
puter or AT compatible with 
an Intel Inboard or other 
80386 add-on board. A float- 
ing-point coprocessor is re- 
quired, as well as 2 mega- 
bytes of extended memory. 



You'll also need a hard disk 
drive with at least 2 megabytes 
of free memory. DOS 3.2 or 
higher or Unix 386 System V 
Release 3 is also required. 
Price: $595. 

Contact: MicroWay, P.O. 
Box 79, Kingston, MA 02364, 
(508)746-7341. 
Inquiry 768. 



Document It! 

To simplify the process of 
documenting C programs, 
Software Blacksmiths de- 
signed C-DOC, a set of docu- 
mentation tools for C pro- 
grammers. The tools also 
modify your programs and 
can insert documentation as a 
part of each individual mod- 
ule header. 

C-Call documents the 
caller/called hierarchy of a 
group of programs. It creates 
graphic tree diagrams that 
show the flow structure. It 
also produces a table of con- 
tents of files versus modules, 
processes functions and 
macros with parameters, and 
generates cross-references of 
function definitions and 
usages. 

C-Ref analyzes and docu- 
ments the use of local/global 
parameter identifiers. It also 
produces summaries for indi- 
vidual modules for use in 
headers, and it produces a 
module- or system-level 
cross-reference of all identifi- 
ers, definitions, and usages. 



C-List analyzes and dis- 
plays the flow structure within 
modules. It will reformat a 
source program and produce 
structure outlines of the flow 
structure. 

C-Hdr uses outputs from 
C-List to generate and update 
module headers. 

The program runs on the 
IBM PC, XT, AT, and compat- 
ibles with DOS 2.0 or higher 
and 256K bytes of RAM. 
Price: $89. 

Contact: Software Black- 
smiths, Inc., 6064 St. Ives 
Way, Mississauga, Ontario, 
Canada L5N4M 1,(416) 
858-4466. 
Inquiry 769. 



A Rascal for Pascal 

A Pascal compiler for 
$19.67? Rascal (rhymes 
with Pascal) supports a 64K- 
byte code and a 64K-byte data 
segment, performs floating- 
point arithmetic with an 8087, 
and produces a . COM file in 
two passes. The company re- 
ports that the compiler is ca- 
pable of compiling about 1000 
lines per minute on an IBM 
PC and compares the object 
code produced to that of 
Turbo Pascal 4.0. 

Rascal features 30 opera- 
tors and 6 distinct classes. It 
also includes 156 standard 



procedures. The compiler rec- 
ognizes explicit register ref- 
erences through standard iden- 
tifiers, the company reports. 
It also recognizes explicit 
branches to labels, proce- 
dures, and functions. 

Source code for the code 
generator and library is in- 
cluded. You can compile the 
code generator with either 
Turbo Pascal 4.0 or Rascal. 
The Rascal-generated code is 
about 50 percent faster, ac- 
cording to the manufacturer. 
Price: $19.67. 
Contact: Eugene Nelson, 
1009 Vilas, Suite 3, Madison, 
WI 53715, (608) 257-7588. 
Inquiry 771. 



Facelt Builds 
Menus 

Instead of drawing a win- 
dow, typing in the text, and 
positioning it on-screen, 
Facelt automatically builds 
single windows and multi- 
menu systems from your data- 
base and ASCII files. It de- 
termines the window size 
based on the amount of text 
to be displayed. It also auto- 
matically positions the win- 
dow on-screen, configures the 
spacing between choices, and 
determines the correct number 
of columns. 

Virtual windowing and 
built-in scrolling are other fea- 
tures of Facelt. The program 
is compatible with dBASE III 
Plus, FoxBASE + ,DBXL, 
Clipper, Quicksilver, and Bor- 
land and Microsoft lan- 
guages. Language-specific 
modules are contained within 
Facelt. It runs on PS/2s and 
compatibles. 
Price: $99. 

Contact: Black and White 
International, Inc. , 23 West 
88th Street, New York, NY 
10024, (212) 787-6633. 
Inquiry 772. 

continued 



78 BYTE* AUGUST 1988 



Take a peek 
at Genoa's new 
PC graphics 



-■C&Sik 





You've known Genoa as a developer 
of high performance graphics chips, and 
a leading manufacturer of graphics 
boards and tape backup. Soon you'll 
be able to depend on us for all your PC 
graphics add-on hardware. 

Over the next year, we'll be unwrap- 
ping a series of graphics products. Each 
is designed to give you the most reliable, 
yet innovative engineering features. And 
above all, the highest performance 
possible. 

Our SuperVGA HiRes family, featured 
here, is the first in our new product series. 
SuperVGA HiRes offers breathtaking 
color and resolution. From 16 colors in 
1024x768. Up to 256 colors in 800x600. 
You'll see more of your spreadsheets at 
once with SuperVGA HiRes. 132 columns 
and 60 rows. You'll do Windows or 
OS/2. In fact, every SuperVGA HiRes 
feature is designed to turn your IBM 
PC/XT/AT and PS/2 models 25 and 30 
into real graphics engines. 





Genoa 



SYSTEMS CORPORATION 



Delivering 
SuperVGA HiRes" now! 




100% IBM VGA compatible 
Advanced features 
-1024x768 in 

16 colors and 

800x600 in 

256 colors/Model 5200 
-512x512 in 

256 colors/Model 5100 
132 columns text 
For both analog and 
TTL displays 



If you're looking for PC graphics 
add-ons, take a look at Genoa first. Our 
new line of products is starting 
delivery now! 

For the Genoa dealer nearest 
you or to add your name to our mailing 
list contact: Genoa Systems Corporation, 
75 E. Trimble Road, San Jose, CA 95131. 
Fax: 408/434-0997. Telex: 172319. 
Or phone: 408/432-9090. In the UK, 
contact Genoa Systems Limited, phone 
01-225-3247 In the Far East contact 
Genoa/Taiwan, phone: 2-776-3933. 

Circle 94 on Reader Service Card 



Genoa 

SYSTEMS CORPORATION 

Delivering PC Graphics 

408/432-9090 




© 1988 Genoa Systems Corporaiion. SuperVGA HiRes is a trademark ol Genoa Systems Corporation. Windows is a trademark of Microsoll, Inc. IBM PC/XT/ AT PS/2, and OS/2 are Irariemarks ol International Business Machines. 



WHAT'S NEW 



SOFTWARE • SCIENTIFIC AND ENGINEERING 



Data Analysis All 
Over Your Screen 

DSP Development Corp. 
says the most difficult 
thing about DADiSP is pro- 
nouncing its name. It's pro- 
nounced "Day-Disp," and it 
stands for data analysis and 
digital signal processing. 

You use the program after 
you've acquired data from a 
variety of instruments. 
DADiSP 2.0 is a package that 
lets you import ASCII and 
binary single or multichannel 
data files into the database as 
a data set. The program has a 
menu-driven interface and 
lets you analyze your data 
graphically and numerically. 
The waveforms are represented 
in windows that are treated as 
cells in a spreadsheet. When 
you make a change to a wave- 
form in one window, the pro- 
gram makes the necessary 
alterations to others. 

The worksheet can hold up 
to 64 windows, with each of- 
fering graphics operations 
such as scrolling, zooming, 
expansion, compression, and 
cursor movement. 

The program has over 160 
analysis routines, including 
signal arithmetic, signal cal- 
culus, waveform generation, 
Fourier analysis, frequency 
domain analysis, correlations, 
and trigonometric and statis- 
tical routines. DSP reports that 
the size of waveforms is un- 
limited, as the program pages 
large waveforms to and from 
your disk during calculations. 




DADiSP waveforms are presented in multiple windows. 



DADiSP runs on the IBM 
PC, XT, AT, and compatibles 
as well as on Sun and other 
workstations. It runs under 
DOS, Unix, and OS/2, ac- 
cording to DSP. 
Price: DOS version, $795; 
Unix version, $2495. 
Contact: DSP Development 
Corp., One Kendall Sq., 
Cambridge, MA 02139, 
(617)577-1133. 
Inquiry 773. 



Go Solo! 

Solo 101 is a statistical 
program that features fill- 
in-the-blank-type panels that 
give you your statistical- 
analysis options. If you need 
help knowing what to put into a 
panel, you move the cursor to 
the field and a help message 
pops up. 

With Solo you can calcu- 
late the mean, standard devi- 
ation, and percentiles, and 



you can generate frequency 
tables and cross-tabulations. 
The program also performs 
multiple regression with re- 
sidual analysis, stepwise re- 
gression, robust regression, 
weighted regression, and cor- 
relation analysis. You can 
store residuals, predicted 
values, confidence intervals, 
and other observation-type sta- 
tistics in Solo's database. 
Forecasting techniques include 
trend analysis, single and 
double exponential smoothing, 
and seasonal adjustment. 
Analysis of variance proce- 
dures include general linear 
models, unweighted means, 
and repeated measures. 

Solo includes a data-entry 
spreadsheet, database utilities, 
data import, report writing, 
and transformation capabili- 
ties. With the spreadsheet 
editor, you can cut and paste 
sections of the database, ap- 
pend data to existing informa- 
tion, and reorder columns for 
easier data entry and viewing. 



AutoCAD on the Mac 1 






A utoCAD Release 10 
f\ runs on the Mac II and 


nate systems, dynamic real- 


write drawing files inter- 


time zoom and three-dimen- 


changeably between two dif- 


adds three-dimensional 


sional rotation, and multiple 


ferent machines. 


wireframe construction and 


viewports. 


Price: $3000. 


surface modeling capabili- 


Release 10 is data-file- 


Contact: Autodesk, 2320 


ties, along with new drawing 


compatible with MS-DOS 


Marinship Way, Sausalito, 


and editing features. These 


and Unix versions of the pro- 


CA 94965, (415) 332-2344. 


include user-defined coordi- 


gram, so you can read and 


Inquiry 776. 



The data-import facility lets 
you read and write ASCII 
files. You can also sort, 
merge, transpose, or make 
subsets of databases. A re- 
port writer also lets you output 
to a printer or ASCII file. 

The program runs on the 
IBM PC, XT, AT, and compat- 
ibles with DOS 2. 1 or higher, 
512K bytes of RAM, and a 
VGA, EGA, CGA, or Her- 
cules graphics card. 
Price: $149. 

Contact: BMDP Statistical 
Software, Inc., 1440 Sepul- 
veda Blvd., Los Angeles, CA 
90025, (213) 479-7799. 
Inquiry 774. 



Preview AutoCAD 
Drawings 

Whether you're using 
AutoCAD or not, you 
can pop out of whatever pro- 
gram you're in and take a look 
at an AutoCAD (DWG) draw- 
ing with SoftWest Quick-See. 
Because it is a stand-alone 
program, you don't need Auto- 
CAD to run it. The manufac- 
turer reports that it displays a 
drawing at close to AutoCAD 
Redraw speeds. 

SoftWest Quick-See runs 
on the IBM PC and compat- 
ibles with DOS 2. 1 or higher, 
256K bytes of RAM, and a 
Hercules monochrome 
display adapter, EGA, CGA, 
or VGA. A math coprocessor 
and a hard disk drive are not 
required. 
Price: $99. 
Contact: The Great 
SoftWestern Company, Inc., 
207 West Hickory St., Suite 
202, Denton, TX 76201, (800) 
231-6880; in Texas, (817) 
383-4434. 
Inquiry 775. 

continued 



80 BYTE" AUGUST 1988 




NO OTHER DESKTOP 

PUBLISHING SYSTEM OFFERS 

THIS FEATURE. 



With the new Mannes- 
mann Tally 8 Universal™ Publishing 
System, you can practically fly. 

Thanks to a Raster Image 
Processor board that plugs directly 
into your PC or compatible, you'll 
process your pages at a speed lim- 
ited only by the speed of your 
computer. Not -as is typical— at 
the speed of the printer. And you'll 
transfer ready-to-print data directly 
to the printer through a video 
interface at an incredible 3-million 
bits per second. 

So when you're using the 
PostScript® compatible interpreter, 
you'll produce a printed page 
almost twice as fast as most other 
systems. But that's just ground 
speed. 

If you use Aldus® Page - 
Maker or Ventura Publisher) 8 you'll 

Circle 135 on Reader Service Card (DEALERS: 




■ Systems: 

1 . Universal Publishing System (includes a 
PostScript compatible interpreter and Docu- 
ment Description Language (DDL)) 

2. DDL Publishing System (DDL only), 
i Resolution: 300 x 300 dpi. 

i Emulations: Both systems include HP* 
LaserJet. 

i Memory: 2 Mg. 

i Typefaces: UPS includes 35 typefaces, DDL 
System includes 22 typefaces. 

i Speed: 10 pages-per-minute. 

i Dual paper cassettes standard, 250 sheets 
each. 

i Dual output bins standard, 250 sheets each. 

i Manual feed handles single sheets, enve- 
lopes, transparencies, and labels. 

i Workload: 10,000 pages-per-month. 



136) 



really take off. Because when you 
select DDL instead of the PostScript 
compatible interpreter, you'll double 
that speed again. And with full page 
bitmap graphics, you can get print- 
ed output up to 17 times as fast. 

So call the number below 
for the name of your nearest dealer 
and log in your time on the New 
Mannesmann Tally Universal 
Publishing System. A pilot's license 
is not required. 

MANNESMANN 
TALLY 

1-800-843-1347 

Ext. 130 

In Washington state, call: 

206-251-5524 Ext. 130 

Test results available upon request. PostScript is a registered trade- 
mark of Adobe Systems, Inc. DDL is a registered trademark of 
Imagen Corp. Ventura Publisher is a registered trademark of Ven- 
tura Corp. Pagemaker is a registered trademark of Aldus Corp. 

AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 81 





,,,.,;■ 



' CITIZEN 



.':'::":/":;'. 








.ifi^" 






. . :■ ■ ■ ■■■; ■ 



...,.:. .■.■"'. 





Introducing our newest family of 9-wire dot-matrix 
printers.The re -engineered MSP series ; featuring the latest 
advances in print technology. 

lb begin with, theyfe 50% faster. In the draft printing 
mode ; the MSP- 40 and 45 top out at 240 cps. And the 
MSP- 50 and 55 have a maximum cruising speed of 300 cps. 

Each model features a ne w ; bidirectional print mechanism, 
that can generate brilliant graphics resolution. And the new 
MSP- 50 and 55 can produce crisp, near-letter-quality print 
with even better throughput. 

We also made it easier to load the MSE series. 

The paper bale has been replaced with a built-in convert- 
ible push or pull paper tractor. And the sleek new redesign 



82 BYTE* AUGUST 1988 





CITIZEN 



///////lit 



\ •■■■■■• ' '. 
■Ip CITIZEN" 






//lit 



now incorporates a rear or bottom feed. Real handy if you're 
printing labels, forms, cards or stationery. 

As for convenience, youll also appreciate the front panel 
controls, the outstariffiig compatibility and the wide selection 
of typestyles via available font cards.Tneres even color capa- 
bility on the deluxe MSP- 50 and 55. 

All in all, the MSP series, with an 18-month warranty 
represents an excellent value in precision- butft printers.Wnich, 
considering Citizen's tradition, isn't all that new 

For the dealer nearest you, call 1-800-556-1234, Ext. 34. 
In California/call 1-800- ^=^ r^wrrvwrwTfTkt 

441-2345, Ext. 34. ^dll/hlN \ 



©1988 Citizen America Corporation. Citizen and the 
Citizen logo are trademarks of Citizen Watch Co., ltd. 



Printers that run like clockwork. 



AUGUST 1988 • B Y T E 83 



WHAT'S NEW 



SOFTWARE • BUSINESS 



Slideshow 
on the Desktop 

Now you can create slides 
with access to 16.8 mil- 
lion colors on a Mac II to use 
in your desktop presentations. 
Microsoft has enhanced 
PowerPoint 2.0 with templates 
that have built-in color 
schemes, background effects, 
and fonts. Other added fea- 
tures include a spelling 
checker and a f ind-and- 
replace command. 

To take advantage of the 
preselected color schemes, you 
select a background color, 
and the program suggests con- 
trasting colors. If you merge 
slides into other presentations, 
you can choose different 
color schemes, with all ele- 
ments of the slide converting 
to the new color scheme. 

The spelling checker 
comes with a main dictionary 
that you can supplement with 
your own words. Word-pro- 
cessing features of the pro- 
gram include tabs and decimal 
tabs, variable line and para- 
graph spacing, and five out- 
line-like levels for bulleted 
copy points. 

The program also lets you 
import graphics from Mac- 
Point, PICT, and EPSE file 
formats. Using the Macintosh 
Clipboard, you can incorpo- 
rate graphics in any format, 
according to Microsoft. You 
can also incorporate black- 
and-white graphics and then 
color them. 

PowerPoint 2.0 runs on the 
Mac Plus, SE, or II running 
System 4. 1 or higher with 1 
megabyte of RAM and two 
800K-byte floppy disk drives 
or a hard disk drive. The soft- 
ware is compatible with Ap- 
pleShare and MultiFinder. 
Price: $395. 

Contact: Microsoft Corp. , 
16011 Northeast 36th Way, 
P.O. Box 97017, Redmond, 
WA 98073, (206)882-8080. 
Inquiry 777. 



LEET ORGANIZATI 

Christopher %3J Columbus 



V.Y. Pinz6n 

Captain 



i-S.R. deGaira 

Pilot 



MA. Pin26n 

Captain 

F.M. Pin26n 

Master 

-C.G. Xalmiento 

Pilot 



SANTA MARIA 

I C.Columbus 
Captain 



Sample desktop presentation slide from PowerPoint 2. 0. 



Make Your 
Commodore 64/128 
a Desktop Publisher 

Create multiple-column 
page layouts on the Com- 
modore 64 and 128 (in 64 
emulation) with PaperClip 
Publisher from Electronic 
Arts. 

You can create documents 
of up to 50 pages in length; 
manipulate text and graphics 
with ruler, margin, and col- 
umn guides; enlarge pages 
with the magnify mode; and 
resize boxes and have text 
flow between them. 

A text editor is included, 
and the font converter utility 
lets you convert fonts from 
popular word processors. You 
can also import text files 
from PaperClip II and other 
word processors. 

The built-in graphics edi- 
tor lets you import and edit 
graphics from other pro- 
grams. You can also choose 
from a variety of box back- 
grounds and outlines, and you 
can work on pages from 3 by 
3 inches to 8 by 14 inches with 
as many columns as you 
want. PaperClip Publisher also 
supports a wide variety of 
printers. 

The program runs on the 
Commodore 64 and 128 with 



64KbytesofRAM,al541 
or 1571 floppy disk drive, and 
a mouse or joystick. 
Price: $49.95. 
Contact: Electronic Arts, 
1820 Gateway Dr., San Mateo, 
CA 94404, (415)571-7171. 
Inquiry 778. 



1-2-C Compiler 

Compile 1-2-C converts 
your worksheets into C 
source code instead of 
BASIC. It also handles more 
than just Lotus files and will 
compile any .WKS files. 

Once your worksheets are 
compiled, you don't need the 
original spreadsheet pro- 
gram, as the worksheets be- 
come stand-alone .EXE files. 

Compile 1-2-C, formerly 
known as LTS2C, runs on the 
IBM PC, XT, AT, and com- 
patibles with 640K bytes of 
RAM and a 1.5-megabyte 
hard disk drive. The program 
works with Lotus 1-2-3 re- 
leases 1A and 2.01 and works 
with all 1-2-3 commands ex- 
cept Graph and Window. The 
program is not copy- 
protected. 
Price: $299. 

Contact: Resource Analysis 
International Corp. , 12581 
Venice Blvd., Los Angeles, 
CA 90066, (213)390-7661. 
Inquiry 779. 



A Helping Hand 
from Handi 

The makers of Handi call 
it "information integra- 
tion software." It's one pro- 
gram that combines a database 
manager, word processor, 
calendar, scheduler with 
alarms, and report generator. 
You can run it as either a 
stand-alone or a memory-res- 
ident program. 

HandiBase is the database 
manager. Each database holds 
a maximum of 65,500 B-tree 
indexed records. Each record 
can contain up to 4090 bytes 
of structured and free-form 
data. Each database can sup- 
port up to 20 structured fields. 

HandiWord is a word pro- 
cessor that performs word 
wrap, text block manipula- 
tion, find/replace, cut/paste, 
import, export, and other test 
manipulation functions. It han- 
dles large documents of up to 
60,000 characters. 

The program's calendar 
module is called Handi- 
Scheduler, and it features an 
alarm that you can set to re- 
mind you of appointments or 
other events. When the alarm 
goes off, a small window 
pops up on the screen when 
you're in other programs, 
and some text reminds you of 
why the alarm has gone off. 

HandiReport is the report 
generator, and it lets you print 
form letters, labels, business 
reports, invoices, and more. 

Handi runs on the IBM 
PC, XT, AT, and compatibles 
with DOS 2. 1 or higher and 
74K bytes of free RAM. 
Price: $49. 

Contact: HandiCorp, Inc., 
17080 142nd Place NE, P.O. 
Box 1263, Woodinville, WA 
98072, (800) 451-3496; in 
Washington, (206) 481-7026. 
Inquiry 780. 

continued 



84 BYTE* AUGUST 1988 




EmulateThe Best 
WthThe Brightest 

There's no denying the availability of some outstanding dedicated terminals to 
access Digitalf Hewlett-Packard, and Data General® host systems. Which makes the 
task of precisely emulating the performance of those dedicated terminals on an 
IBM® PC or compatible a rather significant challenge. 

Based on the feedback we've received from Smaflerm® users, our family of 
terminal emulation software has met the challenge, passed every test, and surpassed, 
in the opinion of a host of enthusiastic users, the performance of the host system 
terminals being emulated. 

The reasons why we shine are fundamental. 

Every Smaflerm emulation is precise. So precise, in fact, that a dedicated 
terminal's Smaflerm counterpart fully emulates not only advanced performance 
features but also unique terminal quirks and bugs. 

Every Smaflerm emulation is easy to use. It's one thing to make software do 
what hardware does. It's another challenge to minimize software's human wear. The 
people designing our products understand the nature of the people using them. 

Every Smaflerm emulation is easy to learn. These days, training costs are a hot 
topic. Software intended to boost overall system efficiency must recognize the value 
of learning speed. We have. 

It's also easy to learn more about how Smaflerm emulations can help you 
shine. Your software dealer can supply all the details. Or you can contact us at 
(608) 273-6000 to request complete specifications and a demonstration disk of the 
Smaflerm emulation that precisely matches your requirements. npfCftff'* 

© 1988 Pcrsoft, Inc., 465 Science Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53711 U.S.A. Persoft and SmarTerm are registered trademarks of Persoft. Inc. All Rights Reserved. IBM is a registered trademark of 
International Business Machines Corporation. Digital is a registered trademark of Digital Equipment Corporation. Data General is a registered trademark of Data General Corporation. 



Circle 173 on Reader Service Card 



AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 85 



WHAT'S NEW 



SOFTWARE 'CONNECTIVITY 



1 0-Net Software Offers OS/2 Support and More 



NetBIOS compatibility, 
electronic mail, en- 
hanced network software, 
and support for OS/2 are 
added to 10-Net Plus local- 
area-network (LAN) soft- 
ware. 

The E-mail package 
added is Network Courier 
from Consumers Software. 
It supports large mail net- 



works and has the ability to 
link various mail servers to- 
gether. It also features net- 
work-monitoring tools and a 
chat utility. 

lONet recently unbundled 
the software, making it 
available for IBM Token 
Ring and Ethernet systems. 
Applications written for pre- 
vious versions of 10-Net will 



run on 10-Net Plus, accord- 
ing to lONet Communica- 
tions. 

Price: $395 per node for 
IBM Token Ring version 
(unbundled). 

Contact: lONet Communi- 
cations, 7016 Corporate 
Way, Dayton, OH 45459, 
(513)433-2238. 
Inquiry 782. 



Make Connections 
with Reunion 

Reunion software lets you 
access and process infor- 
mation between an IBM PC, 
an asynchronous host main- 
frame, and minicomputers. It 
provides two-way communica- 
tion between host computers 
and PC applications, terminal 
emulation, file transfer, 
multitasking, and program de- 
velopment. The program's 
multitasking ability lets you 
run it in the background of 
other application programs, 
transferring files, sending 
mail, or retrieving host infor- 
mation, while you continue to 
use the application program 
in the foreground. 

The program is menu- 
driven and contains a dialing 
directory and help. To fur- 
ther simplify use of the pro- 
gram, you can redefine or re- 
map any key on your PC 
keyboard. You can also 
create macros with Reunion, 
automating repetitive tasks so 
that one keystroke can perform 
a series of commands. 

A Writer facility lets you 
create, modify, compile, and 
test scripts. It also imports 
any ASCII editor for use with- 
in Reunion. A Learn facility 



lets you automate communica- 
tions sessions, allowing you 
to alter scripts. The Connect 
facility offers a modular 
structure for connecting to 
host computers and informa- 
tion services. It also includes a 
dialing directory. 

Reunion's application lan- 
guage, Resource, contains 
about 75 commands that let 
you read and write to PC files, 
initiate and control other PC 
applications, call other scripts 
as subroutines, and let the 
host computer initiate PC 
applications. 

Terminals emulated in- 
clude the IBM 3101 Character 
Mode; DEC VT-220, VT- 
100, and VT-52; generic TTY; 
and PC7171 for protocol con- 
verters. Methods of file trans- 
fer include XMODEM and 
YMODEM, Kermit, Link- 
ware, and nonprotocol 
ASCII. 

To run Reunion you'll 
need an IBM PC or PS/2 with 
DOS 2.0 or higher and at 
least 384K bytes of RAM, with 
at least 512K bytes needed 
for Linkware file transfers. 
You also need an asynchro- 
nous COM1 port, a COM2 
port, or a Net/One network 
adapter, and a CGA, EGA, 
VGA, or IBM monochrome 
adapter. 
Price: $175. 

Contact: Westford Harbor 
Co. , 288 Littleton Rd. , POB 
240, Westford, MA 01886, 
(617) 692-9440. 
Inquiry 781. 



Networking 
with DataEase 

DataEase, a database 
management program, is 
now available in a network 
version. Applications you've 
developed with single-user 
DataEase can run on DataEase 
LAN with a single keystroke, 
the company reports. 

The LAN version provides 
three record-locking and two 
file-locking strategies for 
viewing and editing shared 
data. It also has a MultiView 
feature, which shows you 
multiple related files with 
one keystroke. 

With DataEase LAN 1.1, 
you can have 26 databases per 
directory, up to 255 files per 
database, and up to 255 reports 
per database. It also provides 
B-tree indexing, wild-card 
searches, and 99 predefined 
choice fields. You can import 
DataEase, Lotus, dBASE II 
and III, DIF, ASCII, and mail- 
merge files, and you can ex- 
port to Lotus, DIF, Multi- 
Mate, ASCII, mail-merge, 
and GrafTalk file formats. 

DataEase LAN 1 . 1 runs 
on the IBM PC, XT, AT, 3270 
PC, PS/2s, and compatibles 
with at least 640K bytes of 
RAM. You also need an in- 
terface card supported by the 



DOS 3.1 network interface or 
Novell Netware 86 or 286 ver- 
sion 2.0a or higher. The 
database management program 
runs with Banyan VINES 

2.1, 3Com EtherSeries and 3 + 

1.2, IBM PC LAN 1.1, No- 
vell Netware 86/286 2.0a or 
higher, and the AT&T 
StarLAN. 

Price: $700; $900 for the 
Workstation pack, which pro- 
vides access for three addi- 
tional PCs. 

Contact: DataEase Interna- 
tional, Inc., 7 Cambridge Dr., 
Trumbull, CT 0661 1,(800) 
243-5123; in Connecticut, 
(203) 374-8000. 
Inquiry 783. 



Macintosh E-Mail 
System 

Macintosh users can add 
the ability to communi- 
cate electronically over 
AppleTalk networks with 
QuickMail. This desk acces- 
sory offers an automatic log-in 
option, log-in/log-out, and 
password security. 

With QuickMail you can 
have real-time private or public 
conferences; you can also 
generate a transcript of the 
conferences. A public bulle- 
tin board is included, and you 
can invoke a privacy feature 
for a specified length of time. 

You can forward messages 
to other users, print them out, 
or save them to disk. You can 
also attach up to 16 files or 
clipboards per message and 
reply to or edit sent messages. 

The program works on 
networks with the Macintosh 
512KE systems and higher 
with at least one hard disk 
drive. It is compatible with 
AppleShare, TOPS, and Mac- 
Serve networks. 
Price: $300 per 10 users. 
Contact: CE Software, 1854 
Fuller Rd. , West Des Moines, 
IA 50265, (515)224-1995. 
Inquiry 784. 

continued 



86 BYTE' AUGUST 1988 



FACT: 

MORE AND MORE PEOPLE 
ARE SWITCHING TO 
TOPSPEED MODULA-2 



"JPl Modula-2 looks like another 
classic in the making. It gener- 
ates code as good as or better 
than leading C compilers and the 
programming environment is a 
genuine pleasure to use. At the 
price it's a tremendous bargain, 
and with luck it just might do for 
Modula what Turbo has done 
for Pascal. " 
Dick Pountain 
Byte Information Exchange 
short. takes conference 

"/ liked all of the hard-disk space 
that was recovered after I deleted 
my BORLAND. MICROSOFT, 
and LOGITECH compilers, 
because with TopSpeed Mod- 
ula-2 all the rest are obsolete. " 

Robert D. Randall 

Donnelley Marketing 



The successor of Pascal: JPI TopSpeed Modula-2 produces 
better code than Microsoft C, Turbo C, Logitech Modula-2, 
and Turbo Pascal 4.0. 

JPI TopSpeed Modula-2 is a professional Modula-2 
development system with full support of memory models, 
multi-tasking, long data types, structured constants, long 
and short pointers, 80X87 inline code and emulator, sepa- 
rate compilation, direct BIOS/DOS calls, etc. The com- 
prehensive library includes CGA, EGA and VGA graphics 
support, math functions, sorting, file handling, window 
management, a time-sliced process scheduler and more. 

The Compiler Kit includes: High-speed optimizing compiler, integrated 
menu-driven environment with multi-window/multi-file editor, auto- 
matic make, fast smart linker. All Modula-2 sources to libraries included. 
BONUS: Complete high-speed window management module included 
with source. 258-page User's Manual and 190-page Language Tutorial. 

The TechKit includes: Assembler source for start-up code and run-time 
library, JPI TopSpeed Assembler (30,000 lines/min), TSR module, 
communications driver, PROM locator, dynamic overlays, and tech- 
nical information. 72-page manual. 

System Requirements: IBM PC or compatible. 384K RAM, two floppy 
drives (hard disk recommended). 

Circle 115 on Reader Service Card 




TopSpeed 's seamlessly integrated 
environment. 





VID, the Visual Interface 
Debugger, coming soon. 



12 3 4 




J 




i 






? 


Sets 


Mtir«oftCV5.l 


IHrfctCVI.5 


U fl ir«,hModul O JV3.0 ||| 


TwbBPMtfllV4.il j|\ 





Sieve benchmark measured by 
the British Standards Institution 
(BSI)—25 iterations on an 
8MHz AT. 

Compiler Kit $99.95. 
TechKit $59.95. 

To Order: 

In the US & Canada, call: 
1-800-443-0100 

Ext 255, 24 Hours. 
Or mail us your order with 
a check, money order, or 
VISA/MC information. 
30-day unconditional 
money-back guarantee. 

Shipping & handling charges: 
In North America: Add $5.00 ship- 
ping & handling, plus $2.00 for 
each additional product. Overseas: 
Add $20.00 shipping & handling, 
plus $8.00 for each additional 
product. 

Jensen & 

Partners 

International 

1101 San Antonio Rd, Suite 301 
Mountain View CA 94043 
Phone: (415) 967-3200 

In England and Europe contact: 

Jensen & Partners UK Ltd. , 63 
Clerkenwell Rd., London EC1M 
5NP. Phone: (01) 253-4333. 
Compiler Kit £59.95, (add £4.69 
for VAT & handling in the UK; 
£4.00 handling in Europe). Tech- 
Kit £34.95 (add £4.03 for VAT & 
handling in the UK; £4.00 hand- 
ling in Europe). 

TopSpeed is a trademark of Jensen & Partners 
International. Other brand and product names 
are trademarks or registered trademarks of 
their respective holders. 




WHAT'S NEW 



SOFTWARE • OTHER 



Design Your Own 
Logo 

Using an IBM PC with a 
Truevision TARGA or 
VISTA graphics board and 
Flamingo's Logo Editor, you 
can create logos and 
illustrations. 

The object-oriented draw- 
ing program lets you trace or 
create illustrations with 
smooth antialiased edges. The 
Logo Editor comes with ob- 
ject types such as curves, 
ovals, arcs, circles, lines, 
rectangles, irregular polygons, 
and text. You can choose ob- 
jects from pop-up menus and 
manipulate them with a 
mouse or graphics tablet. You 
can also group, ungroup, ro- 
tate, flip, move, copy, scale, 
stretch, delete, and undelete 
objects. 

You can edit the text that 
comes with the cubic spline 
outline definitions and incor- 
porate the text into your logos. 
Eight outline fonts are 
provided. 

Layout tools include flat, 
gradient, or TARGA image 
background styles; and grids, 
resident color palettes, and 
color creation models. You 
can render your work on- 
screen through an antialias- 
ing process that smooths the 
curves and lines. You can 
also store your designs as logos 
or as fonts. Logo files are 
read back into the Logo Editor 
and printed onto any TARGA 
image file. Font files are com- 
patible with Flamingo 
Graphics' RIO. 

Logo Editor runs on the 
IBM PC AT and compatibles 
with at least 640K bytes of 
RAM and a 10-megabyte hard 
disk drive. You also need a 
TARGA frame buffer and an 
analog RGB or composite 
monitor. The company also 
recommends Expanded 
Memory Specification mem- 
ory and a math coprocessor. 




An illustration created with Flamingo 's Logo Editor. 



mssam 

Mrg«iirrffl,'iil:HJill!i 



IGINII B-POINT C-POINT X-POINT Y-POINT 2-P 
t ORIGIN from keyboard 



MAP COORDINATE VALUES (Insert from keyboard) 



TABLET COORDINATES (Digitize these values) 



ORIGIN.- 5665.000 NORTH 



14425.000 EAST i 



POINT Y: 6690.000 



POINT Z: 10710.000 



HotDij matches digitizer data to other programs. 



Price: $895. 

Contact: Flamingo Graphics, 

875 Main St., Cambridge, MA 

02139,(617)661-1001. 

Inquiry 785. 



Digitize Me 

Place data from a digi- 
tizer tablet directly into 
your word processor, spread- 
sheet, or other programs with 
HotDij , a memory-resident 
utility. 

HotDij contains prepro- 
grammed control characters to 



match the digitizer data to 
your other programs. You can 
also define up to four addi- 
tional sets of control charac- 
ters. The program adds con- 
trol characters to enter the data 
into columns on the monitor. 
It adjusts for drawing scale and 
corrects for drawing place- 
ment errors. HotDij keeps 
track of changes in scale or 
drawing location, as well as the 
application in use. Whenever 
you reboot, HotDij remembers 
your previous application and 
sets up for it. The program 
allows for keyboard input and 
accepts ASCII input to the 
digitizer. 

HotDij is menu-driven. It 
also offers you a selection of 



34 predefined digitizer inter- 
faces. When you install the 
program, you must match the 
report format of the digitizer 
tablet to your computer. 

Designed to run on the 
IBM PC and compatibles, 
you'll need at least 64K bytes 
of free RAM and an asynchro- 
nous communications port. 
The program comes with a 
wiring adapter to connect 
your system with a digitizer. 
Geocomp reports that the 
program works with any digi- 
tizer that sends ASCII. 
Price: $335. 

Contact: Geocomp Ltd., 749 
Van Gordon Court, Golden, 
CO 80401, (303) 233-1250. 
Inquiry 786. 



Perk Up 
Your Output 

If your standard 9-pin dot- 
matrix printer produces 
dull-looking output, The 
Image Printing Utilities may 
be able to help. The program 
achieves higher-quality output 
by making three print passes 
over each line, with a different 
pattern of dots each time. 
The dot density is 216 dots per 
inch vertically by 240 dpi 
horizontally. 

The program includes 16 
fonts, and all except the 
Graphics font include the en- 
tire character set of an IBM 
Graphics Printer. 

The program takes up 35K 
bytes of RAM for each font 
loaded. It runs on the IBM 
PC and compatibles with DOS 
2.0 or higher and at least 
128K bytes of RAM. 
Price: $89.95. 
Contact: Image Computer 
Systems, P.O. Box 647, Avon, 
CT 06001, (203) 678-8771. 
Inquiry 787. 



88 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 



» 



H^. 



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One picture is worth a thousand words! 

Kiss those endless upgrade fees goodbye! After well over three years of development, RIX is 
pleased to announce the Final Version of our EGA specific graphics editor, EGA Paint 2005. RIX 
was the first (and still the only) graphics, software company to introduce an EGA specific 
graphics editor, the first to create a combination TARGA™ image translator and print package, 
the first to release a VGA specific hi-res graphics editor (in July), and now the first to 
release a final version of any software program ... ever! We at RIX had originally planned 
to release a separate package to implement desktop publishing capabilities but when the 
release date arrived, we felt our loyal users deserved a fully self-contained graphics package. 
Now RIX has made it possible for you to make a little history too with EGA Paint 2005 Final 
Version, At $129.00, surely the best value in graphics programs ever! Find out why. Order 
today! RIX SoftWorks, always the best ... for less! 



COMING IN JULY 

COLORIX VGA PAINT! 

ColoRIX VGA Paint is the cat's meow for your Hi-Res VGA system! 
ColoRIX supports all modes of VGA and has time saving features 
like: Automatic color graduation generation, block palette freeup, 
image drag for 3D effects, a completely self-contained presenta- 
tion package which has animation capabilities, and much more. 
We'll be shipping in July, first come, first served so get your order 
in now! Only $199.00! 



REX SoftWorks, Inc. 

18552 MacArthur Bl. • Suite 375 • Irvine, CA 92715 • (714) 476-8266 

CALL US TOLL FREE: 
In CA (800) 233-5983 Outside CA; (800) 345-9058 



Circle 420 on Reader Service Card (DEALERS: 421) 



AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 88PC-1 



REGIONAL 



What's New 



PACIFIC COAST 



Data for Here, 
or to Go 

The Disk Pack has two 
slots that hold removable 
hard disks (20 to 160 mega- 
bytes) and is fully compatible 
with Macintosh, Apple, IBM 
PC, XT, AT, and compatible 
computers, according to 
Mega Drive Systems. 

The base, which contains 
the two slots for the removable 
hard disks, has a SCSI inter- 
face bus and a Mac-compatible 
connector. You can choose 
between several formatted 
capacities for the hard disks: 
20, 45, 70, 120, or 160 
megabytes. Each weighs 
about 2!/2 pounds, and you 
can daisy-chain disk packs 
to hold as much as 1 gigabyte 




Disk Pack works with IBM PCs, Macs, and Apple computers. 



of on-line data. 

Disk Pack connects di- 
rectly to the Mac Plus, SE, and 
II through the SCSI port. A 
SCSI board is required to con- 
nect the Disk Pack to an 
Apple He, Ik, IIGS or Mac 
128K, 512K, or512Ke. SCSI 
connector kits ($469 for IBM 
PC, XT, AT, or compatibles 
and $749 for the PS/2 series) 
are also available. 
Price: Base (two-slot), $699. 
Modules: $849, 20-megabyte; 
$1299, 45-megabyte; $1599, 
70-megabyte; $1999, 120- 
megabyte; price not available 
for the 160-megabyte. 
Contact: Mega Drive Sys- 
tems, 1801 Avenue of the 
Stars, Suite 507, Los Ange- 
les, CA 90067, (213) 556-1628 
or (800) 322-4744. 
Inquiry 835. 

continued 



If s the Dawn of the Information Age . . 



The new modem$ with built-in 
data compression are all the rage. 
Trouble i$, they use the Limpel-Ziv 
algorithm— something le$$ than op- 
timal! 

The centerpiece of the FlySpeed 
Collection is st/exp, the first com- 
mercial implementation of Fly 
Coding, st/exp compresses text files 
typically to 30% or less of their 
original size, at rates of over 1000 
words per second, allowing you not 
only to communicate faster, but also 
save valuable disk space. 

But now that you can communi- 
cate and store information so much 
more efficiently, you need a more ef- 
ficient way of creating it. So we 
created Typing Demon, a spin-off 
of our work on communication aids 
for the handicapped. Typing Demon 
partially automates typing, speeding 
word-processing by 25% or more. 
Nothing revolutionary— just the dif- 
ference between finishing the after- 
noon's word-processing at 4:45, ver- 
sus 6:00 p.m. 




Do yon know where your 

Optimal Representation 

of Language is? 




Microcomputer Square 

126 Hancock Avenue 

Spartanburg, S.C. 29302 

(803) 583-9655 



With "d," FlySpeed's user- 
friendly directory program, you'll 
be able to look at your files sorted by 
file name, file date, etc. And you'll 
be able to page back and forth 
through long directories to your 
heart's content. (Say goodbye to 
directories scrolling off-screen.) 

And when Merlin, the text- 
retrieval member of FlySpeed, 
debuts in January, you'll not only be 
able to create, communicate, and 
store information more quickly and 
efficiently, but you'll actually be able 
to find it later! Instantly, based upon 
any word or combination of words 
in a document. Because Fly Coding 
is inherently indexed. 

You wouldn't expect computers of 
the 21st century to store and com- 
municate information in the same 
inefficient format used in the 1950s. 
Now, for just 75 bucks, neither will 
yours. 



88PC-2 BYTE* AUGUST 1988 



Circle 417 on Reader Service Card 



Great Software for your PC - 
$2 per disk (Reg. $6) 

We are making this special offer to introduce you to membership in PC-SIG: 
The World's Largest Source of Low Cost Software for the IBM-PC and com- 
patibles. PC-SIG disks are normally $6 each (less with membership) and come 
packed full of Shareware - software marketed in the revolutionary new way that 
allows you to try out a program before registering it with the author. PC-SIG 
provides your gateway to this software with the bimonthly SHAREWARE 
Magazine, Hotsheets and a 424+ page software directory. All this for a yearly 
membership fee of $20 (USA). 

Some of the advantages of buying from PC-SIG: We are the oldest and largest 
Shareware vendor. Our disks are the latest versions. Free technical support by 
phone. Most complete library of Shareware: over 1000 disks. 48 hour shipping. 




Join PC-SIG and receive 424 page directory, bi-monthly 
Shareware Magazine, Hotsheets and special discounts. 



Take any disk listed in this ad - 
$2 each - when you join today! 
Offer expires August 31, 1988. 



Communications 



D 499 PROCOMM: Extremely versatile telecommunications. 
□ 310,1022,1023 Q-MODEM: A layorite. Let's your computer 
talk via phone. 

[ ] 212,334,621 RBBS-PC: Set up your own bulletin board. 



Computer Languages/Education 



□ 577, 578 C TUTOR: Learn C language. 

Q 965 PASCAL COMPILER: Full-screen editor, incremental 
compiler and more. 

□ 254 PC-DOS HELP: Gives you on-line help to remember 
those DOS commands. 

□ 105 PC-PROFESSOR: Learn beginning BASIC. 

□ 775-778 PSEUDOSAM: Macro assemblers & debuggers tor 
many popular microprocessors, including 8088/86/286S. 

□ 481 STILL RIVER SHELL: Menued DOS commands. Makes 
life easier. 

D 403 TUTOR.COM: Learn beginning DOS. 



Databases 



□ 287,288 FILE EXPRESS: Customize, menu driven data 
base. 

□ 5, 730, 1015 PC-FILE+: The most powerful and popular 
data base. 

□ 830 WAMPUM: dBase III clone, but easier to use. (Hard disk 
req) 



Educational 



I. 1 844 ABC FUN KEYS: For ages 2-5. Teaches the alphabet. 

□ 612 FOREIGN LANGUAGES: Beginning Spanish, French. 
German S Italian. 

□ 229 FUNNELS & BUCKETS: Fun game teaches younger 
children arithmetic. 

□ 320 PC-TOUCH: Typing tutor. (Color Req) 

□ 477 WORDGAMES: Stimulates the intellect. 



Financial 



□ 164, 773 CASHTRAC: Manage checking accounts, track 
investments. 

□ 151 FINANCE MANAGER II: Double entry bookkeeping. 
LI 469,470 MR. BILL: Itemize invoices, age accounts, etc. 

□ 331 PC-GENERAL LEDGER: Written by a top financial 
manager. 

IJ 575 PC-STOCK: Track & evaluate stock trends. (Color req) 



Games 



□ 452 AMULET OF YENDOR: Hack, a dungeons & dragons 
adventure game. 

□ 708 BACKGAMMON: You against the computer. Also, 
Wheel of Fortune. 

i I 780 BRIDGE PAL: Computer plays 3 hands. 

□ 228 CRIBBAGE: And a few other games as well. 

Circle 419 on Reader Service Card 



457 GREATEST ARCADE GAMES: Flightmare, Jump Joe, 
Spacewar (Color req.) 

i 476 PATRICK'S BEST GAMES: Bugs Centipede, 3-D 
Packman, Castle. Packgal. Spacevad. 
557 PINBALL RALLY: 3 great games ol dexterity and 
speed. (Color req.) 
1 120 PC-CHESS: Your move... 
791 POKER: Play draw poker head to head. Or try some 
Blackjack. 

694 SLEUTH: A murder has been committed... 
1 97 TWO TREKS: Beam me up, Scottie! 
891 WHEEL OF MISFORTUNE: Spin the wheel, win or go 
bankrupt! 



Graphics 



(Most require CGA or EGA Card) 

□ 701-704 DANCAD 3D (4 disks): Create and animate 3d 

drawings. (Hard disk req) 

1 828 EDRAW: Draw flowcharts, schematics, even printed 

circuits! 

1 763 FINGER PAINT: A 3d wire Irame modeling program. 

(Runs also with Hercules Card.) 

870 HGCIBM: Run color graphics programs with your 

Hercules Card! 

788 IMAGE 3-D (EGA ver.): Create, view, edit 3d objects. 
: ] 762 IMAGE 3-D (CGA ver.) 

1 1001 MAC PASTE: Read, save, edit and print Readmac or 

Mac Paint pictures. 
[ ] 344.345,1032 PC-KEYDRAW: Graphics and 

"slideshow" presentations. 
. ] 244 SLIDE GENERATION: Create slides/transparencies. 



Home & Hobbies 



□ 966 ASTROLOGY 94: Calculate and print charts. 
! ! 361 . 632 FAMILY HISTORY: Trace your family tree. 
! ! 929 LOTTO: Will this really help you win the lottery? 
' 395 HOME INVENTORY: Keep track of everything you own. 



i 127 PC-MUSICIAN: Compose and play your song. 
279 PIANOMAN: Plays your music or its own in chords. 




AUTOMENU: Create easy access menus for your hard 



drive. 

i 824 DESK COMMANDO: Tools to tame your hard drive. 
I J 404 EZ-FORMS: Create your own business forms. 
□ 388 FORM LETTERS: Variety of business letter formats. 

483 MAILMONSTER: Add, edit, sort and print labels by 

categories. 
] 405 PC-DESK TEAM: In memory calculator, calendar, 

phone dialer, alarm & more! 



Printers 



11517 IMAGE PRINT: Letter quality Irom your dot matrix. 
! 1718 LQ PRINTER: Print fancy fonts on your dot matrix. 
: 523 SIDEWRITER: Print banners or wide spreadsheets. 



Religion 



974 BIBLE QUIZ PLUS: Learn the Bible trivia game. 
766-772 THE BIBLE (7 disks): King James version. 
581, 582 WORD WORKER: Performs text searches of 
words in the Bible. 



Security/Hacking 



598 MASTER KEY: Like Norton Utilities. Recover lost files, 
etc. 

1 414 UNPROTECT/PROTECT: Copy a variety of copy 
protected disks. 



Spreadsheets 



524,525 EXPRESS CALC: Powerful but friendly 

spreadsheet. 

199,1016,1017 PC-CALC: Like Lotus 1-2-3 but easier. 



Word Processing 



719 LETTER WRITER: Print out "personalized" letters. 
! 1 528 NEW YORK WORD: Allows split screen, mail merge & 

more. 

480 PC-OUTLINE: Like ThinkTank. Organize your ideas & 

thoughts. 

455,681 .682 PC-TYPE: Jim Button's own word processor. 

Has it all. 
[ 1 78, 627 PC-WRITE: Powerful, multi featured, spelling 

checker, laser support. 



r^ 



Please send the disks I have checked above. 

disks x $2 each = 



~l 



1 year PC-SIG Membership 

3 1/2"- add $1 per disk 
FREE Shipping and Handling 
Amount enclosed 

By: Check Visa 

Card No: 

Exp. 



$20.00 



M/C 



-Sig. 



Name 



Address, 
City: 



_ State _ 



Zip_ 



PC-SIG 



1= 



pc-sig 746 

1 030D East Duane Ave 
Sunnyvale, CA 94086 

Offer valid in USA only - Dealer Inquiries Invited I 



Order By Phone: 

800/245-6717 
(In Calif. 800/222-2996) 



AUGUST 1988 'BYTE 88PC-3 



REGIONAL 
WHAT'S NEW 



PACIFIC COAST 



Borland's Turbo 
Prolog 2.0 

Prolog 2.0 features a 
database system with 
tools for developing and 
maintaining large databases 
and an interpreter that you 
can build into applications that 
require metaprogramming 
capabilities. You can also mod- 
ify the interpreter to handle a 
new logic programming lan- 
guage, inference engine, or 
expert shell system. 

Other new features include 
customizable interface, sup- 
port for multiple internal 
databases, and mechanisms for 
handling error situations and 
controlling user breaks. A 
separate Turbo Prolog Tool- 
box ($99.95) includes support 



for menus, business graph- 
ics, communications, screen 
and report layouts, file 
transfer, and parser 
generators. 

Turbo Prolog 2.0 requires 
an IBM PC, XT, AT, PS/2, or 
compatible, 384K bytes of 
RAM (640K bytes recom- 
mended), DOS 2.0 or higher, 
and two floppy disk drives 
(hard disk drive recom- 
mended). Video card support 
includes monochrome, CGA, 
EGA, MCGA, VGA, 3270, 
8514, Hercules, and AT&T 
400-line. Turbo Prolog 
Toolbox requires Turbo 
Prolog 2.0. 
Price: $149.95. 
Contact: Borland Interna- 
tional, 4585 Scotts Valley Dr., 
Scotts Valley, CA 95066, 
(408) 438-8400. 
Inquiry 836. 



Page Preview 
Added to WordStar 

WordStar Professional 
5.0 features page pre- 
view capabilities that let you 
view up to 144 pages in thumb- 
nail form on a single screen. 
You can also view single and 
facing pages in WYSIWYG 
format. A zoom view lets you 
look at font and linebreak 
details. 

An optional menu-driven 
interface is compatible with 
IBM's Systems Applications 
Architecture. Footnoting, 
automatic reformatting, 
macro, undo, and automatic 
save capabilities are also 
added. 

WordStar Professional 5.0 
lets you create newspaper-style 



columns. You can edit two 
documents simultaneously. 
Brown Bag Software's PC- 
Outline, MailList, and Tel- 
Merge, a communications 
program, are also included. 
WordStar Professional 5.0 
runs on the IBM PC and com- 
patibles with DOS 2.0 or 
higher, 384K bytes of RAM 
(512K bytes of RAM is re- 
quired for page-preview and 
outlining capabilities), and 
two floppy disk drives or a 
hard disk drive. A graphics 
board is required for page 
preview. 
Price: $495. 

Contact: MicroPro Interna- 
tional Corp., Customer Ser- 
vice, 33 San Pablo Ave., 
P.O. Box 7079, San Rafael, 
CA 94901, (415) 499-1200 or 
(800) 227-5609. 
Inquiry 837. 



Can you afford the time to build your own LaserJet Fonts? 

Building your own fonts can be difficult and very time consuming. 
For Example: Building your own 24 point font could take as much as 59 
minutes of your and your computer's valuable time, and that's just one font! 
To get the same typeface in a different weight (regular, bold, italic, etc.) will 
take you almost another hour, again, and again, and again. 
Most business people simply can't afford that much time. Can you? 




MERLIN MASTER FONTS 

are affordable pre-engineered, easy to use, downloadable fonts for your 
HP-LaserJet or compatible printer. Our soft fonts are tried and tested, there's 
no guess work. You know what you're going to get. Best of all, they are ready 
to use as soon as you open their exclusive "pop-up" storage box. 
MASTER FONTS are available in these typefaces: 

„ .. _. , For more information or to order call toll free: 

American Centum New ycrk 1 - 800 ■ merlin - o 

(1-800-637-5460) 
BlOCk MERLIN He\/L Use your Visa, MasterCard, AmEx or COD 



Cfrancetor 



Roman 



Garmon 



Point sizes range from 8 to 34 point and 50 point headline. All 
font packages include the typeface in regular, bold, italic and two 
distinctive weights, Shadow and Reverse Shadow. 

MERLIN MASTER Paks 

Over 50 fonts in a variety of sizes and weights, both landscape 
and portrait and includes FREE DOWNLOAD and DISPFONT 
font utility programs. All for 

only $149.95 

Smaller Paks available, starting at $79.95 



^?H 8 ]| 



PUBLISHING GROUP ,u 

1240 Johnson Ferry Place ♦ Suile A 10 ♦ Manetta. GA 30068 

'Because you really can 't afford to Build your own fonts ! 
This ad was produced using Merlin Master Fonts 

Dealer inquiries always welcome. 

Authorized Dysan Dealer. Distributing exclusively on Dysan certified diskettes. 
LaserJet is a registered trademark of Hewlett Packard 



88PC-4 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 



Circle 416 on Reader Service Card 







EPSON 

(vWNalion Wide Proteclion Plan) 



EQUITY 1+ 

i 360K Floppy 

> 20 Meg Hard Disk 

' 640K Ram 

■ Serial/Parallel Port 

■ Monochrome Card 

■ Monochrome Monitor 



EQUITY II PLUS *GW Basic 



• 1.2 Meg Floppy 

• 40 Meg Hard Disk 

• 640K Ram 

• Serial/Parallel/C/C 

• 80286 CPU 

• Monochrome Monitor 

• Graphic Card 

• MS DOS 

• GW Basic 

In order to provide the best service, 
EPSON EQUITY is 
exclusively sold on location. 



$1295 
EQUITY III+ 

• 80286 CPU 6-8 J2 MHz 
' 1.2 MEG Floppy 

■ 40 MEG Hard Disk 

■ DOS 3.2 Mono Monitor 
& Graphic Card 

52195 



LOW 

PRICE 

LEADER 



QflQQC • 16/8/4.77 MHz switchable 

OUOOU • 8/16 MHz, no wait state (Upgradeable to 20 
MHz) 

• 1 parallel port, 1 serial port with c/c 

• Socketed lor optional math coprocessor 

• 8 layer motherboard/8 full expansion slots 

• High-resolution monochrome monitor. Hercules compatible. 

• 1.2MB (loppy drive 
■ 3 half-high internal device slots 

• 200 watt power supply/101 keyboard 

• FCC approved 



e c n p a i t s s s r j j £ a <, 
OnOOC • 10/6 MHz switchable 



16 MHz 
$2295 
20 MHz 
$2895 



■ or 1 wait state 

• 8 expansion slots to fill all of your expansion needs 

• 512K memory— High quality pre-tested chips (upgradable to ' 
MB on the motherboard.) 

• FREE amber monitor and Hercules 
compatible graphics card. 

• One high Quality floppy drive. 1.2 Meg 

• 200 Walt power supply/101 keyboard 

• AT style keyboard with 10 function keys 

• 1 parallel port with c/c battery backup 
» Slol for math co-processor 80287 

• FCC Class B approved. 



20 MHz 
$1350 
12 MHz 
$1250 



comPAa 

386 130 meg/20 MHz 6695 

286 40 meg 2395 

386 40 meg/16 MHz 4195 

386 60 meg/20 MHz 5650 

Portable III 40 meg/20 MHz 4195 

CARD & MONITOR EXTRA 



PS/2 model 30/20 meg 1775 

PS/2 model 50/20 meg 2595 

PS/2 model 60/40 meg 3250 

PS/2 model 60/71 meg 3995 

PS/2 model 80/40 meg 5100 

MONITOR EXTRA 



LAP-TOP 

Toshiba 3200-40 3795 

Toshiba 3100-20 Call 

Toshiba 1000 Call 

NEC Multispeed 1395 

NEC Multispeed EL 1595 

EPSON LT Call 



CITIZEN TOSHIBA PRINCETON GRAPHICS AMDEK PC MOUSE 
WE STOCK OKIDATA NEC SONY HAYES MICROSOFT MICE 
EVEREX WYSE ACER SAMSUNG LOGITECH 
HITACHI HOUSTON INSTRUMENTS CALCOMP MITSUBISHI 



& ARCHIVE 
TAPE BACK 
TAXAN 



HARD DISK 

Seagate 20 meg 305 

Seagate 30 meg 365 

Seagate 4096 80 meg 795 

Seagate 251 395 

Miniscribe Call 

Micropolis Call 

SOFTWARE 

Microsoft Word 239 

Word Perfect 5.0 249 

Lotus 1-2-3 297 

dBase III+ 385 

Microsoft Works 119 

AND MANY, MANY MORE! 



SPECIAL 
of the Month 

Microsoft Mouse . . .$109 

Microsoft Excel $309 

Aldus Pagemaker ...$479 



AST 

AST 386 model 340 4395 

AST 286 model 80 1745 

AST 286 model 120 Call 

AST 286 model 140 2695 

CARD & MONITOR EXTRA 



EPSON 

PRINTERS 



Epson FX850/1 050... $379/535 
Epson LQ850/1 050... $559/785 
Epson LQ500/2500... $359/895 
Epson LX800/EX800.. $199/445 

CITIZEN 
PRINTER 

180D/15E $179/385 

MSP40/45 $299/439 

MSP50/55 $399/509 

Tribute 124/224 $529/679 

Overture Lazer $1459 

HP LASER Jet II .$1750 



WE ACCEPT LC, CASHIER CHECKS, MONEY ORDERS, VISA, MC, AmEx 

3% charge on VISA, MC & 5% on American Express 

COMPUTER LANE 



. ■ 



HOURS: 
M-S 9-6 



CORPORATE ACCOUNTS WELCOME 
CALL FOR VOLUME DISCOUNTS 
CONSULTANTS CALL FOR PRICING 



1-800-526-3482 (outside ca> 

(818) 884-8644 (In CA) 
(818) 884-8253 (FAX) 



22107 ROSCOE BLVD. 
CANOGA PARK 

V2 BLOCK W. OF TOPANGA 

CA 91304 



Prices subject to change without notice 



Compaq is a Registered Trademark of Compaq 

IBM is a Registered Trademark of International Business Machines 



Circle 411 on Reader Service Card 



AUGUST 1988 'BYTE 88PC-5 



Circle 424 on Reader Service Card (DEALERS: 425) 




VUTEK SYSTEMS 
ANNOUNCES 
FREEZFRAME II 



► The Frame Grabber 
that runs with any 
software, anytime. 

► Text/Graphics overlay on 
live video 

► EGA/CGA text/graphics 
overlay on captured still- 
frame video 

► T.V. quality images 




Software included: 

► Video Editor- cut/paste, 
paint program 

► Universal Interface Driver 

► Printer Drivers 



FOR MORE INFORMATION 
CALL (619) 587-2800 

VUTEK SYSTEMS, INC. 

10855 Sorrento Valley Road 
San Diego, CA 92121 




VnTck 

SYSTEMS. INC. 



Important TIPS* for BYTE Subscribers: 
Receive Product Information 10 Days Earlier! 




BYTE 



■ 



THE SMALL SYSTEMS JOURNAL 



IDENTIFICATION CARD 

John Sample 
785432189 



All you need is a touch-tone telephone and your subscriber I.D. number. 

See instructions facing the Reader Service Index in the back 

of this issue for outrageous time-saving opportunities! 

*BYTE's Telephone Inquiry Processing Service 



88PC-6 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 




MEANS 



• 



Quality, others promise, we deliver. The fact 
we've already delivered over 3,000,000 color 
monitors is the best proof. Tatung also makes 
a full line of computers and peripherals. Our 
reputation for superb quality is well known 
around the world. And we deliver complete 
after sales service to you. 



TCS 8000 

16 MHZ, O WAIT - STATE 
32 BIT, EXPANDABLE 16MB 




**•••••••••* 



TCS 7000 

6, 8, 10, 12MHZ 



TCS 4000 (6/10MHZ) 
EQUIVALENT OF 5 EXPANSION SLOTS 



COLOR MONITORBMONO MONITOR^ TERMINAL 



MODEL RES. 



MODEL RES. 



• CM 1322N 

• CM 1370A 

• CM 1380F 

• CM 1495 



640 X 200 
720 X 400 
640 X 350 
800 X 560 



MM 1222 
MM 1422 
MM 1295 



800 X 350 
800 X 350 
800 X 560 



ET- 10 SERIES 

14" DARK - TINTED 
ANT I -GLARE FLAT CRT 
H10 (AMBER) 
H17 (PAPER/WHITE) 



* 
* 
* 
* 

* 
* 



OMNISCAN 



COMPATIBLIITY: 

IBM VGA™*, MCGA* 
PGA, EGA, CGA 
AT&T"" PCs 
APPLE IIGS™ 
MACINTOSH II™* 

14" Color Monitor 

RES: 800 x 560 

4 MULTI-COLOR MODE 

12" Mono Monitor 

RES: 800 x 560 

* ALL TRADEMARKS ARE PROPERTY OF 
THEIR RESPECTIVE MANUFACTURERS 



5 

* 

* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 

* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 



Circle 423 on Reader Service Card 



^•••••••••i- 



VAR, DITRIBUT0RS, OEM 
INQUIRIES ARE WELCOME 



(fa TATUNG 408-435-0140 

^**>N ■ * * ■ %^ i m %^ 2060 RINGWOOD AVE.. SAN JO 



TATUNG SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY INC. 



2060 RINGWOOD AVE., SAN JOSE CA, 95131 



Circle 414 on Reader Service Card 



VIRUS PROTECTION 



Give your PC complete virus 
protection. Our products 
provide the most powerful and ef- 
fective cures for computer viruses 
- and are simple to use. 

Our Products will diagnose and at- 
tack viruses, as well as shield 
your system from harm - and 
remain transparent. 

In addition, we attempt to search 
out and destroy those really tough 
viruses that are mailed to us. (This 
helps us maintain our software 
products so they are ready for any- 



thing). This service is free of 
charge to our software customers. 

Our products offer superior virus 
protection at low prices. Call 
today and we will ship your order 
immediately. 

Villarreal Consulting 
4633 Capitola Avenue 
San Jose, CA 95111-2624 
(408) 972-0179 



VC-IMMUNE 

Continually diagnoses your disks 
and files and alerts the user when- 
ever an infection occurs. Not copy 
protected $49 

VC-SHIELD 

Protects your system from harm- 
ful virus actions and looks out for 
suspicious virul activities. Not 
copy protected $49 

Disk Examination Service 
Mail your disks suspected of in- 
fection to us. We will attempt to 
isolate and destroy the virus. 
There is no charge for unsuccess- 
ful attempts $19 





ALTEC ZIP-386 
$2,265 

* Intel 80386 microprocessor 

* IM high speed memory installed 

* Expandable to 10 MB 

* Phoenix 386 BIOS or Award 386 BIOS 

* 4 speed (4.77/6/8/16 MHz} 

* 200W power supply 

* Case with re-set button 

* Enhanced keyboard 

* Hard disk/floppy disk controller card 

* 1.2M floppy disk drive 

* Monochrome/Graphics card 
with printer port 

* HI-RES Monochrome Monitor 

* User's manual 
+ 1 year warranty 




ALTEC-XT Turbo System 
$685 




¥\\ 



* 8088-1 microprocessor 

* 4.77/10 MHz 

* 640K RAM 

* 150W power supply 

* AT style keyboard 

* Floppy controller card 

* 360K floppy disk drive 

* Monochrome/Graphics 
card with printer port 

* HI-RES Monochrome Monitor 

* Phoenix BIOS 

* User's manual 
■*■ 1 year warranty 



ALTEC-286 Enhanced System 

$1,095 




ALTEC- 




;av!VW': 



* Intel 80286-10 microprocessor 

* 640K RAM 

* Dual speed 6/10 MHz 

* 200W power supply 

* AT style case 

* Enhanced keyboard 

* Hard disk/floppy disk controller card 

* 1.2 M floppy disk drive 

* Monochrome/Graphics 
card with printer port 

* HI-RES Monochrome Monitor 

* Phoenix BIOS 

* User's manual 

* 1 year warranty 




___ — . __. 



/// i 



ALTEC-286jr System 
$1,075 

* Intel 80286-10 microprocessor 

* 640K RAM 

* 200W power supply 

* ATjr style case 

* AT style keyboard 

* Hard disk/floppy disk controlled 
card 

* 1.2M floppy disk drive 
+ Monochrome/Graphics 

card with printer port 

* HI-RES Monochrome Monitor 

* User's manual 

* 1 year warranty 



ADDITIONAL FEATURES ADD 



Color System 

EGA System 

20 M hard disk 

40 M hard disk 

360K floppy disk drive 

720K3'A" floppy disk drive 

1.44M 3'A" floppy disk drive 



S200.00 

$400.00 

$235.00 (386 & 286) 5285,00 (XT) 

$405.00 (386 & 286) $465.00 (XT) 

$80.00 

$120.00 

S1 75.00 



A 



ALTEC Technology Corporation 

5751 Rickenbacker Road, Los Angeles, CA 90040 
Tel: 1-213-888-9100 

Order Desk: 1-800-255-9971 



• Intel is registered trademark 
of Intel Corporation. 

■ Phoenix is registered trademark 
of Phoenix Technologies Ltd. 

* Award is registered trademark 
of Award Software Inc. 

■ AT is registered trademark of 
IBM Corporation. 



88PC-8 B Y T E • AUGUST 1988 



Circle 410 on Reader Service Card 



SERIOUS DEBUGGING 
AT A REASONABLE 
PRICE 




All the speed and power of a hardware-assisted 
debugger at a software price 

Hardware-level break points 

REAL-TIME break points on memory locations, memory ranges, 
execution, I/O ports, hardware and software interrupts. More 
powerful break points than ANY software-only debugger on the 
market. Soft-ICE gives you the power of an in-circuit emulator on 
your desk. 



Break out of hung programs 

With a keystroke - no external switch necessary, 
interrupts disabled. 



Even with 



Breaks the 640K barrier 

Soft-ICE uses ZERO bytes of memory in the first 1MB of address 
space. This is especially useful for those subtle bugs that change 
when the starting address of your code changes. With Soft-ICE 
your code executes at the same address whether the debugger is 
loaded or not. 

Works with your favorite debugger 

Soft-ICE can be used as a stand-alone debugger or it can add its 
powerful break points to the software debugger you already use. 
You can continue to use your favorite debugger until you require 
Soft-ICE. Simply pop up the Soft-ICE window to set powerful 
real-time break points. When a break point is reached, your 
debugger will be activated. 

Solve tough systems problems too 

Soft-ICE is ideal for debugging TSRs, interrupt handlers, self 
booting programs, DOS loadable device drivers, non-DOS 
operating systems, and debugging within DOS & BIOS. Soft-ICE 
is also great for firmware development because Soft-ICE's break 
points work in ROM. 



How Soft-ICE Works 

Soft-ICE uses the power of the 80386 to 
surround your program in a virtual 
machine. This gives you complete control 
of the DOS environment, while Soft-ICE 
runs safely in protected mode. Soft-ICE 
uses 80386 protected mode features, such 
as paging, I/O privilege level, and break 

Eoint registers, to provide real-time 
ardware-level break points. 



tt 



Soft-ICE is a product any MS-DOS 
developer serious enough to own a 
386 machine should have. " 
Dr. Dobb's Journal - May 1988 



C 



NEW! NEW! NEW! NEW! 



n 



RUN CODEVIEW 
IN ONLY 8K 




CodeView is a great integrated debugger, but it 
uses over 200K of conventional memory. 
MagicCV uses advanced features of the 80386 
microprocessor to load CodeView and symbols 
in extended memory. This allows MagicCV to 
run CodeView using less than 8K of 
conventional memory on your 80386 PC. 

Don't let 640K be your limit! 

If you are closing in on the 640K limit and would 
like the power of CodeView, MagicCV is for 
you. 

Don't let the debugger hide the bug! 

Even if you're not closing in on the 640K limit, 
running CodeView with MagicCV makes your 
debugging environment much closer to the end 
user's program environment. You can use 
CodeView to locate subtle bugs that only occur 
when there is plenty of free memory, or those 
difficult bugs that only occur when your program 
is running with a couple of TSRs loaded. 

How MagicCV works 

MagicCV uses the 80386 to create a separate 
virtual machine for CodeView. MagicCV uses 
between 4K & 8K of conventional memory as a 
bridge between the DOS environment and 
CodeView. 

MagicCV is easy to use 

If you are a CodeView user, you already know 
how to use MagicCV too. Just type MCV 
instead of CV; everything else is automatic. 



c 



Save $86 



MagicCV $199 

Soft-ICE $386 

Buy Both and Save $86 

CALL TODAY 

(603) 888 - 2386 

30 day money-back guarantee 
Visa and Master Card accepted 

r^U-MEGA TECHN OLOGIES 



PO Box 7607 
Nashua, NH 03060-7607 

Both require 80386 AT compatible or IBM PS/2 Model 80. 

MagicCV requires at least 384K of extended memory. 

CodeView is a trademark of Microsoft Corporation. 



J 



Zr\Z 



MagicCV with Soft-ICE 

Using Soft-ICE with 
CodeView gives you the 
features necessary for 
professional level systems 
debugging. MagicCV 
and Soft-ICE can work in 
concert with CodeView 
to provide the most 
powerful debugging 
platform you will find 
anywhere. As an extra 
bonus, by ordering both 
MagicCV and Soft-ICE 
together you save $86. 



Circle 418 on Reader Service Card 



AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 88PC-9 



Buy with 



Confidence 




In an effort to make your 
telephone purchasing a more 
successful and pleasurable 
activity, The Microcomputer 
Marketing Council of the 
Direct Marketing Association, 
Inc. offers this advice, "A 
knowledgeable buyer will be a 
successful buyer." These are 
specific facts you should know 
about the prospective seller 
before placing an order: 

Ask These Important 
Questions 

• How long has the company 
been in business? 

• Does the company offer 
technical assistance? 

• Is there a service facility ? 

• Are manufacturer's warran- 
ties handled through the 
company? 

• Does the seller have formal 
return and refund policies? 

• Is there an additional charge 
for use of credit cards? 

'Are credit card charges held 
until time of shipment? 

• What are shipping costs for 
items ordered? 



Reputable computer dealers 
will answer all these questions 
to your satisfaction. Don't 
settle for less when buying your 
computer hardware, software, 
peripherals and supplies. 

Purchasing Guidelines 

• State as completely and ac- 
curately as you can what 
merchandise you want in- 
cluding brand name, model 
number, catalog number. 

• Establish that the item is in 
stock and confirm shipping 
date. 

• Confirm that the price is as 
advertised ■ 

• Obtain an order number 
and identification of the 
sales representative. 

Make a record of your 
order, noting exact price in- 
cluding shipping, date of 
order, promised shipping 
date and order number. 

If you ever have a problem, 
remember to deal first with the 
seller. If you cannot resolve the 
problem, write to MAIL 
ORDER ACTION LINE, c/o 
DMA, 6 E. 43rd St., New York, 
NY 10017. 



This message is brought to you 
by: 

the MICROCOMPUTER 

MARKETING COUNCIL 

of the Direct Marketing 

Association, Inc. 

6 E. 43rd St., 

New York, NY 10017 

MMC 

MICROCOMPUTER 
MARKETING COUNCIL 

of the Direct Marketing Association, Inc. 



|R Direct Marketing Association, Inc. 1988 
88PC-10 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 




A-,/ 



Ij /i ; «ii 







SF-286 


8MHz 


10MHz 


10MHz 

CO WS) 


12MHz 

(0 WS) 


16MHz 
(386) 


Mono System 
EGA System 


$995 
$1369 


$1119 
$1569 


$1349 
$1720 


$1499 
$1870 


$1950 
$2315 



Basic System Features: 

80286-16 bit CPU, 80287 socket, 51 2K RAM ex- 
pandable to 1 MB, fully compatible AMI BIOS, 1 .2Mb 
Floppy Disk Drive, combined floppy/hard disk 
controller, Keytronics 101 enhanced keyboard, 
clock/calendar with battery backup, 1 95 watt power 
supply, 48 hour burn-in testing, operations manual, 
one year limited warranty and optional on-site 
maintenance agreement. 



SF-286-8MHZ 

20Mb Mono Special $1199 

Basic System features plus: Monographics board 
with printer port, Samsung 1 2" amber mono monitor 
and Seagate 20Mb hard drive. 

SF-286-8MH2 

20Mb EGA Special $1569 

Basic System features plus: Everex EGA graphics 
board, Mitsubishi 1410-C or Evervision EGA color 
monitor and Seagate 20Mb hard drive. 

SF-286-8MHZ 

20Mb VGA Special $1849 

Basic System features plus: Everex EVGA graphics 
board ( 640 x 480, 800 x 600, up to 256 colors ), 
Mitsubishi Diamond Scan multisync color monitor and 
Seagate 20Mb hard drive. 



.$1699 



SF-286-12MHZ 

20Mb EGA Special.... 

Basic System features plus: Monographics board with 
printer port, Evervision 14" flat screen amber mono 
monitor and Seagate 20Mb hard drive. 
Upgrade to 40Mb Seagate hard drive, Add $160 
Upgrade to 80Mb Seagate hard drive, Add $500 



EGA Bundle $459 

Everex EGA autoswitch graphics board and 

Evervision EGA color monitor. 

Super EGA Bundle $629 

Everex EGA Deluxe autoswitch graphics board 
(640x480, 752x410), and Mitsubishi 1371-A 
Diamond Scan multisync color monitor. 

Super VGA Bundle $769 

Everex EVGA graphics board ( 640x480, 800x600, 
up to 256 colors ) and Mitsubishi 1371-A Diamond 
Scan multisync color monitor 

Hard Disk Specials ( for PC ) 

Seagate ST225 20Mb + Controller $265 

Seagate ST125 20Mb + Controller $329 

Seagate ST238 30Mb + Controller $289 

Seagate ST251 40Mb + Controller $449 

Hard Disk Specials ( for AT ) 

Seagate ST125 20Mb (40ms) $269 

Seagate ST138 30Mb (40ms) $339 

Seagate ST251 40Mb (40ms) $369 

Seagate ST251-1 40Mb (28ms) $429 

Seagate 4096 80Mb ( 28ms ) $729 

Micropolis 1335 71 Mb (28ms) $599 

Everex Modems 

Everex Evercom external and internal half-card 
modems ( fully Hayes compatible ) with Bitcom 
Communications software. 

Internal 1200 Baud Modem SCALL 

External 1200 Baud Pocket Modem $139 

Internal 2400 Baud Modem $149 

External 2400 Baud with Mini I/O $229 



Misc. Specials 

Mini I/O ( PAR, SER, CLK, CAL ) $49 

Mini I/O with Game Port $55 

Mini I/O + Logitech C7 serial mouse $119 

Mitsubishi 3.5" 720K floppy drive $99 

Mitsubishi 3.5" 1.4Mb floppy drive $129 

150 Watt Power Supply $49 

200 Watt Power Supply $79 

2Mb EMS memory board with OK $80 

3Mb EMS memory board with OK $99 

'Special Prices valid only through 8/31/88 

Seagate, Samsung. Miniscribe. Everex, Mitsubishi. Hayes, Micropolis, Bitcom, 
Logitech, ere trademarks or registered trademarks ot their respective companes. 
SFmicro4.2 6n4iS8 



san F . .. irion** " 



ca tttori*» ( 



«!° rn,a "oQ-1505 
, ona tOraerOesH ■» g»1*» 

notice- W e 
items- 



Circle 422 on Reader Service Card 



lUGUST 1988 -BYTE 88PC-11 



OutpuK<V4f 70,0X3^ 



,/* SET MODE 2C 



MAKE 




MPLEX 



DEC COMPUTING 
DECISIONS EASY 



More Digital Equipment users will make more DEC com- 
puting decisions at DEXPO West than at any other event 
in the world. You'll do more to achieve maximum pro- 
ductivity from your DEC system in just three days than 
you'll do in the other 362 days of the year. 

Compare 1 5,000 products, side by side. Save time and 
money when you evaluate all of your options, firsthand. 
Talk to hundreds of product specialists. They've all got 
solutions — find out who's got 
the best. 

• More VAX, MicroVAX, and 
PDP-11 enhancements .than 
any other show — ever! 

"Apple-DEC Connection" 
features 50 Mac-to-VAX exhibits. 

• Hands-on instruction & expert 
advice— direct from 350 leading 
product developers. 

• Communication products to 
integrate multi-vendor systems. 

88PC-12 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 



DECUS' Attendees: DEXPO West Is Free and Easy 

DECUS Symposia attendees are admitted FREE to 
DEXPO West. (DECUS is not affiliated with DEXPO and 
requires separate registration). 

Call Today for Free Show Preview & VIP Tickets 

Call 800-628-81 85 right away, and you'll receive special 

money-saving show tickets. Plus, get a preview of 100 

products on exhibit at DEXPO West 88— a small sample 

of all you'll see when you attend. 



DEXPO 

West 88 

The World's Largest DEC Computing Exposition 

Disneyland Hotel 
Anaheim, CA 
October 18-20, 1988 



■fi 1 1 

800-628-8185. 



Coll between 8:30 a.m. and 
5:30 p.m., Eastern Time [in New 
Jersey, call (609)'9B7-9400). 

Organized by: 

Expoconsul International, Inc.. 
3 Independence Way, 
Princeton, NJ 08540 

■Registered trademark ol Digital Equipment Corporation 
DECUS is not sponsored by or attiliated with DEXPO. 



More Than A Computer Store 



Authorized Dealer! 




AUTOCAD 



TOPS 



Call for our Low Prices 



WYSE 


13 286/386 

m*% System 
"r^^S a. In Stock 


512 RAM, 
1.2 Floppy, 40 MB HD 


Also in Stock: 
WYSE Terminals 


Call for Best Price! 




NEW! 

LAPTOP SPECIALS 

181/183-20 

In Stock 

Flat Screen Monitor ^ ..1_._-. 

TOSHIBA 

Toshiba 1000 $749 

Toshiba 1200 $2395 

Toshiba 3100/20 $3099 

Toshiba 3200 CALL 

Toshiba 5100 CALL 

NEC 

NEC Multispeed EL $1595 

NECMultispeed20MB....$2435 



PREMIUM 
286/386 

512 RAM, 

1 .2 Floppy, ^~-~~*l2 
40 MB HD, Hi-Res 
Mono Card, DOS 3.2, 
GW Basic 

$2395 

386 Model Also in Stock 



ACER 

710/910 

Systems 




512K Memory, 20MB HD, 
6/1 Wait State 

In Stock Now 

Call 

For Lowest Prices! 



Software & Printer 
Specials! 



WordPerfect $194 

Microsoft Word $209 

Lotus $305 

Epson LX800 $209 

Epson EX800/1 000 $415/519 

Epson LQ800/1 000 $315/519 

Epson LQ500/2500 $349/899 

Epson LQ 850/1050 $549/749/729 

NEC P6/P7/2200 $492/645/379 

Toshiba P321 SL/P351 SL . IN STOCK 

HP Laser Jet Series 2 CALL! 

Ast Turbolaser P/S $3250 

NEC 890 with PS $3195 

Authorized Repair and Service Center. Fast 
Turnaround. Call for Service Contract Information. 




COMPUTOWN 

"More than a computer store" 

Pleasant Hill: San Francisco: Mountain View: 

(415) 682-TOWN (415) 956-TOWN (415) 962-TOWN 
(415) 682-8696 FAX (415) 989-8696 FAX (415) 969-8696 



1527 Contra Costa Blvd. 
Pleasant Hill CA 94523 



Phelan Bldg. #219 760 Market Street 
San Francisco CA 94108 



2455 Old Middle Field Way 
Mountain View CA 94043 



Authorized Dealer for Novell, Epson, AST, Samsung, Zenith, Toshiba, Autocad, AT&T, Leading Edge, Okidata, 
NEC, Canon, HAYES, Ashton Tate, Universal Data Systems, Microsoft, Ventura & Aldus. Call for our Low Prices! 

Prices subject to change. Not resposible for typographic errors. 



Circle 412 on Reader Service Card 



AUGUST 1988 'BYTE 88PC-13 



Dealers Call For Complete Confidential Price List I 



New Reduced Prices 



__ mm 


* 


= = =ZT3 




. — 




PS II Model 25 Mono/Color . 


..$969/1195 


PS II M.25 Mono/Color + 20MB$1395/1650 


PS II Model 30 2DR. + 20MB 


. "$1595" 


PS II Model 30-002/021 .... 


$1195/1645 


PS II Model 50-021 


...."$2395 


PS II Model 60-44MB/70MB/ 


$3195/3595* 


"PS II Model 80-115 20MHZ 


. ..$6095" 


PS II Model 80-44MB/70MB.' 


•$3995/4695 


AT 339 (8MHZ, 512K, 30MB) 


...In Stock 


AT 068 (6MHZ, 256K) 


$2395 


PC/XT 2DR. 256K 


$995/1195 


Mono. Disp. 8503/XT Style . . 


...$189/225 


Color Display 8512 


$439 


EGA Disp. 8513/XT Style .... 


...$495/595 


Ext. Drive F/PS2 (5%) 


$285 


Pro Printer ll/XL 


$349/505* 


Pro Printer X24/XL24 


. . *$519/675 


Quit Writer ll/lll 


$865/1095* 


IBM DOS 3.3 (min. 5) 


$85 


NEW IBM 50 & 70's IN STOCK. 


'Quantity Discount Available* 



ffispaai 


jfP 


SEAGATE HARD DRIVES 


JIC 


20MB/30MB W/Controller .... 


...$259/289 


30MB/40MB (4038/4051) .... 


.. $385/450 


40MB (ST251)/40MB (4053) . . 


. . *$349/449 


80MB (4096)/80MB (277R) . . 


. *$649/445 


MINISCRIBE 




40MB (3650)/40MB (3053) . . 


. . . -319/535 


40MB (6053) Full Height.... 


495 


80MB Full Height (6085) .... 


679 


HARD CARDS 




20MB/30MB for XT 


.. .345/399 


40MB Card F/XT 40MSC .... 


499 


20MB/30MB For PS/2 


.. .399/435 


MISCELLANEOUS 




COMPAQ 300MB HD 


2995 


COMPAQ Portable 20MB .... 


495 


COMPAQ 40/60MB F/DP386 . . 


...745/895 


10/20MB IBM Hard Disk 


...145/195 


130MB Compaq Hard Disk 


1695 



com pah* 


DESKPRO MODELS 




386/20 MHZ 60 MB HD 


...4995" 


386/20 MHZ 130 MB HD 


...6395" 


"386/20 MHZ 300 MB HD . . . 


...7995" 


386 40MB 16MHZ Factory .... 


3895 


386 130MB 16MHZ Factory . . 


5495 


286 Model 1 


1595 


286 640K, 20MB/40MB HD . . . 


2095/2295 


286 Model 40 (Factory) 


2695 


Deskpro 2DR. 256K/20MB .... 


.1095/1395 


PORTABLES 




"New Portable 386/40MB . . . 


. *5395 


"New Portable 386/100MB . . . 


6699 


II Model 4 (Factory/Upgrade) . . 


2595/2395 


II Model 2 2DR., 256K (80286) 


1895 


***lll Model 40MB** 


3895 


***lll Model 20MB" 


3375 


Compaq Amber/Green Monitor 


195 


Compaq Color/VGA Monitor. . . 


.525/555 


Compaq EGA/VGA Adapter . . . 


.325/399 


C. DOS 3.3/3.2/3.1 


.89/79/59 


Call on Memory and Other Compaq Products 


"Quantity Discounts Available" 







Dealers & Consultants Only 

Corporate & Retail Customers Call For Quotes 



INTEL 



IMIffliHiMtlB 



8087-3 XT/80287-6 AT "$99/160 

8087-2 XT/80287-8 AT $145/249 

80287-10 AT 10MHZ $289 

80387-16 for 80386 $455 

80387-20 Base Systems $725 



OKIDATA 



182/182S 120CPS, 30nlq . . . .$239/279 
192 + /193+ 200CPS, 40nlq .$329/419 
292E/293E 200cps, 100nlq . .$359/489 
393/393 Color 450 cps ... .$945/1029 

ML294/ML2410 $737/1695 

Lazer Line 6 $1299 



10 MB. Inter/External $255/379 

20 MB. Inter./External $299/399 

40 MB. Inter./External $379/535 

Call for PS/2 Tape Back Up Units 
Call for Archive, Tecmar, Sysgen 



TOSHIBA 



321SL/341SL (216CPS) $465/645 

351-SX/351-2 Color $995/1019 

Toshiba T1000/T1100 $749/1450 

T1200/T3120 $2295/2950 

T3200/T5100 $3595/4495 

Toshiba Modem/Compatible . .$279/249 



HEWLETT 
PACKARD 



Laser Series II Very Low 

•DeskJet New 250 CPS $669 

1MB F/HP II Compat/HP . . . .$329/369 
2MB F/HP II Compat/HP . . . .$629/669 

HP Plotter 7475A $1395 

HP Scanjet Scanner w/lnt *$1195 

Multispeed EL/HD $1455/2299 

Multisync ll/Plus+ $579/875 

Multisync XL 20+ $1995 

LC860 + /LC890 $1899/3195 

P760/P2200 $599/333 



"LOTUS 1-2-3 - $289** 

D-DATA 



*** 



*** 



4742 Woodman Avenue 
Sherman Oaks, CA. 91423 
(818) 905-0994, (213) 859-3410 
FAX # (818) 905-8869 



American Kxprcss 




LOTUS SYMPHONY V/i" - $259 

One stop shopping for dealers & consultants 



STB MULT/F CARD (OK) $49 MODEM 1200/2400 BAUD . .$69/95 

DC 1000 TAPES $7 IBM MONO/CLR/EGA .$79/145/325 

INTEL 8087-3 $79 INTERDYNE T.B.U. 10/20MB $75/95 

THERE WILL BE A CHARGE ON ALL CREDIT CARD PURCHASES. 
UP TO 2% DISCOUNT ON PREPAYMENT. 



88PC-14 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 



Circle 413 on Reader Service Card 



UPS SYSTEMS HEADQUARTERS 

800-941-8126 



aBEEEs 



RELIABLE COMPUTER 
BACKUP FOR 40 YEARS 



DATA TRANSFER SWITCHES 




>4B SERIAL 
AB PARALLEL 
ABCD SERIAL 
ABCD PARALLEL 
AB CROSSOVER 
ABCD DB9 TYPE 



$27.50 
$28.50 
$39.50 
$42.50 
$39.50 
$43.50 



ISOLATING LINE STRIPS 



SURGES RF NOISE 

SUPPRESION BAR6--1 $19.95 

6 OUTLETS < r ;i3->-» i: 

W/ 6' FT. CORD ( =f*«&fc*3/« 

12 @ 14.50 24 @ 12.25 



fa, A 




Knapco UPS Systems 



fiS^^^M 



© 



THE PERFECT UPS by f |" 7* 

tt* nr *r* $ 999 - RETAIL 
$000. DEALER 

I//P EXECUTIVE 400 




SUPPORTS 2 AT or 3 XT SYSTEMS 

Tiue On-Line UPS designed for micro 
and mini power supplies. SINEWAVE 
output. Fits between CPU and CRT 
Only 20 Lbs. Size 1.9"H.x 15.8"Wx15" 



NEW KNAPCO UPS SYSTEMS 
Ez UPS THIN-LINE-— 



( 


\ 


KiE/PS"~r" 


SST'IEBBI IBBIB 



2.2" I IIGI I 24-28 I.BS. RS-232 PORT FOR NOVELL 
200% IIUNRUSH CAPACITY - SURGE, RFI, EMI, 
PROTECTION. TRUE ON-LINE SINEWAVE *1% 

525 / lOOOVa. LIST DEALER 

UPSC 525 $995. $645. 

UPSC10O1 $1595. $1045. 



j UNINTCRRUPtlBLC 

it works... . pouch same* 
UPSC 200+ 200 WATT $249; 

RETAIL $499. 

UPSC 350 350 WATT $279. 

RETAIL $799. 

UPSC 550 550 WATT $379. 

RETAIL $899. 

UPSC 800 800 WATT $599. 

RETAIL $999. 

UPSC 1000 WATT $699. 

RETAIL $1250. « EUROPEAN DESIGNED UPS «* 
Made In USA -option 220V. sohz. UPSE200 $359. 

Modified Wave Fotm output 220W. sohz. upse 350 $399. 
2 Ms. Transfer Time onnsv. bohz. upse sso $499. 
RFI And Spike Protection upseiooo $799. 

All Models w/ Internal Gell Cells, Unconditional 1 Year 
Warranty 4 Outlets, Brown-Out, Black-Out Protection 



for computers 

P€RMAPOW€R' end 

STANDBY POWER SYSTEM peripherals 



■ UPS-equivalem protection at a fraction of the cos! 

• Guard data and equipment from errors and damage 
caused by power line problems 

• Responds in under 1 millisecond to blackout, over- 
voltages, undervoltages. power fluctuations, to provide | 
stable 120V power 

• Built-in surge suppressor easily handles Ihe abuse 
of repetitive surges 

■ Filters oul RFI/EMI noise ■ UL listed 
lomanc overload sensor 

■ Phase-synchronized transfer and automatic reset 



SHAPE 

LINE TAMER 
FERRO POWER CONDITIONER 

Surge suppressors 

IEEE Standard 587 

Rejection 120/60dB. 

4 Outlets, 6ft. Cord 

Regulation *3% 

Retail Dealer 



*HM««a»i 



150 Va. 
300 Va. 
450 Va. 
600 Va. 
lOOOVa. 
1200 Va. 



$139. 
$199. 
$259. 
$299. 
$489. 
$549. 



$ 99. 
$149. 
$197. 
$225. 
$349. 
$439. 



IMPORT 

VOLTAGE REGULATORS 



TVR500 

TVR1000 

TVR2000 




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TVR3000 *•*"— * $395. 

INPUT RANGE 85135V. 
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EURO-TRANSFORMERS 

STEP UP/DOWN 110v.-220v. 



300 WATT 

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1300 WATT 

*2000 WATT 

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*Select Voltage 

Up/Down 



$ 39 
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$ 85 
$125 
$215 

100/11 0/1 20v. 

200/220/240V. 




'ODEM SPIKE 
W MSP 



PROTECTORS 1 

1 <fc 10 OR 12® $10-95 
1 ■}> l^./O 34gi $8. 95 J 



SPS-500 LIST $799 DEALER $549. 



QUANTITY PRICING AVAILABLE 
UPS SYSTEMS ADD $15. MINIMUM 
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TOSHIBA 

TOSNIC TRUE 

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AND LARGER MODELS 




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330 XT $399. $259. 

LOW COST UPS PROTECTION FOR NETWORK STATIONS 

450 AT $599. $389. 

rt AT TYPE SERVERS, 3 COMSERVERS, AND CAD STATIONS 

520 ES $699. $449. 

FOR SFT LEVEL 2 AND VINES FILE SERVERS RS 232 PORT 

800 RT $1099. $709. 

LARGE FILE SERVERS WITH MULTIPLE HARD DRIVES 

1200 VX $1399. $905. 




FOR MULTIPLE PC'S OR VERY LONG BACKUP TIME 
1to2 Ms. transfer time, compact, quality engineered, . 
runs diagnostics, RS232 port, prevents surges, sags, spikes, noise & interference 



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1-800-541-8126 
OR 813-449-0019 
FAX 813-449-0701 



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1201 HAMLET AVE. CLEARWATER, FLORIDA 34616 



Circle 415 on Reader Service Card 



AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 88PC-15 



ARCHITECTURE FOR THE 90'S 
SHAPE OF THE FUTURE 



THE 



SYSTEM 386/20 



f 20, 10, 6.7 MHz 



.(16 



Features 

• Fully compatible with the IBM' PC/AT™ 

• Intel' 80386 microprocessor, running at sp- 
and 8 MH: on the 386/16) 

• Speed-selectable by keyboard, software or Iront-panel switch 

• The bus operates at 10 or 6.7 MHz 

« The machine uses write-back cache memory (64K, 128K or 256K of 25 ns static RAM) 

• Socket (or an 80387 math coprocessor option, running synchronously at 20, 10 or 6.7 MHz. (16 
and 8 MHz on the 386/16) 

• 1 Megabyte DRAM expandable to 8 Megabytes on the system board (120 ns DRAMs, 256 Kb or 
1 Mb) 

• Front panel LEDs for power-on, disk access and speed indication 

• Alpha-numeric realtime diagnostic display (8-digit) 

• 1.2 MB floppy diskette drive 

• Six 16-bit and two 8-bit bus expansion slots 

• One 32-bit memory expansion slot 
■ Special Everex very high performance (1:1 interleave) hard disk/floppy combination controller 

• Front access to up 6 to 5 half-height mass storage devices 

• Enhanced 101-key keyboard 

• System clock/calendar/configuration data in CMOS RAM with battery backup 

• Everex enhanced BIOS 

• Easy-to-use SETUP utility in ROM, supports over 45 drive types 

• BIOS supports 3.5" 7270K diskette drives 

• Front panel keylock to disable keyboard 

• Front access reset switch 

• Speaker enable/disable switch 

• Complete, easy to follow user manual 

• UL listed power supply; switchable 120240 VAC 



. 



nths 









COMPATIBILITY TESTING RESULTS 

The Everex System 386 has been evaluated by XXCAL, an 
independent third-party lestmci house. The test objective, as 
steted in XXCALs report of February 16. 1938. was "to reveal 
any problems or inconsistencies relative to a selected group cf 
□fi-the-shelf commercial software.', networks, and peripheral 
products." on the Everex System 386. XXCAL's technicians 
"'installed each application per documentation.. |then| tested all 
functions, commands, and options directly related to a 
successful and thorough test o! the product," 




COMPETITIVE BENCHMARK TESTING RESULTS 


Based on in how te 


incj 


Everex 
bunch 


2Z 


Ut Syslur, 


5 Divis.on 


Comp'jler Syiteir, 




MIPS 




Landmar, 


S. AdrtlttW 


ET.r«Sl.p3B8/20 




*.91 




JS.0 


24.3 


Compaq ueskpro 156 ?J 




4.55 




KS 




Euro Sup 3B6/1E 




3.S3 




17.3 


19.5 


Enrii Slap 28S/16 




3.27 




21.* 


iw 


AST premium 366 2& 












WyseWiib 




2.sa 




3U 


.:< 


Acer 3S6 16 




v& 




r.f 


:« 


Compaq Deikpro 3H6 16 




in 




a.c 


;;.E 


IBM PS 2 Model 60. IBM 




;s: 








E«ra. Slap 286/12 




Hi 




15.9 


ia,7 


AST PflHtiia« 266 !C 




;:; 




as 




Compaq Dcskprc 266 12 




.m 








IBM PS 2 Models EC, EC 










u 


IBM PC AT BMHi 




os- 




u 






With a 3F 286 or 386 computer, you can do desktop 
publishing, word processing, process control, 
networking, database applications, accounting 
spreadsheets, inventory control, circuit design, 
computer aided design engineering and manufac- 
turing, and architectural design — the list goes on! 

These computers will also run with OS/2, MS OS/2, 
Lotus 123, Dbase III, Unix, Xenix, Informix, 
AutoCAD, Smarttalk, Q&A, Sidekick, Gem, 
Turbo Pascal, Multimate, Word, Wordperfect, 
Wordstar, Ventura, Novell Netware 286, IRMA board. 
Modems, Bernoulli boxes. Network Cards 



OTHER EVEREX COMPUTERS 

3F 286 System 

• 80286 CPU • 6/8/10 Keyboard 

• 1 .2MB Floppy Selectable 

• 51 2K Memory • 195 Watt Power Supply 

• 101 Keyboard • Optional 80287 Socket 

• FL/HD Controller • FCC UL Approved 

8MHz T Wail Slate 80286 Mono System $990 

10MHz T Wail State 80286 Mono System $1239 

10MHz '0' Wait Stale 80286 Mono System $1339 

12MHz '0' Wait State 80286 Mono System $1575 

For an EGA System add $350 

3F 386 System 

• 80386 CPU • FL/HD Controller 

• 1.2MB Floppy • 64K Cache 

• 1MB Memory • 16MHz CPU '0' Wait State 

• 101 Keyboard • 195 Watt Power Supply 

16MHz V Wail Stale 80386 Mono System $1975 

For an EGA System $2299 

Hard Disk add on for above Systems: 

20MB 65ms $249 

40MB 39ms $399 

80MB 28ms $710 

144MB 16.5ms $1995 

PRICES AND AVAILABILITY SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. 



Call Us For Full Line of EVEREX 
Peripheral Products. 



We Also Carry Hard/Floppy 
Drives, Monitors, Printers, 
Motherboards and 
All Major Software. 



3F Associates, Inc. 
44100 Old Warm Springs 
Fremont, CA 94538 



(415) 659-0403 
FAX (415) 651-9190 



88PC-16 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 



Circle 409 on Reader Service Card 



Short Takes 



BYTE editors offer hands-on views of new products 



Dell System 220 



T-DebugPLUS 4.0 



Z88 Portable 



Grammatik 



Watcom C 6.0 



Paradox OS/2 




Dell Machine Sets 80286 Speed Records 



You can sum up the new 
Dell System 220 in three 
words: small, powerful, and 
affordable. The new unit is 
one of the smallest desktop 
systems around, as well as the 
fastest 80286-based system 
available. And at $1799, 
including a video graphics 
array (VGA) monochrome 
monitor, it is easily the best 
million-instructions-per-sec- 
ond-per-dollar value on the 
market. 

The new system owes its 
prowess to a new 20-MHz 
CMOS 80286 processor, cur- 
rently available only from 
Harris, and a high-speed chip- 
set from Chips & Technol- 
ogies that saves plenty of board 
space. 

The System 220' s small 
size— it takes up about as 
much space as a briefcase — 
can be misleading. Inside, 
there are three IBM PC AT- 
-compatible expansion slots, 
laid horizontally front to back. 
There are also sockets for up to 
8 megabytes of fast 80-nano- 
second memory, a socket for 
an 80287 math coprocessor, 
two serial ports and a printer 
port, and space for a number 



THE FACTS j 


Dell System 220 


Options: 


$1799 with one floppy disk 


MS-DOS 3.3 with cache 


drive and VGA 


and disk utilities, $119.95. 


monochrome monitor; 


1 megabyte of RAM, $500. 


$1999 with color monitor; 


100-megabyte drive, $1700. 


$2699 with 40-megabyte 




hard disk drive and color 


Dell Computer Corp. 


VGA monitor 


9505 Arboretum Blvd. 




Austin, TX 78759 




(512)338-4400 




Inquiry 851. 



of hard disk options. 

My preproduction unit 
came with a lively 29-milli- 
second 40-megabyte hard disk 
drive and two 1 .44-megabyte 
floppy disk drives. Inside was 
an 80287 and a megabyte of 
memory. The system also 
came with a Mitsubishi color 
VGA monitor. In normal use, 
the Dell System 220 seemed 
immensely faster than my 
usual 6-MHz AT clone with a 
20-megabyte drive. Also, 
both the floppy and the hard 
disk drives on the 220 were 
surprisingly quiet. My im- 
pression of the 220 's speed 
was backed up by our bench- 
marks, which rated the 220 at 
about 1 percent faster than an 
IBM Model 80. 

With all its features, the 
only thing the 220 might pos- 
sibly lack is an 80386 proces- 
sor. This could become a fac- 
tor in the future, when an 
80386 with a 32-bit memory 
bus might be required for cer- 
tain high-performance soft- 
ware . But the 220 also lacks an 
80386 machine's high price 
tag. And for the foreseeable 
future, the 220 will probably 
be the best number-crunching 
bargain on the market. 

—Rich Matloy 




Squash Those 
Bugs 

Whenever you write a pro- 
gram that does more 
than print "Hello World" on 
the screen, you're likely to run 
into bugs. When you have to 
squash those bugs, a good 
symbolic debugger like 
T-DebugPLUS 4.0 for Turbo 
Pascal 4.0 can make your life 
much easier. 

Add-on programs for the 

Turbo Pascal environment 

have always found themselves 

continued 



AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 89 



SHORT TAKES 



in something of a quandary, 
since one of the main strengths 
of Turbo Pascal is its in- 
tegrated set of editing, de- 
velopment, and debugging 
tools. To convince users to 
turn away from one of the 
Turbo tools, a product has to 
be pretty impressive. I think 
this debugger could turn a few 
heads. 

T-DebugPLUS begins by 
offering features found in 
most symbolic debuggers. 
You can examine and alter 
variables using the names you 
gave them (instead of ad- 
dresses), set permanent and 
conditional breakpoints, set 
watchpoints, and single- or 
multiple-step through a pro- 
gram. In addition, T-Debug- 
PLUS lets you open watch win- 
dows on up to 8 variables at a 
time ( 1 2 at a time with EGA or 
VGA graphics), switch be- 
tween debug and output 



screens, switch between 
source code and assembly 
code views, and make use of 
expanded memory specifica- 
tion or extended memory to 
debug larger programs. 

The instruction set in T- 
DebugPLUS is mnemonic to a 
good extent, and commands 
can be chained together in 
macros. Both when I worked 
through the example code pro- 
vided with the package and 
when I used it on larger pro- 
grams, I found that the fea- 
tures of the package were easy 
to learn and use, so that I was 
able to really use the software 
after a short time. 

T-DebugPLUS comes with 
an installation program that 
patches TPC.EXE, TPMAP.EXE, 
and TURB0.EXE so that all will 
support local symbols. The 
patched versions of the pro- 
grams create TPU and TPM 
files that are twice as large as 



those created by unpatched 
versions, but are otherwise 
compatible with normal 
Turbo Pascal files. 

Using T-DebugPLUS is a 
simple matter. You compile 
your code to an .EXEfile, using 
the /$T+ command-line option 
of TPC.EXE or by setting the 
"Turbo Pascal map file" op- 
tion to On in TURB0.EXE. 

After compilation, you 
must exit to DOS and run T- 
DebugPLUS as a separate pro- 
gram to debug your code .This 
marks a change from earlier 
versions of T-Debug, which 
ran as a part of the integrated 
Turbo Pascal environment. 
According to TurboPower 
Software, the change was 
made because of the increased 
memory requirements of 
Turbo Pascal 4.0. 

Though the new version of 
T-DebugPLUS does not fit 
into the Turbo environment as 



seamlessly as older versions, I 
found it to be a valuable, easy- 
to-use tool in debugging pro- 
grams. Given the price and 
utility of the package, the 
slight increase in inconve- 
nience is most forgivable. 

— Curtis Franklin Jr. 



THE FACTS 



T-DebugPLUS 4.0 
$45; with source code, 
$90. 

Requirements: 
IBM PC, XT, AT, PS/2, 
or compatible with 
at least 256K bytes 
of RAM. 

TurboPower Software 
P.O. Box 66747 
Scotts Valley, CA 95066 
(415) 322-3417 
Inquiry 852. 



A Z88 Portable 
to Go 

The Cambridge Com- 
puter Z88 is a laptop por- 
table that weighs less than 2 
pounds and is scarcely larger 
than a copy of BYTE. Achiev- 
ing this compact size involved 
compromises: the Z88 has no 
disk drives but uses RAM for 
mass storage; it has only an 8- 
line liquid crystal display 
rather than a 25-line one; and 
it's not IBM PC -compatible 
but comes with a complete 
suite of applications software 
in ROM , like the Tandy Model 
100. 

The processor is a CMOS 
Z80 with 32K bytes of internal 
RAM and 128K bytes of 
ROM. The 9-pin serial port 
works at speeds up to 38,400 
bps. Power is supplied by four 
Walkman-size disposable dry 
cells that last about 20 hours. 
There are three slots at the 
front for memory cartridges. 

My test machine came with 
128K bytes of extra RAM and 
128K bytes of EPROM. A 
built-in PROM programmer 
lets you use the EPROM as 







i n 

1 I » 


Z88 


l 




W " 


^— iMiiM— ■ fe. 


V 




m o • 


" ^1 


■■■^■HaHMH 



THE FACTS 



Cambridge Computer 
Z88 Portable Computer 
$549.00 

SSI Computer System Inc. 
424 Cumberland Ave. 
Portland, ME 04101 
(207)761-3700 
Inquiry 853. 



Options: 

32K-byte EPROM cartridge, 
$45;128K-byteRAMor 
EPROM cartridge, $1 10; 
PC Link software and 
cable, $75; serial printer 
cable, $14; parallel printer 
cable, $65; modem, $225. 



nonvolatile, write-once mem- 
ory for semipermanent data 
like address lists; an optional 
ultraviolet eraser lets you re- 
use EPROM pack s . 5 1 2K-by te 
RAM cartridges will be ship- 
ping soon, allowing up to 1.5 
megabytes of RAM. The com- 
pany is also promising 1- 
megabyte cartridges soon. 

The keyboard is molded 
from a single sheet of black 
rubber and looks like a choco- 
late bar. Recent history has 
given rubber keyboards a bad 
name, but this one is different. 
It has a surprisingly positive 
action, and you can quickly 
begin to touch-type on it. The 
64-key layout is of standard 
typewriter pitch, with a full- 
size space bar and four cursor 
keys. 

The display is a supertwist 
LCD with dark blue charac- 
ters on pale yellow. It shows 8 
lines of 100 characters; the 
middle 80 are used for text, 
and each side is reserved for 
menus and indicators. It's 
deeply recessed to avoid dam- 
age, and the top edge throws a 
shadow that hinders viewing 
in some lightings. 

continued 



90 BYTE' AUGUST 1988 



STATGRAPHICS 



® 



%s. 



':■ ■ ■ . ^ MBSWB 



INCOME VS SAVINGS ANALYSIS 

VIA INTERACTIVE OUTLIER REGRESSION 



DISPOSABLE INCOME 

BO: 8.304 SE: 1.1173 T: 7.4321 
Bl: 1.0655E-3 SE: 7.4902E-4 T: 1.4225 
CORR: 0.24036 MSE: 20.691 DF: 33 
POINTS DELETED: 



Select the points you want to remove from your 
regression model. . . 




. . . Then press F6 to refit the model and 
recalculate the statistics. 



Because "Statistical Graphics" 
Is Better Than Just Statistics and Graphics 



Most of today's PC statistical 
packages give you all the 
statistics you'll ever need. Some 
even give you a few graphics. But 
only STATGRAPHICS from STSC 
gives you integrated statistical 
graphics in an environment you 
control. 

Unique "What If" Interactivity 

STATGRAPHICS lets you explore 
data relationships fully, 
producing higher quality, more 
timely solutions. Define your data 
and assumptions, run the 
procedure and review the results, 
modify data and assumptions 
repeatedly and take another 
look— and another. All without 
leaving the procedure or making 
permanent changes to your data. 



Integrated Statistical Graphics Over 250 Statistical Procedures 



Coupled with STATGRAPHICS' 
interactive environment are over 
50 types of graphs— traditional 
pie and bar charts, histograms, 
3-D line and surface plots, quality 
control charts, and more. All are 
integrated with the procedures 
so that they can be displayed 
instantly and modified 
repeatedly. 

Query data points, do on-screen 
forecasting and model fitting, 
overlay graphs, or zoom-in on any 
area for a closer look. With 
flexibility like that, you can spot 
and investigate visual trends in 
your data— trends you may have 
missed if you looked only at the 
numbers. 




• Direct Lotus® and dBASP 
interfaces 

• ANOVA and regression analysis 

• Experimental design 

• Quality control procedures 

• Multivariate techniques 

• Nonparametric methods 

• Exploratory data analysis 

• Forecasting, time series 
analysis, and more. 

STATGRAPHICS— 

The Best Way to Do Statistics! 

Put the power of STATGRAPHICS 
to work for you today— all for only 
$895*. For our free convincer kit or 
the name of a dealer near you, call 

(800) 592-0050 ext. 400 

In Maryland, (301) 984-5123; 
Internationally, (301) 984-5412. 
Telex 898085 STSC ROVE 



STSC 



STSC, Inc. 

2115 East Jefferson Street 

Rockville, Maryland 20852 



A wide variety of graphs supported on over 100 displays, printers and 
plotters, including the new IBM PS/2™ Series. 



Circle 226 on Reader Service Card 



'Suggested retail price in U.S. and Canada. 
International prices vary. Available through 
dealers and distributors worldwide. 
STATGRAPHICS, Lotus, and dBASE are 
registered trademarks of Statistical Graphics 
Corporation, Lotus Development Corporation, 
and AshtonTate, respectively. 

AUGUST 1988 'BYTE 91 






SHORT TAKES 




GET SUPERSOFT's 

Service Diagnostics 



All the software, alignment diskettes, parallel/serial wrap-around 
plugs, ROM POSTs and extensive, professional documentation to 
provide the most comprehensive testing available for IBM PCs, 
XTs.ATs and all compatibles under DOS or Stand Alone. No other 
diagnostics offers such in-depth testing on as many different types of 
equipment by isolating problems to the board and chip level. 

NEW: SuperSoft's ROM POST performs the most advanced 
Power-on-Self-Test available for system boards that are compatible 
with the IBM ROM BIOS. It works even in circumstances when the 
Service Diagnostics diskette cannot be loaded. 

NEW: 386 diagnostics for hybrids and PS/2s! 
For over nine years, major manufacturers have been relying on 
SuperSoft's diagnostics software to help them and their customers 
repair microcomputers. End users have been relying on SuperSoft's 
Diagnostics II for the most thorough hardware error isolation 
available. Now versions of Service Diagnostics are available to save 
everyone (including every serious repair technician) time, money, 
and headaches in fixing their computers, even non-IBM equipment. 



All CPUs & Numeric Co-processors 
System Expansion & Extended Memory 
Floppy, Fixed & Non-standard Disk Drives 
Standard & Non-standard Printers 
System Board: DMA, Timers, Interrupt, 
Real-time Clock & CMOS config. RAM 



All Color Graphics & Monochrome 

Monitors 
Parallels. Serial Ports 
Mono, CGA, Hercules & EGA 

Adapters 
All Keyboards & the 8042 Controller 



Join the ranks of XEROX, NCR, CDC, SONY, PRIME, ...who have 
bundled SuperSoft's diagnostics with their microcomputers at no risk 
because of our 30 day money back guarantee. 



Service Diagnostics for PC, PC/XT, and compatibles only $169 

Alignment Diskette lor PC, PC/XT and compatibles (48 tpi drives) $ 50 

Wrap-around Plug for PC. PC/XT and compatibles (parallel and serial) $ 30 

Service Diagnostics lor ATand compatibles only $169 

Alignment Diskette for AT and compatibles (96 tpi drives) $50 

Wrap-around Plug for AT (serial) $ 15 

ROM POST for PC, PC/XT, and compatiblesonly $245 

ROM POST for ATand compatibles only $245 

Service Diagnostics:TheKIT(includes all of theabove — save $502) $495 

Service Diagnostics for allother CPUs (386, V20.V30, Harris, etc.) $195 

Diagnostics II is the solution to the service problems of users of all CP/M-80, 

CP/M-86 and MS-DOS computers $125 

ROM POST for PS/2 and compatibles only $245 

Alignment Diskette for PS/2 and compatibles (3.5 inch) $50 



To order, call 800-678-3600 or 217-359-2112, 
FAX 217-359-7225, or write SuperSoft. 

SuperS ft 

FIRST IN SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY P.O. 80x1628 Champaign. IL61820 (217)359-2112 Telex 270365 



SUPERSOFT is a registered trademark ot SuperSoft, Inc.; CDC of Control Data Corp.. IBM PC AT & XT of 
International Business Machines Corp.; MS-DOS of Microsoft Corp.; NEC of NEC Information Systems. Inc., 
PRIME of PRIME INC.; Sony of Sony Corp. 



The ROM software is 
powerful and cleverly inte- 
grated. A combined word 
processor/spreadsheet called 
PipeDream works like Lotus 
1-2-3, using spreadsheet cells 
to hold document text, and acts 
as a simple database. 

PipeDream is easy to use 
and permits quite sophisti- 
cated layouts. It supports un- 
derline, italic, and boldface, 
which are visible on the 
WYSIWYG bit-mapped dis- 
play. To the right of the text 
area is a window that shows a 
1-pixel-per-character page 
preview; as well as verifying 
layout, this helps you find your 
place in long documents. 

You can interrupt any pro- 
gram and pop up another, and 
you may run as many copies of 
PipeDream, working on dif- 
ferent files, as memory per- 
mits. The other programs in- 
clude a good appointment 
diary/calendar, a calculator 
(with built-in unit conver- 
sions), a clock/ alarm, a termi- 
nal program, and BASIC. 
There are also pop-up system 
services, including a file man- 
ager, setup options, and 



Printer options. When you 
switch off the Z88, it saves the 
whole environment and starts 
back up where you left off. 

The operating system sup- 
ports hierarchical directories, 
I/O redirection, and proper 
batch files with an auto- 
execute option. RAM car- 
tridges are treated as separate 
devices, like disk drives. You 
can print files directly to serial 
or parallel printers, but the 
best way to use the Z88 is to 
upload files to a desktop PC at 
your office or home. The PC 
Link package consists of a 
plug-in ROM, a cable, and a 
disk of PC software; upload- 
ing is controlled entirely from 
the PC screen via menus. The 
communications package con- 
sists of a 1200-bps matchbox- 
style modem plus a communi- 
cations program in ROM . 

Don't disdain the Z88 just 
because it lacks an 80386 or a 
hard disk drive; the clever 
software makes it a match for 
many a larger machine. And 
when you have to carry it 
around all day, small really is 
beautiful. 

— Dick Fountain 



An Analyst for 
Your Writing 

Grammatik III is a new 
version of Reference 
Software's IBM PC-compati- 
ble program for analyzing 
documents for grammatical 
and stylistic errors. Unlike 
Grammatik II, which checked 
documents against a fixed 
phrase dictionary, Gramma- 
tik III uses parts of speech and 
suffix analysis to provide 
more comprehensive gram- 
mar checking. 

Not only does Grammatik 
HI find possible errors, but it 
also offers suggestions for im- 
provement. Grammatik III 
scans your document and 
finds basic errors like double 
words, unbalanced punctua- 
tion, or improper capitaliza- 
tion, as well as more subjective 
problems like use of the pas- 
sive voice, pretentious expres- 



sions and cliches, wordiness, 
and split infinitives. In addi- 
tion, Grammatik III checks 
for subject-verb disagree- 
ment, double negatives, in- 
complete sentences, and other 
incorrect usages. Since writ- 
ing "errors" are often subjec- 
tive, you can customize Gram- 
matik III to ignore certain 
types of phrases. 

While Grammatik II 
worked best with ASCII files 
(it had problems with word- 
processing control codes), 
Grammatik III is designed to 
work with most major PC- 
compatible word-processing 
programs. When you first in- 
stall the program, you select 
from a menu of word proces- 
sors and text formats . You then 
run your document through 
Grammatik III, either interac- 
tively or in batch mode. When 
in interactive mode, it flags 
suspected problems on the 
continued 



92 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 



Circle 228 on Reader Service Card 



$299 For 3-D CAD 
you can't be 
by spendin 
thousands more! 





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You can spend thousands of dollars 

for three dimensional CAD software 

and still not get the power and 

capability that DesignCAD 3-D 

offers for a remarkable $299! DesignCAD 3-D is 

proof positive that you don't have to spend a fortune 

for quality. 



DESIGNG4D 3D 



The compatibility that 
DesignCAD 3-D offers you means 
that it can be used with almost any 
PC compatible system. It supports 
more than 200 dot matrix printers, more than 80 plotters 
and most digitizers and graphic adapters. DesignCAD 
3-D can read drawings from most other CAD systems. 



DesignCAD 3-D allows you to develop and advance 

any design in 3 dimensional space, while providing you 

with features such as shading, hidden line removal, 

printer and plotter support. DesignCAD 3-D's extensive 

file transfer utilities allow you to: transfer documents 

to and from IGES, DXF HPGL, transfer to GEM and 

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DesignCAD 3-D, all at no extra has listed DesignCAD 3-D 

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Circle 13 on Reader Service Card 



The best reason to buy DesignCAD 3-D is not the low 
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powerful commands mean that you can produce 
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CAD system for IBM PC, at any price! 

See your local computer dealer for DesignCAD 3-D, or contact: 

•//American 

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Telex 9102400302 

AUGUST 1988 • B Y T E 93 



Circle 69 on Reader Service Card 



SHORT TAKES 



New, Expandable 
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screen. You can edit the prob- 
lem phrase or sentence, ignore 
it, or instruct Grammatik III 
not to flag this type of problem 
in the future. After you've fin- 
ished checking the document, 
Grammatik III saves the 
edited version and makes a 
backup of the original. 

Grammatik III also pro- 
vides a statistical summary of 
the document (number and 
type of errors found, a "read- 
ability index," and other 
statistics). 

In batch mode, Grammatik 
III marks your document 
without your intervention, 
saves the marked file, and 
creates a backup of the origi- 
nal. You can then work with 
the marked document using 
your word processor. Gram- 
matik III includes an optional 
spelling checker, but spelling 
checking more than doubles 
the grammar-checking time. 
If your word processor has a 
separate spelling checker, it's 
probably better to use it. 

I tested a beta version of 
Grammatik III using an IBM 
PC XT with an Orchid 286 ac- 
celerator card (TurboEGA). 
In batch mode, a 10,000-word 
document took about 4 min- 
utes to check. I tried the pro- 
cess using both a hard disk and 
a RAM disk and got about the 
same results (the CPU is the 



Can You Stand 
Another 
C Compiler? 

Start with your basic C 
compiler: ANSI C sup- 
port, Make feature, symbolic 
debugger, editor, integrated 
development environment, 
overlay linker. Also give it 
support for the usual confus- 
ing array of memory models 
(small, medium, compact, 
large, and huge), and the abil- 
ity to generate instructions 
compatible with the 80x86 
processors, up to but not in- 
cluding the 80386. Plus sup- 
port for the 8087, 80287, and 
80387 math coprocessors. 



bottleneck rather than the disk 
access speed). 

In my tests, Grammatik III 
found a lot of errors but also 
missed some blatant ones. For 
example, it missed "many 
friends of mine lives in New 
York" and the incomplete sen- 
tence, "So should be fun." It 
did find "their going to have a 
party, " and gave the message: 
[the context of "their" indi- 
cates you may have meant 
"there" or "they're."] Al- 
though it missed some errors 
and also flagged some correct 
grammatical phrases, the pro- 
gram is helpful in identifying 
possible stylistic or grammati- 
cal problems. 

—Nick Baran 



THE FACTS 



Grammatik III 
$99.00 

Requirements: 
IBM PC, XT, AT, or 
compatible, 128K bytes 
of RAM, DOS3.0or higher, 
one floppy disk drive. 

Reference Software 
330 Townsend St. 
Suite 123 

San Francisco, CA 94107 
(415) 541-0222 
Inquiry 854. 



You now have all the under- 
pinnings of Watcom C 6.0. 
And most of the other C com- 
pilers that have hit the ground 
in the last year. 

Now give it a price: $495 . A 
little steep? Not for what 
amounts to two compilers. 

Here's where Watcom C be- 
gins to part company with the 
crowd. It actually consists 
of WCC, which operates with 
a 64K-byte data area; and 
WCGL, which makes use of 
all available memory (up to 
640K bytes). The idea is that, 
though WCGL is slower than 
WCC, it can compile all the 
monstrous programs that 
would overflow WCC 's mem- 
ory allotment. 

continued 



94 BYTE* AUGUST 1988 



Circle 49 on Reader Service Card 



Software Breakthrough: 

the RANDOM information processor 



New Concept 

With all the software tools available, it is 
surprising that an important need has 
been overlooked— a way to deal with the 
countless bits of RANDOM information 
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■ RANDOM Information 

Did you ever realize that over half the information 
you deal with every day is the RANDOM type? 
Not databases not spreadsheets not long 
documents but the information scattered around 
your workplace and in your head. Yet amazingly, 
until now there was no great software to help 
you the tools were either too structured or 
without organization. But now, at last, there is a 
quick and easy solution -Tornado acclaimed by . 
rave reviews and accepted by corporations 
nationwide. Whether you are a business executive, 
consultant, engineer, or in any other profession, 
you need Tornado -it will save you endless time 
and effort every day— guaranteed -or your money 
back. Here is how it works: 



■ Information Windows 

With Tornado, you process information in stacks 
of superfast "intelligent" windows -several on 
your screen at once. You type into the windows; 
interconnect and prioritize them; and scan through 
them in remarkable ways. 

■ Free Form 

Tornado is FREE-FORM. It works the way you 
think. To start a new window you just press N, 
and enter information. No file names. No extra 
keystrokes. To retrieve information you just press 
G (for Get), with any word or phrase you'll 
watch Tornado zip through your windows like 
lightning linking and opening 
those requested. You can even 
flip through your windows with 
the arrow keys and watch them 
instantly pile up and lift away. 
These are just three of 18 easy 
but powerful features. 

■ Countless Uses 

There are thousands of uses for 
Tornado. When Harry calls you 
on the phone, in two seconds 
flat youll display the six 
windows on Harry before he 
finishes his first sentence! No 
more embarrassing pauses or 
scrambling for information. 
Tornado is so versatile you can: 
write and print a letter faster 
than ever; track things to do; 
edit electronic mail; and plan a project 
or event quickly and easily. You can 
even build a sophisticated "knowledge'' 
base or an unstructured data base 
without programming. And that's not 
all. Track phone conversations, 
numbers, customers, and all your 
other RANDOM information. On a 
portable, Tornado is your ideal 
moving office. Best of all, you tailor 
Tornado to your own needs easily! 

■ 25,000 Windows 

Instead of one window or ten, imagine up to 25,000! 
It's like extra memory.. .for your brain! The uses are 
endless. If you can "type" it you can "Tornado" it. 
And because it's memory resident (if you choose) you 
can quickly jump in from other programs -even move 
information between them. All this power, yet reviewers 
agree you can start "Tornado-ing" in 15 minutes — not 
15 days. 

■ Three Versions 

Choose the Tornado that's right for you: 
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Regular Tornado— $99.95 -Full version with all 
commands and full information capacity (up to 
25,000 windows and 2,500,000 characters). 
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capacity, plus "Library" of windows containing: 
free-form year logger, simple project planner, grid 
maker, city/ state/ area code/ time zone translator, 
and more templates and references. 

■ Productivity Tool 

To reach your goals, you need tools that 
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your best decisions. Tornado fits the bill perfectly. 
In fact user surveys show you may well use 
Tornado more than any other software package! 
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I 



FEATURES: free-form & predefined windows, scrolling within window, import & export to files & 
screens, cut & paste, auto word wrap, time & date stamp, move &join & dup windows, mono or selectable color, definable Hot-key 
or non-resident, unloadable, LAN support, context help, extended ASCI I, smart fully adjustable windows, parallel text processing, 
progressive resolution and "and-or-not" like searching without keywords, and more. COMPATIBILITY: IBM-PC/ XT; AT/ PS2 
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Dept T-160, 100 2nd St., POB 70 
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Circle 163 on Reader Service Card 



Fast Microprocessor 
Development 




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SHORT TAKES 



SERIES 32000 MODULA-2 COMPILER 

Program development system (or Series 32000 based embedded systems running on IBM-PC/XT/A T and PS/2-30 



Description: 

- Add-In board consisting of Scries 32000 chip set and ROM-residcni 
EDITOR. COMPILER, LINKER. DECODER and MAKE UTILITY 

Host Hardware: 

- IBM PC/XT/AT or compatible with free half card slut 
Host Software: 

- DOS 2.0 or later 
Target Hardware: 

- Any Series 32000 based embedded system 
Target Software: 

- Runtime support Is supplied in source form 

Key Product Features; 

-This compiler enables you [o use all llie features of Modula-2 ;ls described 
in Nickluus Wirth's Programming in Modula-2 (3rd edition). 

- The target runtime support module. Supplied in source form, includes a 
floating point package which emulates the NS320N I chip, if necessary, 

- The system's command-line-hnset! user interface is on-screen supported 
ant! leads the user through the command entering process. 

- The information display makes COmtanl reference lo a manual unnecessary 
by providing the user with the information needed to run the system. 



Itoconvertaselofsou 

it of up to 400 module* 



- Only a single command lir 
into an executable file. 

- Any individual application 
entirely in Modula-2. 



Key Product Benefits: 

- Manual-free use 

- Programs can be written entirely in Modula-2 

- I-asy handling of very large program packages 

- Convenient transfer of Modula-2 programs written for otlie 
Series 32IXXI environment 



- Reasonably priced developm 
32000 microjiroccssors 



it system for the entire family of Sen. 



Product Vendor: 

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THE FACTS 



Watcom C 6.0 
$495 (includes 
Express C) 

Requirements: 

IBM PC, XT, AT, PS/2, 

or true compatible, DOS 

2.0 or higher, and 512K 

bytes of memory 

recommended. 



I performed some informal 
tests on the Watcom compiler, 
stacking it up against Micro- 
soft C 5.0 on my 10-MHz AT 
clone. I modified our new Sort 
benchmark to create an array 
whose elements were in re- 
verse order, and I hand-timed 
the execution speed of the re- 
sult. (I used small models for 
both compilers and set no 
compile switches— I handed 
identical copies of the source 
code to each compiler.) The 
Watcom compiler's version 
completed in 11.3 seconds, 
while Microsoft ' s took over 1 5 
seconds. However, the execut- 
able file Watcom created was 
over 12K bytes in size, while 
Microsoft C created an 8K- 
byte executable file. I figure 
it's the same old equation: 
speed at the cost of space. 

And, yes, you'll find yet an- 
other editor supplied with the 
Watcom disks. The editor is 
simple enough to use, allows 
you to work on more than one 
document simultaneously via 
multiple workspaces, can op- 
erate in either line mode or 



Options: 

Watcom Express C, $125 

(if purchased separately) 

Watcom 
415 Phillip St. 
Waterloo, Ontario 
Canada N2L3X2 
(800) 265-4555 
Inquiry 855. 



screen mode, and supports 
editing macros. 

Watcom's answer to Turbo 
C and Quick C is Express C. 
As you might guess, you can 
operate Express C with Wat- 
com's editor in an integrated 
environment so that all devel- 
opment functions— compil- 
ing, linking, editing— occur 
in memory. 

What you might not guess is 
that Express C also includes a 
memory-resident source-level 
debugger that allows you to 
trace program execution, view 
and modify variable contents, 
set breakpoints, and display 
your program's output. If you 
launch Express C with the /d 
option, the debugger automat- 
ically fires up when you com- 
pile and run your program. 
While experimenting with the 
debugger, I stumbled onto a 
bug in the benchmark pro- 
gram I was creating . But that ' s 
what it's there for, right? 

When I pitted Express C 

against Turbo C (using yet 

another variant of the Sort 

continued 



96 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 



Circle 11 on Reader Service Card 



When 
quantum 



just not enough: 



ProBas 

Professional Basic 
Programming Library 

ProBas is a library of routines that kicks 
QuickBASIC and BASCOM into 5th gear and 
gives you powers and abilities far beyond 
those of mortal men. It's the greatest thing 
since sliced bread and if you don't get it today, 
your hard disk will crash in retaliatioa So 
much for the hype, now down to brass tacks: 

• 832 routines (886 in Assembly) 

• 8O0 page 3-part manual 

• Full-featured windowing 

• Screen snapshots 

• Virtual screens in memory 

• Lightning-fast file I/O 

• Access EMS as files or arrays 

• Full mouse support 

Plus 200 essential services from directory and 
equipment routines to handy string, date, time, 
and input routines. 

Sick of running out of string space? Store 
hundreds of K in numeric arrays or megabytes 
in EMS arrays. Tired of using a kludgy SHELL 
to DIR to read a directory? Scan subdirectories 
using wild-cards and store thousands of file 
names, dates, and times. Wish you could drag 
a window containing text or a menu around 
the screen with a mouse? It's easy! 

ProBas virtual screens allow you to draw full 
or partial screens to memory, and then snap 
them on in an eyeblink- faster and without 
the limitations of PCOPY. Draw and store 
hundreds of pull-down menus or help screens, 
each in its own array, ready to be displayed 
anywhere on the screen at assembly speeds - 
you just can't get any faster. 

ProBas gives you a complete set of blazingly- 
fast file routines. Read or write up to 64k 
chunks of data at a clip, with file locking and 
error handling so that you can even use them 
in subprograms. You'll never want to use 
BASICs file I/O agair! No royalty and not 
copy protected For all versions of 
QuickBASIC and BASCOM including BASCOM 
6.0 for OS/2 Just $99,001 



Add $3.00 per item ($7.00 Canada) (or shipping. 

Trademarks: ProBas. ProRef. ProScreen: Hammerly 

Computer Services , Inc . QuickBASIC , BASCOM: 
Microsoft Corp . 



ProBas 

ToolKit 

The ToolKit is a collection of assembly and 
BASIC modules that use the ProBas library 
to save you even more hours of grunt work 
Call a ring, bar, pop-up, or pull-down menu 
Pop up a mini-word processor with word- 
wrap in a window. Make file I 'O faster with b- 
tree indexing You get: 

• Dozens of Menu Generators 

• Fast B-tree indexing 

• Mini-editor with word-wrap 

• Patch . EXE files 

• Protected storage areas 

• Display text files in windows 

• Julian date routines 

• Documented BASIC source 

Plus dozens of powerful, easy to use routines 
that help conserve the most valuable asset of 
all, time! Requires ProBas. Just $99. 00! 

ProScreen- 

Professional Screen 
Management System 

ProScreen is a full-featured screen generator 
/editor that will save you more design and 
coding time than you ever thought possible. 
ProScreen works with screens like a word 
processor works with text to provide 
complete control over screen characters, 
placement and colors. Edit up to 3 screens at a 
time and perform block moves, block copies, 
merge and cut and paste operations- even 
between screens - with ease 

Use ProScreen to prototype designs, create 
full or partial screens for import via ProBas, 
or create input screens that have up to 130 edit 
fields per screen You can even take snapshots 
of other applications, edit them, and produce 
demos and working tutorials. ProScreen 
comes with subroutine source, extensive on- 
line help and a 285 page manual with tutorial 
and reference. Just $99 . 001 



ProBas. 

TeleComm ToolKit 

The ProBas TeleComm ToolKit is a 
collection of high-level communications 
modules that you plug into your code to 
provide popular file transfer protocols, 
terminal emulations, auto-dialing, phone data 
base, login scripts and more. Plug just the 
routines you need into your programs. 

• Xmodem/Modem7/Xmodem-lk 

• Ymodem (single and batch) 

• CRC-16 and Checksum 

• VT52, VTIOO, ANSI BBS etc. 

• Auto Dialer & data base 

• Script language support 

• Full terminal program 

• Documented BASIC source 

The TeleComm ToolKit comes with a 
detailed manual and a full terminal program in 
BASIC. Requires ProBas. Just $75. OOl 

ProRef™ 

On-Line Help 
For ProBast- 

ProRef is three products in one- a pop-up 
help system for the 232 routines in ProBas, 
pop-up help for your routines, and an 
extension of the QuickBASIC programming 
environment See the calling syntax and help 
for any ProBas routine, or any of your 
routines, with just a few keystrokes or mouse 
clicks. Pop-up an ASCII chart, calculator, 
keyboard scan code module or almost any 
DOS program via hot-key. Just $50. OOl 



Our money-back guarantee assures you the 
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HAMMERLY 

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1M 



SHORT TAKES 



mmamBMBummtamm 



...the first completely integrated Ada Program- 
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-IntegrAda Compilers 



with TEXTJO; 
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98 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 



Circle 267 on Reader Service Card 
(DEALERS: 268) 



benchmark with a smaller 
array size), I found that Turbo 
C chalked up a compile-and- 
execute time of 9 seconds 
against Express C's 28 sec- 
onds. I thought I could attrib- 
ute Express C's poor showing 
to the fact that it performed 
array- and pointer-bounds 
checking unless told other- 
wise. But even when I told it 
otherwise, it still hit the wire 



Paradox Takes 
on OS/2 

f you've used the MS-DOS 

version of Paradox, Para- 
dox OS/2 will be immediately 
familiar. Except for the OS/2 
line on the opening screen, the 
actual user interface is identi- 
cal, and it works exactly the 
same; it is compatible with 
files, scripts, and reports from 
earlier versions. 

The differences showed up 
when I started doing some ac- 
tual work. Because Paradox 
OS/2 runs in 80286 protected 
mode, it directly addresses all 
your system memory. That 
eliminates the time-consum- 
ing disk reads and memory 
swapping that take place under 
the MS-DOS version. 

This immediately trans- 
lates into speed. Database ac- 
cess, moving around tables, 
and doing usual work like 
sorting and generating reports 
is noticeably faster, though 
your mileage will vary de- 
pending on the type of data- 
base you're using and what 
you're doing with it. 

You can run multiple Para- 
dox OS/2 sessions at the same 
time, and even share data and 
utilities among them. This is 
heady stuff for those of us used 
to the one-task-at-a-time limi- 
tation of MS-DOS. 

Paradox OS/2 uses the same 
concurrency controls to coor- 
dinate multiple sessions that 
Paradox 2 uses to coordinate 
multiple users on a network. 
There are, of course, some 
limitations. You can't physi- 
cally make changes to two ses- 
sions concurrently, so Para- 



at about 27 seconds. 

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Watcom C is a class act, and 
the source-code debuggers for 
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EXPERT ADVICE 
COMPUTING AT CHAOS MANOR 



Jerry Pournelle 




A Fond 
Farewell 



Is Jerry's old friend 

Zeke II retiring 

to greener pastures? 



This is a shameless commer- 
cial. As I write this, Legacy of 
Heorot by Larry Niven, Jerry 
Pournelle, and Steve Barnes is 
on the best-seller list in England. About 
the time you read this, the paperback ver- 
sion will be out from Pocket Books. If 
every BYTE reader goes out and buys 
one, it will hit the best-seller list here. If 
you all buy another for a friend- 
Well, anyway, it's a good book about 
the first interstellar colony (sent out by 
the National Geographic Society), it has 
a nice computer in it, and you can buy the 
book at your favorite bookstore. Mean- 
while, there's a lot happening at Chaos 
Manor. 

Writers are superstitious about all 
kinds of things. Goethe had to have a 
drawer full of rotten apples. Schiller 
wanted cats in the room. Some need a 
particular brand of coffee or a favorite 
coffee mug. 

Not all writers worry about furniture, 
but many do. I confess I'm one of them. 
Of course, I don't think of it as supersti- 
tion, just good organization. 

What I want is a big desk, the bigger 
the better, that I can get right up close to, 
and high enough for drafting work. For 
years, I used a 4- by 8-foot piece of half- 
inch mahogany plywood screwed to the 
top of an ancient student desk that stood 
on little feet to raise it; the result was 
overhangs on all four sides deep enough 
that I could scoot a chair right up to the 
desk. It was a little odd getting to the 
drawers, but the system worked. 

Of course, I didn't do my writing on 
that structure, because it was too high to 
set a typewriter on. Instead, I set my 
Selectric on a regular typing table, one 



large enough to hold not only the type- 
writer, but pages to be retyped or a few 
books. The typing table was at right 
angles to the desk, so I had only to swivel 
around to get at it. That way, I could lay 
out notes and research work on the big 
desk, turn left to the Selectric when I was 
writing, and turn back to the desk to re- 
view notes. 

When I got Ezekial, my old friend who 
happened to be a Cromemco Z80, I set 
things up the same way, with Zeke tak- 
ing the place of the Selectric. Of course, 
an S-100 system with 8-inch disk drives 
wouldn't fit on a normal typing table, 
and I ended up building a furniture sys- 
tem that had the computer itself near the 
floor, the disk drives on a counter, and 
the 15-inch monochrome Hitachi moni- 
tor on top of the disk drives. 

The keyboard first went on the Selec- 
tric's old typing table; later, I got a larger 
table that would hold the keyboard and a 
bunch of notebooks and stuff. The moni- 
tor was at eye level and 30 inches away, 
just far enough that I didn't need the 
reading element of my bifocals to read 
the large text put up by the Processor 
Technology VDM board. There were 
only 16 lines of 64 characters, but that 
was enough. 

I wrote on that system for years. Eze- 
kial himself evolved into Zeke II: a 
CompuPro S-100 "boat-anchor" box and 
CompuPro 8-inch disk drives, but the 
same Hitachi 15-inch monitor driven by 
the same VDM memory-mapped video 
board. Larry Niven bought an exact du- 
plicate of Zeke II. We wrote a number of 
books on those two machines. I also 
wrote these columns and everything else 
I did, a total of several million words. 

I tried the IBM PC when it first came 
out. I even bought one, but for research 
only . I had no temptation to use it to write 
books. PC text editors weren't good 
enough. Their only advantage was that a 
PC would put up 24 lines of text as op- 
posed to Zeke's 16, but against that the 
PC was very slow compared to Zeke. In 



particular, it scrolled slower. With Zeke 

I could instantaneously flip back and 
forth by pages, which more than made up 
for the 16-line limitation. Also, it took a 
lot longer to read and write IBM 5 V* -inch 
disks than 1.2-megabyte CompuPro 8- 
inch disks. For the first 5 or 6 years after 
the PC came out, there was just no incen- 
tive to change over from Zeke. 

Slowly, though, PCompatibles got 
faster and better. EGA video put up read- 
able text in color. New PCompatible the- 
saurus and spelling programs came 
out— although Oasis Systems' The Word 
Plus was for a very long time the best 
spelling program around (it's still the 
basis for the spelling checker in many 
well-known word processors). Writing 
utilities like Grammatik II (and now III) 
and the Readability program would work 
only with PCompatibles. Editor pro- 
grams sprouted features not available for 
my old CP/M-system. I found I was using 
the PC more and more. 

Eventually, the only things I was writ- 
ing on Zeke II were books in collabora- 
tion with Larry Niven. When we brought 
in Steve Barnes to work on Legacy of 
Heorot, we had another problem: Steve 
was using WordStar on a Kaypro PCom- 
patible, and his files had to be translated 
from PC-DOS to CP/M. 

Fortunately, we had the means to do 
it: the Golem, my big CompuPro Dual 
Processor (80286 master, Z80 slave 
board), can read and write 360K-byte 
5'/4-inch DOS disks, and it also sports a 
pair of 8-inch floppy disk drives (as well 
as a 40-megabyte Priam hard disk drive). 
We could feed Steve's disks into the 
Golem, run his files through a filter, and 
write them out on 8-inch disks that Zeke 

II could read into our CP/M text editor. 
When we finished Legacy of Heorot, I 

decided enough was enough. Niven was 
working on a new book with David 
Drake, and Drake uses a Toshiba T1000 
PCompatible with 3V2-inch disks. Get- 
ting Drake's stuff onto the CP/M system 

continued 



AUGUST 1988 • B Y T E 101 



CHAOS MANOR 



and Larry's onto Drake's Toshiba was 
no easy job. It was time for a change. 

Niven was persuaded to go buy a 
PCompatible: a Zenith Z-386 with a hard 
disk drive, a 19-inch Electrohome moni- 
tor, and both 514- and 3 '/2-inch floppy 
disk drives. That took care of the Drake 
collaboration. I converted our latest stuff 
over to PCompatible format. Now I was 
doing all my writing on PCompatibles. 

I had long since set up a PCompatible 
on the opposite side of my desk from 
Zeke; swivel left to the PCompatible, 
swivel right to Zeke (and also to a termi- 
nal that controls the Golem). Which 
PCompatible it was changed from time to 
time: first Big Kat the Kaypro 286, then 
Fast Kat the Kaypro 386, and now Zanna 
Lee the Zenith Z-386. Zeke II sat there 
watching in silence. He had nothing to 
do, and we turned him on only when a 
visitor wanted to see him. 

Then BYTE wanted a column for the 
special Macintosh edition. Apple sent a 
Mac II. About then, Cheetah put to- 
gether the Big Cheetah, a 20-MHz 80386 
with a Priam 330-megabyte internal hard 
disk drive and a Maximum Storage APX- 
3200 WORM (write once, read many) 
drive. Commodore sent the Amiga 2000. 
Atari sent a Mega ST. Every one of those 
machines had to be set up on test stands 
far away from my desk, making it very 
inconvenient to use them— and after all, 
the point of this column is to write about 
stuff I've used for practical work. 

Something had to be done, and I did it. 

Three weeks ago, Zeke II retired. We 
had a little ceremony and wheeled him 
out. 

At the moment, the poor old fellow is 
sitting in the storeroom. All his parts are 
there— disk drives, Hitachi monitor, key- 
board, and all the cables— but they aren't 
assembled. I haven't really had the heart 
to do it. As far as Zeke knows, he was 
turned off one day and hasn't been awak- 
ened again. Suppose I connect him up 
and he sees where he is? Unthinkable. 

I confess I don't really know what to 
do with him. What I'd like is to find him 
a good home. Oh, sure, there are some 
mad hobbyists who'd like to have all his 
parts, but I can't allow that. What I want 
is someone who will use him— but who? 
Who, after all, is likely to want an an- 
cient Z80 machine that's physically 
larger than a two-drawer file cabinet, has 
8-inch disk drives that spin all the time, 
and has a 16-line by 64-character display 
driven by the world's last operating Pro- 
cessor Technology VDM board? He's a 
wonderful old guy, but he's also a mu- 
seum piece. 

I know from my mail that I have very 



clever readers, and some seem as devoted 
to old Zeke as I am. I've decided to have 
a contest: I'm soliciting the best sugges- 
tion as to what to do with Zeke, the Com- 
puPro S-100 Z80. I'm not sure what the 
prizes will be. Something appropriate, 
like dinner at a COMDEX or West Coast 
Computer Faire for the best half dozen 
letters, and something a bit more special 
for the winner. 

The rules are simple: I'll consider any 
suggestion provided that Zeke will be 
kept intact and there's some chance of 



I 



he Mac 

has a well-deserved 

reputation for being 

easy for utter beginners 

to use. 



implementing it. If you want to tell me 
why Zeke ought to be given to you, or 
your family, or some favorite institution, 
feel free. If you think he belongs in the 
Smithsonian, you'll have to show me 
some evidence that the Smithsonian 
would be interested. If you think he 
ought to be sent to the center of the gal- 
axy, you'll have to explain how that could 
be accomplished. 

The decision of the judge— me— is 
final, all entries become part of the gen- 
eral chaos in Chaos Manor, and some 
will be returned but others won't be be- 
cause they're lost or the dog ate them. 
Contest closes on Thanksgiving Day. 

The Furniture Dilemma 

When I first got Zeke, there wasn't any 
commercial computer furniture. In those 
days, you either made do with typing 
tables or designed and built your own 
"workstation." In the early 1980s there 
was a flood of the stuff, most badly de- 
signed. Gradually, evolution and the 
market took care of the situation, so that 
now you can get quite a bit of computer 
furniture designed for PCompatibles. 
There's also some for the Macintosh. 

Alas, there is absolutely nothing satis- 
factory for the Mac II; and what has 
evolved for PCompatibles isn't going to 
be useful much longer. The problem is 
mice. 

Until recently, PCompatible users 



didn't need mice. You couldn't operate a 
Mac without one, but many considered a 
mouse for the PC to be a pretentious bit of 
luxury. Slowly, though, PC users began 
to change their minds. Some programs 
require mice — it's possible to use Micro- 
soft Word without one, but you won't like 
it much. Others weren't designed for 
mice but work better if you have them: 
WordPerfect with either Mouse Perfect 
or a properly written script for Logi- 
tech's Menu mouse support package is a 
good case in point, being much easier to 
use with a mouse. 

Also, the Mac has a phenomenal (and 
well-deserved) reputation for being easy 
for utter beginners to use, and much of 
the Mac's design philosophy is drifting 
over into PCompatible software designs. 
The upshot, in my judgment, is that mice 
are taking over the computer world, and 
pretty soon none of us will feel at home 
without them. 

That's where the furniture problem 
comes in. With the exception of a few 
special items jiggered for the Mac and 
dependent on the old Mac's small foot- 
print and weird keyboard, there isn't any 
computer furniture designed for mouse 
users. 

One of the best kinds of computer desk 
starts with a more mundane item— office 
desk or credenza or even a solid counter- 
top— and puts a keyboard drawer under- 
neath. There are a number of keyboard 
drawers, and while many of them are 
overpriced, all the ones I've seen work 
quite well and are easy enough to install. 
All the keyboards I've used fit well in the 
drawer tray, and the system is solidly 
built so things don't wobble when I type. 
However, every one of those keyboard 
drawers, without exception, is too nar- 
row to hold both a keyboard and a mouse. 

I suppose it's only a matter of time 
until someone gets smart and makes a 
computer desk with a keyboard area large 
enough for both keyboard and mouse, but 
that hadn't happened by Spring COM- 
DEX; I looked at every computer furni- 
ture display in Atlanta, and except for 
one desklike system that's a full 4 feet 
wide, there wasn't a thing. Sigh. 

Amiga Progress 

One of my high points of COMDEX was 
a demonstration of new developments for 
the Amiga given by Dr. Harry Rubin, 
chief operating officer of Commodore 
America. Rubin's enthusiasm for the 
Amiga is unmatched; he reminds me of 
some of the company executives back in 
the early days of microcomputers. 
One thing they showed me was Unix 

continued 



102 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 



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617-337-6963 



Circle 181 on Reader Service Card 



Circle 224 on Reader Service Card 



CHAOS MANOR 



running on what appeared to be an 
Amiga 2000. This was full System V 
Unix, no compromises, and, even loaded 
down with several simultaneous tasks, it 
certainly looked fast enough. Fair warn- 
ing: this is a show report. I'll have more 
on it when it's running here at Chaos 
Manor and I can turn Alex loose on it. I 
can only say that what I saw at COMDEX 
impressed the heck out of me. 

Meanwhile, at the Amiga developers' 
conference held just before COMDEX, 



they distributed new ROM chips for the 
2000. Joanne Dow was given a copy for 
installation in my machine, and about an 
hour ago she came over and did the job. 

ROM installation in the Amiga is sim- 
ple but tedious. You have to remove about 
eight screws so that you can move the 
hard disk drive, floppy disk drive, and 
power supply. The good news is that 
they're all mounted on a rigid frame that 
moves as a unit, so once the screws are 
removed, the whole assembly lifts off to 



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Resident Expert Shell $19.95 

Resident Expert Compiler . . . 39.95 

Reference Guides for... 

dBase III Plus (new) $39.95 

Microsoft C (5.0) 39.95 

Microsoft Quick C (1.0) ... . 19.95 

Lattice C (3.2) 39.95 

Lotus 1-2-3 Rel 2 (new) 39.95 

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expose the ROM chip. After that, things 
are simple. 

AmigaDOS is not simple. I watched 
Joanne do her magic lor a while, but I 
soon lost track. What I can say is that 
after about half an hour of work she had 
set up the Amiga 2000 so that on power- 
up you must boot it with a floppy disk— it 
still won't entirely boot from the hard 
disk drive— but that process is considera- 
bly faster than it used to be. The good 
news is that once that's done, the Amiga 
can be reset and rebooted from a RAM 
disk. That takes only a few seconds. 

I don't know of any other computer 
that can boot from its own RAM disk. 

There are other developments. There's 
a new version of the Amiga operating 
system, which is said to speed up disk op- 
erations. There were certainly plenty of 
software developers at the COMDEX 
Amiga booth. A number of "standard" 
PC programs, including WordPerfect, 
have been ported over to the Amiga and 
work fine there. 

All in all, the Amiga seems to be im- 
proving steadily. More when I learn 
more. I'm supposed to have Unix for the 
Amiga coming in the next week or so. 

Scanners Live in Vain 

Spring COMDEX wasn't very exciting if 
you were looking for something new. 
There were almost no new products, and 
not much more new technology. There 
was, however, considerable excitement 
among dealers, a general feeling that the 
doldrums are over and the computer in- 
dustry is ready to take off again. 

The most exciting new hardware prod- 
uct I saw was the Logitech ScanMan. 
This is a small hand scanner that inter- 
faces with a Logitech printed circuit 
board. You run the scanner over text or 
pictures or whatever, and it makes a bit- 
mapped image similar to a PC Paint file. 

Meanwhile, over in the Apparel Cen- 
ter — where all the newcomers to COM- 
DEX are sent— Flagstaff Engineering 
was exhibiting a program that takes 
scanned text images and turns them into 
machine-readable files. I suppose I'd 
better explain that. 

Computers can store text in two differ- 
ent ways. The most familiar way is as ac- 
tual text files, in which the machine 
"knows" what's there. Each letter, num- 
ber, and punctuation mark is stored as a 
uniquely recognizable binary number, so 
that the machine can not only reproduce 
the text, but also manipulate it in orderly 
ways. It can make alphabetic sorts, look 
at words and compare them to dictio- 
naries, and in general act as though it 

continued 



104 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 



Circle 212 on Reader Service Card 



COMPUTER DISCOUNT WAREHOUSE 



SEC 



SEC 






NEC Multispeed $1348.64 

NEC Multispeed EL 1499.76 

NEC Multispeed HD w/20 Meg . . .2365.77 

NEC Powermate 2, 40 Meg NEW 

NEC Powermate 2, 66 Meg LOWER 

NEC Powermate 386, 66 Meg NEC 

NEC Powermate 386, 130 Meg . . PRICES 



LASER TURBO 

XT Turbo, 512K, 1 floppy, 
P/S/G, Enhanced keyboard, 

EMS mem S699.10 

XT Turbo, 1 floppy, 20 Meg . .969.34 
XT Turbo, 1 floppy, 40 Meg .1194.22 
XT Turbo, 1 floppy, 70 Meg .1345.75 




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RETAIL? 

Nobody Sells 
for less 

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3100 w/20 Meg ....2998.50 

1000 759.41 

1200 2237.55 

3200 SPECIAL BUY 

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SAMSUNG S-300 4/8 MHz, 512K, 6 Slots S/P/C, 
Monographics board, DOS, Keyboard 

S-300, 1 Floppy $749.50 

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S-300, 40 Meg 1117.82 

S-500 AT Compatible 8/10 MHz, 8 Slots, 
S/P/C, Monographics Board, DOS, Keyboard 

S-500, 1.2M Floppy $1095.45 

^S-500, 20 Meg 1469.80 

S-500, 40 Meg 1624.45 




HARDWARE, SOFTWARE & PERIPHERALS AT DISCOUNT PRICES 



COMPUTERS 



flSC 

MDL 70 $1312.20 MDL 170 S2988.36 

MOL 80 1619.70 MDL 300 3490.40 

MDL 90 1916.15 MDL 340 3945.65 

MDL 120 2260.05 MDL 390 5589.40 

MDL 140 2629.55 

I1M PS2 

MDL 30. 2 dr . .S1272.20 MDL 50Z. 30 Meg . . NEW 
MDL 30, 20 Meg .1725.17 MDL 50Z. 60 Meg . .IBM 
MDL 60. 40 Meg .3340.15 MDL 70, All Mdls. . PS2s 
MDL 60, 70 Meg .3469.60 MDL 80, 40 Meg .4497.67 
MDL 80. 111 Meg 5995.80 MDL 80. 70 Meg .5330.30 

comma ™ 

286, Model 1...S2095.55 386. Model 300.S9168.20 
286, 40 Meg . . . .2580.19 Port. II, Mdl 2 . . .1896.10 
286, 70 Meg ....2895.20 Port. II, Mdl 4... 2797.00 
386, Model 60... 5579.30 Port. Ill, Mdl 20 .3577.85 
386. Model 130. .7059.92 Port. Ill, Mdl 40 .4159.33 

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6300 WGS S1099.42 

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6386 WGS 3187.78 

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PRINTERS 



EPSON 

EX800 CALL LX800 ALL 

FX86e CDW™ LQ500 EPSON 

FX286e J=OR LQ850 MODELS 

FX850 BEST LQ1050 IN 

FX1050 PRICE LQ-2500 STOCK 

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IBM 

Pro Printer II . .$429.95 Quietwriter III . .$1295.62 

NEC 

P560XL S914.75 5200 S532.25 

P2200 369.65 5300 696.47 

3550 744.12 8850 1080.75 

P960XL 1067.70 CALL FOR ACCESSORIES 

OKJDOA. 



ML 182S $279.76 

ML 182P 232 50 

LASERLINE 6 .1286.69 
ML 292 Plus... 377. 44 
ML 293 Plus... 516.55 
ML 294 737.10 



ML 320 . 
ML 321 . 
ML 390 . 
ML 391 . 
ML 393 . 
ML 393 Color .1057.60 



S336.63 
..472.28 
. .469.96 
.638.48 

949.55 



PACKARD lull 



I (XT Turbo) . 



S645.64 

PB88 w/1 (loppy. 20 Meg 956.80 

VT286 1299.36 

VT286 w/20 Meg 1573.50 

VT286 w/40 Meg 1724.10 

VT386 NEW MODEL 

WYSE 
MDL 2108 ...S1082.50 MDL 2214 ... .$1868.30 
MDL 2112 1568.20 MDL 3216 2658.05 



Supersport Model 2 ALL ZENITH 

Supersport Model 20 MODELS IN 

Supersport 286 MoOel 20 STOCK CALL 

Z-183. 20 Meg FOR PRICE 

Other Computers Available U pon Request 

FLOPPIES, DRIVES & TAPES 

1/2 height floppy drive $99.00 

MINISCRIBE 20 Meg 1/2 height w/cont. .329.14 
MINISCRIBE 30 Meg 1/2 height w/RLL ..345.95 
SEAGATE 20 Meg 1/2 height hard drive .289.69 

SEAGATE 30 Meg 1/2 height w/RLL 309.72 

SEAGATE 40 Meg 1/2 height 399.50 

GENOA 60 Meg int. tape/«t. lape . .734.60095.10 

GENOA 125 Meg int. tape 995.85 

IOMEGA 20 + 20 External 5V« 1795.73 

IRWIN 20 M/40 M Internal Tape . . .399.10/539.20 

MINISCRIBE 40 Meg 28ms 609.40 

MINISCRIBE 80 Meg 28ms 795.45 

MOUNTAIN 4440 int. /Ml 368.80/547.75 

PRIAM 40 Meg/60 Meg 669.55/777.95 

PRIAM 130 Meg hard disk 1967.68 

SEAGATE 30 Meg/40 Meg 479.80/558.98 

SEAGATE 4096 80 Meg hard disk 645.10 

HARDCARDS 

PLUS DEVELOPMENT 20 Meg $555.55 

PLUS DEVELOPMENT 40 Meg 765.80 

WESTERN DIGITAL 30 Meg 416.30 



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WITHIN 48 HOURS. 



PANASONIC 

1080i S179.60 1091i S219.85 

1092i 334.28 1592 433.44 

1595 459.45 3131 274.32 

3151 409.52 1524 579.10 

©CITIZEN 

120D $169.55 MSP55 $489.66 

MSP50 385.64 Premiere 35 ...477.17 

TOSHIBA 

P321SL $494.85 P351-2 Color .S1199.95 

P341SL„.... .634J7 P351SX . 1019.46 

H-P Laser Jet Model 2 51699.40 

AST Turbolaser P/S IN STOCK 

H-P Deskjet 689.00 

NEC LC86U/LC890 1982.44/3295.60 

PANASONIC Laser 1605.35 

TOSHIB A PaoeLaser SAVE 



HUE 

8087-2/8087-3 $159.33/122.50 

80287-6/-8 M0 174.30/299.55/339.25 

80387-16/80387-20 497.68/777.44 



■ I ill 1 ! Mil MINI 

SANTA CLARA Diskless Workstation . . . .S640.40 

SOFTWARE & STARTER KITS 

WESTERN DIGITAL 3 Node LAN kit 

w/Western Digital software S720.34 

Entry-level 286 Starter Kit, 4 Users 489.90 

Entry-level 286 Starter Kit. 8 Users SAVE 

NOVELL 286 Software w/Keycard 1569.09 

NOVELL SFT Netware Level I 2148.66 

NOVELL SFT Netware Level II V2.1 2757.60 

Nondedicated Netware Software 286 

w / Keycard 1495.09 

INTERFACE CARDS 

ARCNET PC110 LANBoard $199.27 

ARCNET PC210 LANBoard 249.50 

ETHERNET Interface Connector 329.80 

ETHERNET Plus Board (for 286) 709.74 

G-NET Interface Card w/cable 299.52 

WESTERN DIGITAL Ethernet Cards 269.10 

ACCESSORIES 

ARCNET Passive Hub S85.00 

ARCNET Active Hub 499.98 

Ethernet Terminators 37.50 

Novell trained and authorized sales and support. 
Call CDW for all new Software versions. 



& SCANNERS 



CALCOMP 

1023 S3838.38 1043 S6535.15 

1042 7539.95 1044 10,305.06 



ROLAND 
DXY-885 . . $1149.79 DPX-2000 . $3464.12 
DXY-990 . . . 1457.82 DPX-3300 . . 4689.52 



12x12 



■ .'.M.H.'.H:H .|H,MI|'IM.i.JM'IM 

AST 5251-11 Plus $619.04 

EVEREX 1200B /2400B 109.90/199.50 

IRMA 3278/79 695.17 

PACKARD BELL 2400 lnt/2400 Exl . .169.95/199.22 

Hayes 

HAYES 1200 .. . $289.60 2400 $424.68 

1200B 269.20 2400B 379.65 

'Mtabotics 

1200B S108.45 2400B 5199.70 

1200 External . .129.10 9600 HST 665.20 

Ven-TeJ 

1200 Int $194.50 2400 Int S299.10 

1200 Plus 228.88 2400 Ext 389.44 

■EsnujaEEHanaaBiEigai 

PERMA POWER 6 Outlel Surge Supp S29.40 

TRIPPLITE 

BC-450 . 
BC-1200 
4 outlet 



SUMMASKETCH 
.$376.30 12x18 $632.50 



HEWLETT PACKARD 
HP7440A ....$968.30 
HP7475A ....1417.44 

HP7550 2926.56 

HP7570 ..LOWEST PRICE 
HP SCANJET... SAVE 



HOUSTON 
INSTRUMENTS 

HI DMP-42 

HI DMP-52/52MP 

HI DMP-56A 

HI DMP-61/62 



500 Watt 
800 Watt 



$419.78 LC-1200 $136.85 

748.55 LC-1800 189.75 

44.25 

DATASHIELD 

....$560.05 1200 Watt ....$994.75 
638.50 6 Outlet Surge ...27.85 

I I f I'l I II i I II I IM 



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SHAHP FO-300S1220.10 TOSHIBA 3010. $1314.44 

SHARP FO-420 .1399.95 GBC-1656 1459.80 

SHARP FO-500 .1599.95 GBC-1236S 915.44 



A-B Switching Box (par. or serial) S39.95 

BASF 5 Pack of 10 DS/DD w/case 49.00 

KENSINGTON Masterpiece 99.99 

KENSINGTON Masterpiece Plus 118.40 

KEYTRONICS 5151 IBM or AT&T 149.95 

KEYTRONICS 101 104.65 

Printer Cable (IBM to Centronics) 6 ft 19.99 

XT Power Supply 150 Watt 69.95 



■i.M.i:im.i:ii;m ; iJ:TH*^ ; T^M 

CDW"' color card S 99.00 

CDW™ monographics card w/p 99.00 

GENOA Spectrum (color monographic w/p)168.75 

HERCULES color card w/p 146.16 

HERCULES monographics plus w/p 179.84 

TAXAN MONOGRAPHIC w/p 99.00 

m.'.m.'[.h:i ; m.'.h.'.m,'ih.1:i-m 

AT&T Monochrome Monitor S189.40 

AMDEK 310A/410A 119.99/149 99 

AMDEK 1280 679.78 

COMPAQ monochrome monitor 188.46 

COMPAQ VGA Mono 193.10 

IBM PS2 8503 187.90 

NEC Multisync GS 184.52 

NEC Monograph 1297.25 

PGS MAX 12E amber color 139.40 

PACKARD BELL Green or Amber 86.95 

TAXAN 123 Green/ 124 Ambe r ...119.50/124.05 

lEaB-EEnaaacEnaaiai 

AMDEK color 600T/722 $349.24/444.49 

IBM PS2 8512 Color 428.40 

IBM PS2 8513 Enhanced Color 498.20 

SAMSUNG RGB Comp 238 60 

PGS HX-12 Plus 417.15 

TAXAN 650/720 469.90/299.80 

MAGNAVOX 8762 259.05 

VGA & EGA MONITORS 

COMPAQ VGA monitor $548.68 

MAGNAVOX 943EGA 387.40 

MITSUBISHI Diamond Scan 522.20 

NEC Multisync ll/PLUS 609J6/888.10 

NEC Multisync XL 19 inch ™. . 1974.46 

PACKARD BELL VGA Monitor 389.95 

PGS Ultrasync 515.33 

SONY Multiscan 1303/1302 599.45/54925 

TAXAN 770 PLUS 499.40 

ZENITH Z-1490 768.31 

VGA DISPLAY CARDS 

ATI VGA VIP S307.24 

GENOA VGA 289.70 

PARADISE VGA 297.68 

ORCHID VGA 278.14 

VIDEO-7 VGA 299.15 

EGA DISPLAY CARDS 

ATI Wonder Card S199.95 

GENOA Super EGA Hi-Res 800 x 600 . . .234.40 

NECMVA 1024 960.50 

NEC GB-1 640x480 239.43 

PARADISE Auto Switch EGA 480 169.65 

VIDEO 7 Vega Deluxe 249.74 

CAD MONITORS & CARDS 

MITSUBISHI 6905, 19 inch $2295.96 

MITSUBISHI 6922, 19 inch 1974.60 

HITACHI 4119, 19 inch 2310.65 

CONTROL SYSTEMS ARTIST 1016 1582.20 

VERMONT Cobra 1977.75 

METHEUS 1104 948.65 

i 

LOGITECH HIRez $99.95 

LOGITECH C7/Bus 89.95/109 06 

LOGITECH Logimouse C7 w/publisher ...124.85 

MICROSOFT Mouse (Bus Version) 119.34 

MICROSOFT Mouse (Serial Version) 131.26 

MOUSE SYSTEMS (Serial Version) 99.55 

MOUSE SYSTEMS (Bus Version) 108.77 

MOUSE SYSTEMS Omnimouse 59.70 



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Circle 66 on Reader Service Card (DEALERS: 67) 



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CHAOS MANOR 




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"knows" what the files contain. 

The other way machines can store text 
images is as bit-mapped images. In this 
case, the computer doesn't know that 
what it has stored is text; as far as the ma- 
chine is concerned, this may be a picture 
of the planet Jupiter, a random drawing 
made with a paint program by a 3-year- 
old, a line drawing of the Washington 
Monument, a Gary Larson cartoon, or 
anything else. The machine isn't ex- 
pected to know anything about the 
image: its only obligation is to faithfully 
reproduce it when called upon. The fact 
that this particular image happens to be a 
picture of a page of text is completely 
irrelevant. 

As an example: Mrs. Roberta Isdell 
Pournelle's father, the late Frank Isdell, 
was one of the early union organizers in 
the copper mines in Idaho. Those were 
rough times: his house was dynamited by 
the Pinkertons in retaliation for his union 
activities. Frank Isdell kept a journal, 
handwritten on yellow lined paper. It 
makes fascinating reading. Mr. Isdell 
died long enough ago that most of his 
grandchildren don't remember him well, 
and Mrs. Pournelle and I have decided to 
use our considerable computer resources 
to publish that diary so the kids will 
know just what their grandfather was 
like. 

The first part of that job is easy. We 
simply use an image scanner to make 
copies of his manuscript pages. Once we 
have those, we can reproduce them in any 
way we like, on paper with a laser printer 
or even as page images to be stored on a 
CD-ROM. What we'll have is the elec- 
tronic equivalent of photocopying or 
photographing those pages. 

The problem with that is, you can't do 
anything with the images other than re- 
produce them. Since the machine can't 
read those notes, it can't do spelling cor- 
rection. It can't index. We can't search 
for key words. Like a camera, it can only 
produce a new image copy; and that's not 
quite what we had in mind. Our intent is 
to produce an annotated work embedding 
Frank Isdell in his times, with notes and 
maps. To properly do what we want, 
we'll need true text files. The only way 
to get those is to have someone type them 
in. No computer is smart enough to take 
handwritten text and turn it into ma- 
chine-readable text. 

The Trouble with Kerning 

If Frank Isdell had typed his notes, we 
wouldn't have such a problem. There are 
hardware scanners with programs that 
recognize typescript letters, one letter at 
a time. If they encounter a typeface they 



haven't seen before, they can be taught 
that one, too. These machines are called 
optical character readers (OCRs). 

When an OCR sees the symbol ' ; ' , it is 
clever enough to recognize that as a 
semicolon and store it in memory as the 
binary equivalent of number 59. Simi- 
larly, an A is assigned the number 65, a 
is stored as 97, and so forth. The num- 
bers are ASCII. ASCII is an arbitrary 
scheme that assigns a unique number to 
every letter, number (from to 9), and 
punctuation mark. ASCII isn't the only 
such scheme — IBM sometimes uses a 
system called extended binary-coded 
decimal interchange code (EBCDIC), 
which assigns quite different numbers to 
each letter and punctuation mark— but 
it's the one used by all microcomputers. 

OCRs have been with us for a long 
time, and they're quite good for what 
they're intended for, which is typescript. 
The trouble arises with printed text. 
Whereas typescripts (with exceptions 
like the IBM Executive, but let's not 
complicate matters) allow the same 
width to each letter— the i takes up just as 
much room as the m — printed text 
doesn't work that way. Not only is the 
space allocated to the i less than that 
given the m, but some letters actually 
overlap, as for example when they type- 
set the letter combination WA. This pro- 
cess is known as kerning, and it has been 
around for centuries, because kerned text 
is more readable and just plain looks bet- 
ter than typescript. The trouble is that 
kerning confuses the computer. 

For years, we've heard announce- 
ments of OCR scanners that could read 
kerned text, and every now and then one 
comes out; but none of them has been 
worth much. At COMDEX, Flagstaff 
Engineering was demonstrating the Spot 
program that can take image-scanned 
text from either the Hewlett-Packard or 
the Panasonic scanner and turn that into 
machine-readable ASCII files. 

The program isn't perfect. It has to be 
taught each typeface, and every time it 
runs into a kerned pair it has never seen 
before, it complains until you teach it 
what it means. You have to tell it that the 
symbol WA is to be interpreted as two 
ASCII characters rather than one. Once 
it learns that, it remembers. Eventually, 
it will know all the kerning pairs in that 
particular book, after which it can read 
the book. 

I have a bunch of books I wrote on a 
typewriter before I got old Zeke. I either 
don't have the typescripts of those books , 
or they were so marked up in editing as to 
be unscannable; in any event, I have no 

continued 



106 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 




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Programmer's 



„>— n programmers 

Yamui 




Circle 183 on Reader Service Card 



A Division of Hudson Technologies, Inc. 
42 River Street, Tarrytown, NY 10591 

AUGUST 1988 • B Y T E 107 



CHAOS MANOR 



Items Discussed 



APX-3200 


. $2675 




$89 


Maximum Storage 






$99 


5025 Centennial Blvd. 




Reference Software 




Colorado Springs, CO 80919 




330 Townsend, Suite 123 




(719) 531-6888 




San Francisco, CA 94107 




Inquiry 937. 




(415) 541-0222 
Inquiry 941. 






$39.95 






Traveling Software 






...$59.95 


18702 North Creek Pkwy. 




Scandinavian PC Systems 




Bothell.WA 98011 




51 Monroe St., Suite 707A 




(206) 483-8088 




Rockville, MD 20850 




Inquiry 938. 




(800) 628-2828 ext. 982 
(301) 738-8826 




Cheetah 386 Motherboard . . . 


..$1195 


Inquiry 942. 




Cheetah International 








107 Community Blvd. , Suite 5 
Long view, TX 75602 




SideKickPlus 


..$199.95 




Borland International, Inc. 




(800) 243-3824 




4585 Scotts Valley Dr. 




Inquiry 939. 




Scotts Valley, CA 95066 
(408) 438-8400 




ForComment: 


....$995 


Inquiry 943. 




Print Shop 


. $34.95 






Broderbund Software 




Spot 


$9.95 


17 Paul Dr. 




Flagstaff Engineering 




San Rafael, CA 94903 




1 120 Kaibab Lane 




(415) 492-3200 




Flagstaff, AZ 86001 




Inquiry 940. 




(602) 779-3341 
Inquiry 944. 





machine-readable copies of my early 
works, and no easy way of making any. 

That's all changing. Flagstaff Engi- 
neering has enough confidence in their 
programs that they're arranging to get 
me the loan of a Hewlett-Packard scan- 
ner, which they say will work with their 
software so that when we put printed 
copies of my old books in, we'll get ma- 
chine-readable language out. 

I can't wait to try that. 

Traveling Strikes Again 

Mark Eppley of Traveling Software 
doesn't seem to know the rules: he held a 
press conference (his first ever) at COM- 
DEX to announce a product they're actu- 
ally shipping. I understand that seven 
different PR agencies were so horrified 
they tried to straighten him out: you hold 
press conferences to announce stuff that 
you're going to ship Real Soon Now, not 
something that you've actually got out 
the door. 

Anyway, Traveling has a small mem- 
ory-resident program for laptops that 
keeps track of battery use. By doing 
Shift-Alt-B, you get a "fuel gauge" 
display that estimates the time remaining 
before the batteries in your particular 



laptop (you tell it which one you have 
during setup) go dead. 

This is one of those utilities Traveling 
developed largely for their own use, then 
partway through decided it was a salable 
product. You can live without it— I have 
for several years— but it's certainly a 
convenience if, like me, you have a faulty 
memory. I have several times got on an 
airplane with a partially charged Z-183 
and run out of juice before the flight was 
over. My fault, but very annoying. Trav- 
eling's Battery Watch program would 
have prevented that. 

I can't testify to its accuracy for all 
laptops, but I did test a prerelease version 
on my Z-183, and it's pretty good on 
that: it reported I had 2 hours left when in 
fact the machine ran for 2 hours and 10 
minutes. An hour later it reported 1.1 
hours remaining, so it was in fact updat- 
ing its prediction by watching my use 
pattern. 

Battery Watch has a "deep discharge" 
option designed to really run down your 
nickel-cadmium battery. Running it 
down until it's complete discharged and 
then recharging it maintains the capacity 
and increases the life span of the battery. 
Otherwise, the battery develops a "mem- 



ory"; if not completely discharged, it 
only partially recharges. The deep dis- 
charge option may be useful for some 
laptops, but it certainly isn't needed for 
the Z-183. When I tried the program, it 
did continuous reads on both the hard 
disk and floppy disk drives. 

Moreover, after I'd been running the 
deep discharge option and listening to it 
grind my hard disk and floppy disk 
drives for a while, the backlit screen 
turned itself off. The prerelease version 
of Battery Watch didn't know how to take 
control of that, which is odd, because you 
set the time-out constant (how long the 
screen will stay lit between keystrokes) 
in software, meaning that number has to 
be stored somewhere in the machine's 
memory. The backlit screen uses plenty 
of power, and if you can keep it on, that 
surely would be the most harmless way to 
deep discharge your battery. As it hap- 
pens, Norman Spinrad discovered a way 
to do just that on the Z-183: simply give 
the machine the SHIP command. 

SHIP is supposed to park the hard disk 
drive head in a landing zone, after which 
you turn off the computer. If you don't 
turn it off after issuing SHIP, the Z-183's 
screen backlighting stays on until the bat- 
tery is gone, which is surely a more be- 
nign way than grinding the disk drives. 

Mark Eppley says that the production 
version of Battery Watch does keep the 
backlight on during a deep discharge. 
And, although using SHIP is a gentler 
method to discharge the batteries, using 
the deep discharge option speeds up the 
entire discharge/recharge operation. 

The fuel-gauge part of Battery Watch 
works fine, and anyone who does a lot of 
traveling with a portable will be better 
off for it. 

Peep Shows 

One reason COMDEX wasn't very excit- 
ing was that about half the new stuff on 
display has been vaporware for a very 
long time: products announced but not 
yet demonstrated, much less shipping. 
No matter how exciting a product is, 
after you hear about it long enough you 
lose interest. 

Some companies know this, and they 
have a policy of not making public an- 
nouncements until they've really got a 
product. On the other hand, they also 
know that writers have an insatiable ap- 
petite for new things to write about, 
which presents them with something of 
a dilemma. 

One way out of that is what's known in 
the trade as a peep show: your booth on 
the show floor has only shipping prod- 

continued 



108 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 




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Demonstration above made using a 24-pin M1CROLINE 391 
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Actual, unretouched photograph. 

OKIDATA is a registered trademark of Oki America, Inc. 
Marque deposee de Oki America, Inc. 



OKIDATA 

m an OKI AMERICA company 

We put business on paper. 



CHAOS MANOR 



ucts, but you also have a hotel suite where 
you bring selected distributors, dealers, 
and customers for private showings; and 
if there's any time left over in your 
schedule, you bring in reporters and col- 
umnists you can trust to respect informa- 
tion-release embargoes. As an example, I 
saw the Zenith laptop computers almost 
a year before they were announced to the 
public— I'm rather proud that they incor- 
porated a couple of my suggestions into 
the final product— and the Zenith Flat 
Technology Monitor long before it was 
shown to the industry in general. 

When I first began writing for BYTE, 
there was a full 4-month delay between 
my draft and the actual publication. Over 
the years, they've whittled that down a 
lot: I'm writing this on May 20, just be- 
fore the Science Fiction Writers of Amer- 
ica's annual Nebula Awards banquet, and 
it will be in the August issue, meaning 
that it will be on the stands in mid- July. 
Of course, I should have had this in a 
week ago. . . . 

Anyway, one of the COMDEX peep 
shows was held by Intel, and I have their 
permission to say this much: Intel has a 
new PCompatible communications sys- 
tem, hardware and software, that will 
knock your eye out. I've been saying for 
years "one user, at least one CPU," and 
Intel has taken that to heart. I guarantee 
you'll hear more about this one. 

ForComment: 

I first saw Broderbund in San Francis- 
co's Brooks Hall at one of the early West 
Coast Computer Faires. They had a tiny 
booth over against one wall, and they 
were showing the best computer games 
I'd ever seen. The next year they had a 
larger booth, and the year after that they 
had one of the biggest in the show, all 
built around computer games. 

If you know computer games, you're 
likely to know something about com- 
puter graphics, and the temptation for 
games companies is to use that expertise 
in an attempt to penetrate the business 
market. Sometimes that doesn't work- 
few even remember the name of Info- 
com's business programs— but some- 
times it works spectacularly, as witness 
Broderbund's Print Shop low-end desk- 
top publishing programs and utilities for 
the IBM PC. 

I recently received a report that Print 
Shop was the best-selling PCompatible 
program of 1987, and I've no reason to 
doubt that. I've covered it in other col- 
umns; in the unlikely event you don't 
know about it and you have the slightest 
interest in using a PC for simple bread- 
and-butter print work, check it out. It's 



not as elegant as some of the high-end 
programs, but it's easy to get into and 
good enough for a heck of a lot of jobs . 

Anyway, Broderbund hasn't aban- 
doned games, but they have become a se- 
rious contender in the business and edu- 
cation markets. 

One of their better efforts is ForCom- 
ment: (despite the cutesy-pie name). 
This is a program that lets from a few to a 
whole bunch of people take text files, ex- 
amine them, and make editorial com- 
ments complete with date and initial 
stamps. The commented version can 
then be sent on to someone else, either by 
disk or through a local-area network 
(LAN). Either way, there are simple 
ways for the final editor to collate the 
comments and either implement or re- 
move them. One of the neatest features is 
selectivity: if one of the people making 
comments turns out to be a complete id- 
iot, you can set the system so that you'll 
never see those remarks. 

Despite the fact that Niven and I are 
about the most successful writing team 
since Nordoff and Hall, I'm no great fan 
of collective writing; realistically, 
though, most corporate documents are 
necessarily collaborative efforts. Policy 
memos have to be vetted by several de- 
partments. Letters often must be re- 
viewed by a number of specialists. All 
this can be expensive, especially if it's 
done in face-to- face meetings. 

ForComment: can take up some of that 
burden. It's easy to learn and easy to use, 
and it's not overdeveloped for the job it's 
supposed to do. It supports about a dozen 
word-processing programs (including, of 
course, straight ASCII text files). My 
only complaint about ForComment: is 
that it doesn't recognize Q&A Write, 
which is the editor Niven and I are using 
for our next novel. 

SideKick Plus 

Readers of this column will know that 
I'm a longtime addict of SideKick; in- 
deed, one of the reasons I abandoned old 
Zeke was that there was nothing like 
SideKick for CP/M. I can't imagine 
there's anyone out there who doesn't 
know what SideKick is, but just in case: 
it's a memory-resident program that 
gives you instant access to a notebook, 
calendar/datebook, desk calculator, 
phone book and dialer, and ASCII con- 
version table. It's a program you can get 
totally dependent on, as Mrs. Pournelle 
discovered after I installed a copy on her 
AT&T 6300 Plus machine. 

The only real problem with SideKick 
was that it ate too much memory; and 
since it was one of the earliest of the 



memory residents, it didn't cooperate too 
well with other such programs. If you 
loaded it last, though, it worked quite 
well; and if you used it in its own DESQ- 
view window, the memory requirements 
were no problem at all. Consequently, 
although I've had SideKick Plus for some 
time, I was in no hurry to install it. Bet- 
ter is the enemy of good enough, and 
SideKick was good enough. . . . 

That was foolish of me. SideKick Plus 
does a lot more than address SideKick' s 
problems. 

It does take care of those. True, it uses 
more memory than SideKick did, but un- 
like its predecessor, SideKick Plus 
knows how to load most of itself into 
Lotus/Intel/Microsoft EMS 4.0 ex- 
panded memory. Of course, you must 
have an expanded memory board, but 
that's no problem: a whole bunch of ven- 
dors will be happy to sell you one. Alas, 
that will be expensive. A year ago, mem- 
ory was essentially free. Now, given the 
U.S. Department of Commerce's suc- 
cess in creating and enforcing a memory 
chip cartel— I guess the government 
thought Japan, Inc. , was at a competitive 
disadvantage and wanted to level the 
field— I don't know what a good ex- 
panded memory board will cost. 

The important thing is that SideKick 
Plus has a whole bunch of new features, 
including an outline processor that com- 
petes with Ready! . For the past couple of 
years, I've used both SideKick and 
Ready! (Ready! has always had the abil- 
ity to stuff most of itself into expanded 
memory, so it doesn't take up too much 
prime memory space); now, I'll prob- 
ably eliminate Ready! entirely. 

There are also alarm clocks, lots of 
enhancements to the calculator, real im- 
provements to the calendar/scheduler, 
and enough more that it's pointless to go 
on. If you liked SideKick, you'll love 
SideKick Plus. If you don't use Side- 
Kick, you probably ought to rethink your 
situation. It was that good, and SideKick 
Plus is even better. 
Strongly recommended. 

Developer's Dreams 

There's been a recent spate of news about 
a design defect in the Intel 80386/80387 
chip combination; sometimes when 
doing 32-bit calculations, the two chips 
get into an Alphonse/Gaston situation, 
each expecting the other to do something 
first, and the system is locked up. 

The latest major system here is a big 
20-MHz Cheetah 386, with a Priam 330- 
megabyte hard disk drive. The neat thing 
about the Cheetah 386 motherboard is 

continued 



110 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 



Mainframe Power for your PC! 



If you need or are accustomed to the 
throughput of a 32-bit mini, including any of 
DEC'S VAX series, MicroWay has great news 
for you. The combination of our NDP compilers 
and our mW1 167 numeric coprocessor gives 
your 386 PC, VAX speed! Jf you don't own a 
386 PC, we provide a number of economical 
PC and AT upgrade paths. 

Many of our NDP Fortran-386 users are 
reporting turn around times that are two to six 
times faster than their VAX. The exact times 
are a function of the VAX processor being used, 
the speed of the 386, the number of users being 
served by the VAX, and the coprocessor being 
used with the 386. There are currently over 400 
developers using our NDP tools to port 32-bit 
applications. To help the 386/1 1 67engineering 
standard emerge, MicroWay is co-marketing 
several mainframe applications that have been 
ported by our customers. In addition, this ad in- 



Dr. Robert Atwell, a leading defense scientist, 

calculates that NDP Fortran-386 is currently 

saving him $12,000 per month in rentals of 

VAX hardware and software while doubling 

his productivity! 

FredZiegler ofAspenTech in Cambridge, 

Mass. reports "I ported 900,000 lines of 

Fortran source in two weeks without a single 

problem!" AspenTech's Chemical Modeling 

System is in use on mainframes worldwide 

and is probably the largest application to ever 

run on an Intel processor. 

Dr. Jerry Ginsberg of Georgia Tech reports 

"My problems run a factor of six faster using 

NDP Fortran-386 on an mW1167 equipped 

386/20 than they do on my MicroVAX II." 



traduces the first of many utilities that will ease 
the porting of your favorite in-house programs. 
These include tools like NDP-Plot, which 
provides CalComp compatible screen and 
printer graphics, and NDP Windows. 

MicroWay has mW1 1 67 boards in stock that 
run on the Compaq 386/20, IBM PS2/80 
Tandy 4000, AT&T 6386, Acer 386/20 Everex 
Step 386/16(20), H.P. Vectra RS/16(20) and 
others. We now have a new board for the Com- 
paq 386/20 which combines an 1 167 with VGA 
support that is register compatible with IBM — 
the "SlotSaver". It features an extended 
800x600 high res mode that is ideal for 386 
workstations. 

Finally, we still offer the 1 6-bit software and 
hardware which made us famous. If you own a 
PC or AT and are looking for the best 
8087/80287 support on the market, call (508) 
746-7341 and we'll send you our full catalog. 



32-Bit Compilers and Tools 



NDP Fortran-386™ and NDP C-386™ Com- 
pilers generate globally optimized mainframe 
quality code and run in 386 protected mode 
under PharLap extended MS-DOS, UNIX, or 
XENIX. The memory model employed uses 2 
segments, each of which can be up to 4 
gigabytes in length. They generate code for the 
80287, 80387, or mW1 167. Both compilers in- 
clude high speed EGA graphics extensions 
written in C that perform BASIC-like screen 
operations $595 each 

• NDP Fortran-386™ Full implementation of 
FORTRAN-77 with Berkeley 4.2, VAX/VMS 
and Fortran-66 extensions. 

• NDP C-386™ Full implementation of AT&T's 
PCC with Microsoft and ANSI extensions. 



NDP Package Pricing: 
387FastPAK-16: NDP Compiler, PharLap, 
and 80387-16 Coprocessor $1299 

1167FastPAK-16: NDP Compiler, PharLap, 
and mW1 167-16 Coprocessor $1695 



NDP Windows™ — NDP Windows includes 80 
functions that let you create, store, and recall 
menus and windows. It works with NDP C-386 
and drives all the popular graphics adapters. 
Library $125, C Source $250 

NDP Plot™ — Calcomp compatible plot pack- 
age that is callable from NDP Fortran. It in- 
cludes drivers for the most popular plotters and 
printers and works with CGA, Hercules, EGA 
and VGA $325 

NDP/FFT™ — Includes 40 fast running, hand 
coded algorithms for single and double dimen- 
sioned FFTs which take advantage of the 32- 
bit addressing of the 386 or your hard disk. Call- 
able from NDP Fortran or NDP C with 1 167 and 

387 support $250 

387FFT for 1 6-bit compilers $250 

387BASIC™ — A 16-bit Microsoft compatible 
Basic Compiler that generates the smallest 
.EXE files and the fastest running numeric code 
on the market $249 



Micro 
Way 



MicroWay 9 
80386 Support 



Parallel Processing 



Monoputer™ 

The world's most popular Transputer develop- 
ment product runs all MicroWay Transputer 
software using either a T41 4 or T800. The T800 
processor has built-in numerics and provides 
performance comparable to an 80386 running 
at 20 MHz with an mW1 1 67. The new 3L Paral- 
lel C and Fortran Compilers makes this an 
especially attractive porting environment. Can 
be upgraded to 2 megabytes. 

Monoputer with T414 (0 MB) $995 

Monoputer with T800 (0 MB) $1495 

Quadputer™ 

This board for the XT, AT, or 386 can be pur- 
chased with 2, 3 or 4 Transputers and 1 , 4 or 8 
megabytes of memory per Transputer. Two or 
more Quadputers can be linked together to 
build networks with mainframe power which 
use up to 36 Transputers. One customer's real- 
time financial application has gone from 8 
hours on a mainframe to 16 minutes on a sys- 
tem containing five Quadputers from $3495 

Transputer Compilers and Applications 

MicroWay and 3L offer Parallel languages for 
the Monoputer and Quadputer. 

MicroWay Parallel C $595 

MicroWay Occam2 $495 

3L Parallel C $895 

3L Parallel Fortran $895 

uPield — A specialty finite element analysis 
package targeted at Transputer networks. 
Ideally suited to take advantage of the 6 
Megaflop speed of the Quadputer $ 1 600 



Call (508) 746-7341 for our 
free catalog! 



Numeric Coprocessors 



mW1167™ — Built at MicroWay using Weitek 
components and an 80387 socket. 

mW1 167-16 $995 

mW1 167-20 $1595 

mW1 167/VGA-20 "SlotSaver" $1995 

8087 $99 

8087-2 $154 

80287-8 $239 

80287-10 $295 

80387-16 $475 

80387-20 $725 

287Turbo-1 2 (for AT compatibles) .... $450 

DRAM CALL 

(All of our Intel coprocessors include 87Test.) 



PC and AT Accelerators 



MicroWay builds a number of 8086 and 80286- 
based PC accelerators that are backed up by 
the best customer support in the industry. 
Number Smasher™ (8087 &512K) . .$499 

FastCACHE-286/9 MHz $299 

FastCACHE-286/12 MHz $399 

SuperCACHE-286/12 MHz $499 

Intel Inboard™ PC (1 MB) $950 



Intelligent Serial Controllers 



MicroWay's AT4™, AT8™, and AT1 6™ are the 
fastest 80186-based intelligent serial control- 
lers on the market. They come with drivers for 
UNIX, XENIX, and PC MOS. 
AT4...$795 AT8...$995 AT16...$1295 



32-Bit Applications 



COSMOS-M/386 — SRAC's finite element 
package for the 80386 with an 80387 or 
mW1167 provides mainframe speed and 
capacity. Turn around times rival the VAX 8650 
and are 6 to 15 times that of an AT: from $995 

PSTAT-386 — This mainframe statistics pack- 
age has been used by government and in- 
dustry for 20 years. The full version was ported. 
Requires 4 to 6 megabytes of memory: $1495 

NDP/NAG™ — Features a library of 800 en- 
gineering and scientific numerical algorithms. 
Callable from NDP Fortran $895 



The World Leader in PC Numerics 



P.O. Box 79, Kingston, MA 02364 USA (508) 746-7341 

32 High St., Kingston-Upon-Thames, U.K., 01-541-5466 

St. Leonards, NSW, Australia 02-439-8400 



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AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 111 



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CHAOS MANOR 



that the Cheetah designers saw the 
80386/80387 lockup problem in ad- 
vance, and they are pretty sure they've 
designed around it. This kind of hard- 
ware arcana is a bit out of my league, but 
I do know this much: I've got a program 
said to invoke the Intel lockup bug, and it 
certainly doesn't do anything to the 
Cheetah. Since the bug is probabilistic, it 
could be that I just haven't run the lockup 
program long enough, or, who knows, 
there may be a bug in the bug program. 
But I don't seem to be able to do anything 
to that Cheetah that can hurt it. 

In fact, this machine is a developer's 
dream. It's blindingly fast. The Priam 
hard disk drive is large enough to store 
nearly every program I have. I have both 
1.2-megabyte high-density and 360K- 
byte "standard PC" floppy disk drives. 
The Cheetah links to everything else 
through a serial port: so far, I've tried 
Brooklyn Bridge, Traveling Software's 
LapLink and DeskLink, and Artisoft's 
LANtastic. All work fine, so I've had no 
problems transferring data into and out 
of the system. 

The real kicker is the Maximum Stor- 
age WORM drive. I seem lately to have 
developed a love affair with this thing. 

I talked about WORM drives last 
month. Now I'm ready to make a flat 
statement: any software developer or se- 
rious writer who doesn't have a WORM 
drive has rocks in his head. 

Well, OK, I know better than to say 
things like that. There are probably cir- 
cumstances I don't know about. How- 
ever, for serious software developers, 
money is not a good reason to avoid get- 
ting a WORM. If you're really serious 
about your software development or your 
writing, you can't afford not to have one. 
If your work is worth money, it's worth a 
good backup system; and the WORM is 
darned near the ultimate in backups. 

A WORM drive lets you save— and re- 
cover—every version of your work. A 
WORM cartridge holds between 200 and 
300 megabytes, and it costs a bit more 
than $100. You won't need more than one 
per software project. (Two if you're 
really a worrier: use them on alternate 
days, and keep one in a safety deposit box 
well away from your house or office. 
That way, a fire can't do you in.) 

I've used half a dozen WORM drives 
in the last couple of months; of those, the 
Maximum Storage WORM drive has 
been the simplest to install and easiest to 
use. One caution: WORM drives and the 
DOS program XCOPY do not work well 
together. I've had problems with it, and 
when I was out to Colorado Springs I 
found that the Air Force Academy com- 

« — Circle 154 on Reader Service Card 



puter science people had the same 
difficulty. 

XCOPY sometimes does not save sub- 
directory information, even though it re- 
ports that it did. Later on, when you try 
to recover the files and can't find them, 
the tendency is to blame the WORM 
drive; but in fact the fault lies with 
XCOPY, which sometimes just plain gets 
lost in subdirectories. Microsoft says 
they're aware of this and will fix it. 

Enough about WORMs. What I'm 
really gushing about is the big Cheetah 
machine. Back in S-100-bus CP/M 
days, Dr. William Godbout's CompuPro 
machines dominated the development 
market: the major software developers 
had CompuPro machines, and most of 
those who didn't, wished they did. 

There's no similar situation in the 
PCompatible world. There may never be. 
I will say this: Cheetah has the potential. 
Their machines are reliable, fast, simple, 
and well designed. Combine a Cheetah 
386 motherboard, Priam 330-megabyte 
hard disk drive, and Maximum Storage 
WORM, and you've got something ap- 
proaching a software developer's dream 
machine. 

Winding Down 

Once again I'm out of space, and there's 
still a huge pile of stuff on my "ready" 
table. One of the most important items is 
Artisoft's LANtastic, which is just pos- 
sibly good enough to make 1988 the year 
of the LAN. 

The game of the month is FTL's Dun- 
geon Master for the Atari ST. I warn you: 
this game is addicting. 

The book of the month is Infinite in All 
Directions by Freeman Dyson (Harper 
and Row). In 1887, Adam Gifford left a 
bequest to establish a series of lectures on 
natural theology. Since then, Gifford 
lecturers have included William James 
and Alfred North Whitehead. The 1985 
Gifford Lectures were given by Dyson. I 
certainly don't agree with him on many 
of his points, but Freeman Dyson is one 
of the sanest people I've ever met. ■ 

Jerry Pournelle holds a doctorate in psy- 
chology and is a science fiction writer 
who also earns a comfortable living writ- 
ing about computers present and future. 
Jerry welcomes readers' comments and 
opinions. Send a self-addressed, stamped 
envelope to Jerry Pournelle, do BYTE, 
One Phoenix Mill Lane, Peterborough, 
NH 03458. Please put your address on 
the letter as well as on the envelope. Due 
to the high volume of letters, Jerry cannot 
guarantee a personal reply. You can also 
contact him on BIX as "jerryp. " 



Microstat-ll will have you up and running in 5 minutes 

or your money back. 



§ 



perating Microstat-ll couldn't be 
easier. No matter what your 
statistical needs are. Simply select 
the options you need from the menu system 
with a keyboard or a mouse and your 
answer is available instantly. No complex 
command languages to learn. On-line help 
is only a keystroke away! Plus, it only 
takes three disks to operate the program. 
Microstat-ll is simple to use and fast! 

The #1 Selling Micro Statistical 
Package is Even Better! 

Microstat is by far the most popular 
micro statistics package of all time. Tens 
of thousands of satisfied customers have 
relied on Microstat since 1979 for all their 
statistical needs. Microstat has been used 
for every application imaginable from check- 
ing the brine content of tuna fish to keeping 
game statistics for an NFL football team/ 
Already 64 of the Fortune 100 companies 
have purchased Mictrostat Virtually every 
major university is presently using Microstat 
and over 10.000 copies have been sold to 
the US government. Microstat-ll is even 
better! 

The Coverage You Need 

Microstat-ll has the statistical tests you 
need. Just some of the areas of coverage 
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crosstabs and chi-square. probability distri- 
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Easier Installation 

Microstat-ll provides all this power with 
only 3 disks and can run on a hard disk or 
a floppy disk system with two drives. Our 
competitors use up to 21 disks and most 
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Even Greater Flexibility 

We have completely redesigned the data 
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cases in the same file, aliased variables, 
missing data, range checking, and built-in 
scalars on data entry, plus other new fea- 
tures. You can even use a mouse! 



Improved Speed and Interface 

Microstat-ll is 8 times faster than our 
own Microstat version 4.0 and almost twice 
as fast as the competition. This exceptional 
speed was achieved without any loss of 
accuracy. When running descriptive sta- 
tistics the results were staggering (can be 
even faster with a numeric co-processor): 



Microstat-II 88 seconds 



Leading Competitor 160 seconds 



Microstat 4.0 . .731 seconds 

In seconds. Tests on an 8 MHz AT-type machine, [no co- 
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Introductory Price Just $395 until 
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□ Please send me copy(s) of Microstat-ll and a complete 

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114 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 



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EXPERT ADVICE 
APPLICATIONS PLUS 



Ezra Shapiro 



o 



New 
Directions 



The column and 
a shareware classic 
get a "Plus," and 
GrandView defines a 
new class of software 



Understanding why we've 
changed the name of the col- 
umn from "Applications 
Only" to "Applications 
Plus" requires a little historical perspec- 
tive. When I began writing it, BYTE had 
no equivalent of today's Short Takes, 
and application reviews in general were 
in short supply. The name "Applications 
Only" was a signal to readers interested 
in software that here, at least, they could 
find reactions to lots of programs. 

Times change, and BYTE's coverage 
of software has expanded noticeably. 
There is no longer quite the pressing need 
for short reviews. I've also found that the 
name has caused me grief when I've 
found myself writing about hardware 
or— heaven forfend!— programming. 
Every time I've digressed into those 
areas, I've had to concoct some strained 
rationale for the excursion. 

So we've borrowed a gambit from the 
software business by giving the column a 
"Plus." It sounded better than "En- 
hanced. " The major change will be a lit- 
tle breathing room for the author, yours 
truly. The core material will remain 
software-oriented, but I won't feel 
sheepish if I write about industry issues 
or trackballs. I'm also hoping to add 
more head-to-head comparisons of prod- 
ucts and maybe a few application proj- 
ects. Expect any changes gradually, and 
let me know if they work. 

Beyond ThinkTank 

When I first heard about GrandView 
(Symantec, $295), I had no idea what to 

ILLUSTRATION: CHRIS SPOLLEN © 1988 




expect. The name sounded more appro- 
priate for a street, or possibly a suburb, 
than it did for software. Also, I had been 
betting that the next product from the 
Living Videotext Division of Symantec 
would be an MS-DOS version of More, 
the state-of-the-art Macintosh outliner. 
So when I plugged in GrandView, I was 
wondering whether I would find More 
. . .or less. 

In fact, GrandView could probably be 
called "too much of a good thing." It's 
billed as "Desktop Planning, Writing, 
and Information Management," and 
there's a lot to it. It is not merely an up- 
grade to ThinkTank. This is a new type 
of software, and on first glance it com- 
bines aspects of an outliner with solid 
word processing, project tracking, and 
categorization. It strikes me as being a 
comprehensive blend of ThinkTank, 
Q&A Write, InstaPlan, and possibly 
SideKick Plus, though it does not borrow 
all the features of each of those products. 

If you're familiar with the long devel- 



opment history of Living Videotext out- 
line packages, you've noticed a steady 
movement from pure outlining to, well, 
information management (for want of a 
more precise term). The company has 
done a superb job of listening to its cus- 
tomers, and GrandView represents the 
latest attempt to serve the needs of the 
business executive. ThinkTank users 
have been crying for better word process- 
ing, and they have slavered at More. 
They've used the outliners to develop to- 
do lists, plan projects, store databases of 
names and addresses, develop agendas, 
and so on. 

Living Videotext staffers have been 
amazed at the odd tasks their programs 
have been forced to perform. And gradu- 
ally, the sample files included with the 
rest of the product line have changed to 
reflect this trend, to the point where the 
examples could be called "A Manager's 
Guide." If you were to develop generic 
documents by sweeping all the paper off 

continued 

AUGUST 1988 'BYTE 115 



APPLICATIONS PLUS 



an executive's desk and analyzing the 
contents, you'd get the idea. 

'Anyway, you start by developing an 
outline, but you can switch instantly to a 
document view with full-power word 
processing (and spelling checking, I 
might add), or to a category view, where 
you can attach keywords and priorities to 
items. Thus, you can produce a more 
personally styled output document than 
you could with ThinkTank, and you can 
easily home in on important tasks. 



The outliner, which can be seen as the 
organizing spine of the program, lets you 
perform all the usual Living Videotext 
operations: cloning, hoisting, marking 
and gathering, time stamping, and so on. 
You've got keyboard macro capacities, 
and GrandView lets you construct instal- 
lable templates so you can quickly zap a 
preset form into your outline. 

Aside from a few minor annoyances, 
such as the fact that once you've asked 
the installation program to set up a sec- 




FREEWARE 



ONLY 



)9 PER DISK ONLY $2. 



PER DISK 




Public Domain & Shareware for IBM and Compatible* - DOS 2.1 or higher 
Program! and utilities for all your computing needa 



■ :|IMIJI4H-H 



J 



3 EZ-FORMS Rew D15 (66) - Menu driv- 
en forms generator, misc. skeleton forms. 
3 SBAS V1.3 (270) - Small Business Ac- 
counting System. Menu-driven. Best avail 

□ PRO PC-ACCT V3.0 (526) - integrated 
G/L.A/R & A'P. Menu-driven. Help. 

□ EAST PROJECT V 1.2 (440) -Complete 
project management system. Excellent. 

□ REAL ESTATE ANALYST (S3) - Menu 
driven, mortgages. Interest, etc. 

Q CK • CHECKBOOK V3. 1 (79) ■ Full fea- 
tured checkbook program with reports. 
3 BIDS Tf gUOTES V0.9 (463) - Prepares 
cost estimates & proposals. Does labor, 
material, sub -con tract or costs, etc. 

□ BUSINESS LETTERS (303 & 304) - 12 
disk set! 650 business letters to fit all 
your needs. Edit WJ any word processor. 
3 MR. BILL V3.2 (311 ft 312) ■ (2 disk 
set) Time & billing package; costs, credits, 
reports, audit trail, etc. 

□ PC-PAYROLL V2.3 (464) - Menu driv- 
en payroll system; 100 employees or less. 

□ RENTAL PROPERTY (318) - Keeps 
track of rental activity. Menu driven. 

□ SLICWORKS (321) - Framework clone. 
Integrated database, spreadsheet, word 
processor, & communications. 

□ PARTS INVENTORY CONTROL (479) - 
Tracks Inventory of a parts & service 
business; qty. ordered, supplier, etc. 

3 DOCKETMTNDER V1.2 (448) - Main- 
tain docket for lawyer or law firm. 
3 FINANCE MANAGER V4.0 (77) Ac- 
counting package for business or person- 
al finances. Double entry system. 
3 SOAR VI. 92 (449 ft 450) 12 disk set) 
Accounts receivable program. Handles a 
variety of services or products. 

3RBB8 BULLETIN BOARD V15.1 (290- 

292) - 13 disk set) Turn your computer 

Into a RBBS. Industry standard. 

3 QMODEM V3.1 (293 ft 294) - (2 disk 

set) Full featured modem program. 

3 PROCOMM V2.42 (53 ft 54) (2 disk 

set) Menu driven modem program. 

3 FILE EXPRESS V4.14 (33 ft 34) - (2 
disk set) Menu driven, easy to use data- 
base for beginners to experienced. 
□ WAMPUM V3.1B (37 ft 38) - [2 disk 
set) Menu driven dBase 111 clone, supports 
functions of dBase. Knowledge of dBase 
suggested. Latest update. 
3 PC-FILE + V2.0 (493 - 490)- 13 disk 
set) Full-featured database; help screens, 
menus, macros. One of the best. 
3 dGENERATE V1.0 (511) - Screen & 
source code generator by Tom Rettlg. 
dBase Hi required. 



□ COMPOSER (3) - Create, save. edit, 
play. & print your music. Nice... 
3 LETTERFALL VI. 1 (119) - Improve 
your touch typing skills; 16 levels. 



-naps 



□ THE WORLD 3D (127) - Display 

of the world. CGA required. 

□ FUNNELS ft BUCKETS V 2.0 (130) 
Great learning game; add. subtract, multi 
ply. fit divide. Ages 5 - 10. 

□ ERYN-8 ABC'S (131) - Teaches alpha 
bet & numbers. Computerized Etch-a 
Sketch. Ages 2 -6. Basic required. 

3 AMY'S FIRST PRIMER (133)- Alpha 
bet, numbers, counting, shapes, match 
Ing. etc. Ages 4 - 8. CGA & Basic req. 
3 POLYGLOT V6.01 (139) - Vocabulary' 
builder. Grades 7 .college. Excellent. 

3 BLACKJACK (95) - Advanced black 

Jack game with tutor, multiple players. 

Best one yet. CGA or Hercules, 

■J MONOPOLY V6.7 (106) - Just like the 

board game. 2 to 4 players. CGA req. 

3 DUNGEONS ft DRAGONS VI. 1 (205) 

The Classic Game. Can you survive 1 ? 

Q LAS VEGAS (116) - Craps. Roullete. 

Poker. & more. CGA req.. Basic on some. 

3 3D CHESS VI. 01 (215) - Excellent 

chess game. Switch between 2D & 3D. 

3 SOLITAIRE (211) 4 different games. 

Nice graphics. CGA required. 

3 SUPER PDTBALL (212) 5 different 

games. CGA required. 

3 WORDPLAY (367) - Wheel of Fortune 

clone. You provide the prizes. CGA req. 

3 DIGITAL LEAGUE BASEBALL (344) 

Pick your team S players. Nice graphics. 

□ MINIATURE GOLF (505) IS hole golf 
course with graphics. 

3 FINGERPATNT V2.0 (282) - Paint pro 

gram: 6 fonts. 81 sizes . Desktop publish- 
ing & slide-show. CGA. EGA. or Hercules. 
3 CALENDAR CREATOR (350) - Create 
& print your own monthly calendar. 
3 DANCAD 3D V2.0B (424 ft 425) - 12 
disk set) Advanced 2D<3D drafting pro 
gram. Stereoscopic 3D wire frame anima- 
tion. EGA. CGA. Hercules. 640k req. 
3 CITY DESK V6.0 (197) - Desktop pub 
Usher with graphics capabiliy. 

□ TURBO "C" TUTOR (489 & 490) - 12 
disk set) 1 4 lesson tutorial : learn to pro- 
gram In "C" language. 

3 "C" LANGUAGE V2.1 (299 ft 300) - 12 

disk set) Complete programming environ 
ment. Source, compiler, samples. 

□ TURBO PASCAL TUTOR (20) 1 7 les- 
son tutorial with samples, etc. 

3 STRESS ft SHRINK (74) - Stress 

stress test. Shrink - personality analysis. 

3 FASTBUCKS (191) - Menu driven 

home finance package. Easy to use. 

3 HEALTH RISK (331) Diagnose your 

own ailments. 

3 LITTLE BLACK BOOK (441) Creates 

pocket sized address book. Prints mini 

alphabetized pages. 

3 TIMESAVER (442) Create daily 



monthly calendar of appointments. 

3 LOTUS 123 PROGRAMS (28 - 32) - (5 

disk setl Contains as many applications 
and utilities that we could find. Requires 
Lotus 123 program. 

□ LOTUS LEARNTNGb SYSTEM (458) - 
Beginning tutorial for Lotus 123. 

3 AS EASY AS V3.0 (302) - Lotus clone. 
52 column sheet, graphing, supports 
functions or 123. "WHS" dies. etc. 

3 DOS HELP (265) - Help screen for DOS 

commands, functions & batch files at your 
fingertips. For DOS 3J0C. 

□ DOS TUTORIAL V4.2 (256) - Menu 
driven, learn to use your computer. 

3 LQ V2.1 (509) - Produces high quality 
text on dot matrix printers. Multiple fonts 
with print spooler. 

□ LASERJET FONTS / II (471 ft 472) - 12 
disk set) More downloadable fonts for HP 
Laserjet Plus 'II. Helvetica, Script, etc. 

LASERJET FONTS /UTILITIES (328) 

Contains 'Pamphlet' (sideways printing) & 

misc. other utilities Sc fonts. 

3 PRINTPROV1.2 (468) -Change printer 

operation from within ANT application at 

ANY time. 

3 DESKMATE8 V1.01 (278) - Sidekick 

like utility plus more features. 

3 AUTOMENU V4.01 (280) - Access pro 

grams, batch tiles, commands, etc. 

«H.I,l.l-J=I.I.H.-i.HI.'|.1 

3 SIDEWPJTER (6) - Sideways" printing. 
3 PC-WRITE V2. 71 (9 A 10) - 12 disk setl 

Full featured word processor; all the fea- 
tures of the expensive one's. 
3 LETTERHEAD (89) - Create and print 
your own letterhead on letters and enve- 
lopes. IBM 'Epson comp. printer req. 
3 GALAXY V2. 3 (11) - Easy to use word 
processor; menus & quick keyboard com- 
mands. Lots of features. 
3 PC TYPE + (373 - 375) - (3 disk set) A 
powerful word processor. Buttonware. 



f 

[name 

|ADDRESS_ 

I 

[CITY 



ORDER FORM 



I H of 5.25'disks Jf82.99= 

! CA Res. Sales Tax [6.5% 1= 
| Shipping* Handling = 



TOTAL 



| Mall order fort 



116 BYTE • AUGUST 1988 



1 466 Sprlngllne Drive Dept. B7 
Palmdale.CA 93550 
18051273-0300 

or write for fret catalog containing o- 

500 disk, of quality software. 

Hours: M-F 9am - 5pm PST 

3.5" media - S3.99 ea. 

Sorry, no Credit Card Ordera. J 



Circle 172 on Reader Service Card 



ond printer you can't back down from 
that decision, the program is as solid as 
Living Videotext' s other offerings, and 
the company has one of the best records 
in the business for shipping hassle-free 
products. I encountered no oddities, but 
the 3 weeks I've been testing have been 
far from enough to hit all the options. 

But I have found the program rather 
Byzantine. You can't just plug it in and 
go; gotta read the manual or you're lost. 
Good documentation and on-line help 
provide a big assist, but you won't learn 
the program without a few hours of hard 
study. While the integration is smooth 
and painless— you can switch quickly 
among the various views— it's also con- 
fusing at first go. Once they've mastered 
it, GrandView enthusiasts will spend 
most of their time living in the software, 
only coming up for air to fiddle with a 
spreadsheet or database. 

For the quick-and-dirty outline per- 
son, like me, who likes to have Ready! 
around so that I can jot quick notes, 
GrandView is simply overkill. But I have 
to say that this is a first impression. I'm 
still flustered by the category view, and I 
need to experiment in depth. 

One of the problems facing people 
who evaluate software is the need to 
write about new products as soon as pos- 
sible after they hit the street. GrandView 
demands much more study. I suspect 
that, as with any complicated piece of 
software, I'm going to have to ease into it 
and work with it for a while before pass- 
ing final judgment. Think of WordStar, 
Xy Write, dBASE, or most spreadsheets; 
you can get the rudiments in a few 
weeks, but the programs seem tough at 
that point. It's not until you've explored 
the nooks and crannies that you appreci- 
ate their real power. 

Though my first reaction is somewhat 
negative, I'm positive that the product 
will succeed in management applications 
and that anybody who is looking for a 
tool that goes beyond simple outlining 
will be delighted by GrandView. So I'm 
going to hold off, take some time, and 
give you an extended-use report in a few 
months. GrandView is intriguing and 
important enough to demand at least that 
much attention. 

A Way with Words 

It certainly isn't the greatest word pro- 
cessor ever sold, but Professional Write 
2.0 (Software Publishing, $199) is 
without question a solid and workable 
MS-DOS program. There's something 
comfortable about the Software Publish- 
ing interface; you know what you're 

continued 



MODEL 24 



MIA EKCHANGE SVSIHH 




Engineered 
for speed, 

flexibility 

and 

expandability 



BayTech 



Bay Technical Associates, Inc., Data Communications Products Division 

200 N. Second St., Bay Saint Louis, MS 39520 USA 

Telex 910-333-1618 BAYTECH, Telephone 601-467-8231 or toll-free 

800-523-2702 



CHECK THE SPECS 

• The Data Exchange System, 
Model 24, allows high speed 
exchange of data between 
computers, printers and other 
peripherals. 

• Powerful 16-bit CPU plus 
multiple high performance I/O 
processors allow super high 
speed transfer of data 
demanded by new faster 
computers and software. 

• Optimum flexibility: Select 
the right combination of serial 
and parallel ports, and set any 
of these ports as a peripheral 
port or as a computer port. 

• Basic unit expandable to 24 
ports by 4-port modules offered 
in serial/parallel combinations. 

• Standard 512KB buffer 
expandable to 4V2 megabytes, 
to handle big print/plot jobs 
and many small ones. 

• Buffer memory dynamically 
allocated to maximize buffer 
utilization. 

• Simultaneous data input and 
output on all ports, so no 
devices are kept waiting. 

• Computer-to-computer 
communication concurrent 
with all other operations. 

• Full duplex communication 
allows file transfer capability 
with many communications 
software packages. 

• Compatible with virtually all 
computers, printers, plotters, 
modems and other peripherals. 

• Pop-up RAM resident PC 
support software allows 
peripheral selection via hot key. 

• Super fast throughput allows 
data to pass through with no 
apparent processing delays. 

• Many user-definable 
parameters including separate 
baud rates, flow control and 
parity for each port. 

• Internal serial-to-parallel and 
parallel-to-serial conversion. 

• Cascading capability to 
increase available number 
of ports. 

• Unlimited hotline tech 
support. 

• Designed and manufactured 
in the U.S.A. 



Circle 23 on Reader Service Card 



APPLICATIONS PLUS 



doing from the start, and you rarely have 
to consult the excellent manual. 

I had almost forgotten how pleasant it 
is to work with this company's products. 
Software Publishing is another of the few 
big companies that rarely releases buggy 
software, and it aims at the businessper- 
son who ' s intent on getting to work rather 
than the computer guru who's in love 
with technicalities. 

By now, the interface itself has be- 
come something of a standard. You've 
seen it in PFS:Write, Q&A, and a host of 
imitators. Function-key menu bar across 
the top of the screen, boxed center area 
for your typing, ruler and two status lines 
across the bottom. Hit one of the function 
keys, and a longer menu pops down. De- 
fault selections in menus are always 
highlighted, and the default choices 
make sense. 

Most commands can be selected either 
from the menus or by hitting a Control 
sequence (Alt combinations are reserved 
for macros). Nothing fancy, and good 
correlation with printed output. It will 
probably offend the purists who prefer an 
absolutely blank screen, but the rest of us 
will find it unobtrusive. You've got three 
pleasant color schemes to choose from, 
and all of them are easy on the eyes (es- 
pecially on an EGA monitor or better). 

Here's what you get with Professional 
Write 2.0: a spelling checker with a 
77,000-word main dictionary and a 
5000-word personal dictionary. A 
20,000-word thesaurus. A built-in calcu- 
lator and column math. An address book 
for mail merge that has a nice entry 
screen and room for 2000 entries. Auto- 
matic envelope printing (nice, if your 
printer can handle it). Macro recording. 
Line drawing, and access to the extended 
character set. Support for expanded 
memory. File encryption. A wide selec- 
tion of printers and multiple font capabil- 
ity, including PostScript. Context-sensi- 
tive help. 

Nothing spectacular in that list, but 
Professional Write does offer a couple of 
tricks worth mentioning. Not only can 
you save a 40-character description of 
each file, but you can search the com- 
plete text of all your Professional Write 
documents, directory by directory, look- 
ing for a specific search string. And the 
program imports files from major word 
processors, Lotus 1-2-3, and dBASE III 
without any headaches. 

Using the program takes absolutely no 
brains, and I couldn't break it as hard as I 
tried. My quibbles with it are relatively 
minor: I'd prefer a larger user dictio- 
nary, and the 2000-entry limit on ad- 
dress books seems low, even though you 



Items 
Discussed 



GrandView $295 

Symantec Corp. 

Living Videotext Division 

117 Easy St. 

Mountain View, CA 94043 

(415) 964-6300 

Inquiry 934. 

ProcommPlus $75 

Datastorm Technologies, Inc. 
P.O. Box 1471 
Columbia, MO 65205 
(314) 449-7012 
Inquiry 935. 

Professional Write 2.0 $ 1 99 

Software Publishing Corp. 
P.O. Box 7210 
Mountain View, CA 94039 
(415) 962-8910 
Inquiry 936. 



can create as many as you require. 

I do, however, question the use of the 
word "Professional" in the program's 
name. This product strikes me as a basic 
word processor, fine for everyday use 
but probably not the best available for 
industrial-strength applications. You 
could probably write a book with it, but I 
wouldn't want to use it for a doctoral dis- 
sertation in math or physics. Likewise, it 
lacks legal line numbering and multiple- 
column printout. So it's not really a top- 
echelon package. 

Professional Write 2.0 is a good 
answer to Q&A Write, with a few fea- 
tures not available there, but I do rec- 
ommend checking out the Symantec 
product if Professional Write sounds in- 
teresting to you. In fact, you probably 
ought to get demonstrations of a few 
other midlevel word processors at the 
same time. You won't be disappointed 
with Professional Write, but it's kind of a 
Ford. Depending on taste, you might do 
just as well with a Chevrolet. 

Shareware to Commercialware 

This column is not the only thing to add a 
"Plus" to its name; Procomm, that ven- 
erable shareware workhorse, has gone 
commercial and has become Procomm 
Plus (Datastorm, $75). The only way to 
get your hands on this new revision of the 
product is to buy it from a dealer or order 
it directly; you won't find the Plus ver- 
sion on your local bulletin board. Tom 
Smith and Bruce Barkelew, the authors 



of the program, are two of the nicest guys 
in the business, and I hope the change in 
the program's status lets them earn a de- 
cent living at last. 

Procomm was definitely one of my fa- 
vorite telecommunications packages: 
full-featured, clean, and fairly easy to 
understand. Procomm Plus adds some 
new stuff: support for more file-transfer 
protocols than I knew existed (including 
Kermit and a couple for error-correcting 
high-speed modems), emulation of any 
terminal you'd ever want to emulate, 
split-screen mode for CB-style on-line 
chat, host mode for interactive dial-in 
operations, and a simple text editor. 

The neatest addition is a decent script 
language that can be mastered easily; the 
team's earlier efforts required you to 
write in gibberish. The program already 
had a good interface for setting keyboard 
macros, exit to DOS as a shell operation, 
automatic session logging if desired, and 
a one-keystroke screen capture. 

There are two other advantages to buy- 
ing the private version. The first is the 
printed manual. Procomm Plus has some 
complex aspects, and step-by-step docu- 
mentation is a big help. The second ad- 
vantage is the support files you get in the 
package, which include scripts for every 
major on-line service and widespread 
bulletin board software; and dialing di- 
rectories for bulletin boards in Atlanta, 
Austin, Boston, Chicago, San Francisco, 
and Washington, DC. The package also 
includes long lists of both U.S. and inter- 
national bulletin boards. This is the kind 
of nicety that is almost never provided 
with shareware. 

The program is certainly the equal of 
many packages already on the market, 
and it can legitimately compete with the 
category leaders. Note, however, that 
there is no provision for background op- 
eration, and that the script language falls 
short of some of the more extensive pack- 
ages, like Mirror II, the latest Crosstalk, 
and Framework. 

But on the whole, you won't go wrong 
purchasing and using Procomm Plus 
unless your requirements are sophisti- 
cated in the extreme. For day-to-day tele- 
communications, this is highly recom- 
mended. ■ 

Ezra Shapiro is a consulting editor for 
BYTE. You can contact him on BIX as 
"ezra. " Because of the volume of mail he 
receives, Ezra, regretfully, cannot re- 
spond to each inquiry. 

Your questions and comments are wel- 
come. Write to: Editor, BYTE, One 
Phoenix Mill Lane, Peterborough, NH 
03458. 



118 BYTE' AUGUST 1988 



ONE 




CHIP 



PLUS 



... "Makes building PS/2 boards simple" 



Electronics 



... "Quickens Micro Channel board design" 



Electronic Products 



... "Integrates all IBM PS/2 Micro Channel control needs" 

Electronic Design 

... "(CEC is) making it easier to soup up the PS/2" 

BusinessWeek 

... "Their chip is the most flexible we've seen" 

Microprocessor Report 



ONE CHIP PLUS is a complete 
Micro Channel interface on a chip, 
plus a development package that 
lets you build memory, I/O or 
multifunction boards in less time 
for less money. 

ONE CHIP PLUS is a product of 
Capital Equipment Corp., a proven 
supplier of hardware and software 
for engineers. Call today. We can 
help you whether you're building 
one board or a million. 

Literature 1 800 234 4CEC 
Technical assistance (617) 273-1818 



PS/2 and Micro Channel are trademarks of International Business Machines 

ONE CHIP PLUS is a trademark of Capital Equipment Corp. 

99 South Bedford Street, Burlington, MA. 01803 



Circle 40 on Reader Service Card 



AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 119 



Make your programs 

millions of times 

smarter. 



More and more, programmers and work- 
station builders are using DESQview 2.0 as a 
development tool. The reason is simple. 
They can create powerful, multitasking 
solutions today for the millions of DOS PCs 
in use today. Solutions comparable to those 
promised for tomorrow by OS/2. 



The API Advantage 

Programmers who take advantage of DESQview's API 
(Application Program Interface) get access to the powerful 
capabilities built into DESQview-multitasking, window- 
ing, intertask comunications, mailboxes, shared programs, 
memory management, mousing, data transfer, menu- 
building and context sensitive help. 

Bells and Whistles 

A program taking advantage of the DESQview 2.0 API can 
spawn subtasks for performing background operations or 
new processes for loading and running other programs 



Some of the applications under 
development right now using 
DESQview 2.0 API Tools: CAD, 
Medical systems, insurance, 3270 
mainframe communications, 
network management, real 
estate, typesetting, point of sale, 
education, commodity trading, 
stock trading and online voting. 



80386 Power 

80386 programmers can take advantage of 
the 80386' s protected mode for large 
programs, yet run on DOS and multitask in 
DESQview-side by side with other 80386 
and DOS programs. The breakthroughs that 
make this possible: DOS Extenders from 
PharLap Software and AI Architects and 
DESQview support of these DOS extenders. 

DESQview Developer Conference 

So if you are a developer, looking to create programs with 
mainframe capabilities, but wanting to sell into the existing 
base of millions of DOS PCs, come to Quarterdeck's first 
DESQview API Developers Conference, August 16-18, 1988 
at the Marina Beach Hotel, in Marina del Rey, California. 
For more information call or write us. 

Come learn about the DESQview 2.0 API and 80386 DOS 
Extenders. Meet 80386 experts as well as those smart 



concurrently. It can schedule processing after an interval or people who are creating DESQview 2.0 API workstations 
at a certain time. It can use DESQview's intertask commu- 
nications to rapidly exchange data between programs, 
share common code and data; or interrupt at critical events. 
It can use DESQview's menuing and mousing capabilities 
to create menus. And there's lots more it can do. 



solutions. 

And if you want to get a leg up before the conference, ask 
us about the DESQview API Tools for assembler or C 
programmers. 




New Pdwer to DOS. 
ew 2.0 API Toolkit. 




Quarterdeck Office Systems 150 Pico Blvd.,Santa Monica, CA 90405 

(213)392 9851 



120 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 



Circle 197 on Reader Service Card (DEALERS: 198) 



EXPERT ADVICE 
DOWN TO BUSINESS 



Wayne Rash Jr. 



♦ 



Staking Out 
the Territory 



What's best for 
your office? This 
new column offers 
real-world answers. 



In many ways, business users of 
small computers are just like any 
other user. We have the same prob- 
lems with hardware that breaks, 
software that isn't shipped when prom- 
ised, and salespeople who know less than 
we do about the machines they sell. 

But there are differences. We may buy 
hundreds of computers, risking hundreds 
of thousands of dollars if we make the 
wrong decision. We may have an office 
floor with 60 people who need to share 
the same information. Or we may have a 
VAX in the basement that we need to con- 
nect our personal computers to. 

This is why I'm writing a business col- 
umn about small computers for BYTE. It 
will approach personal computers from a 
business viewpoint, but without the bias 
you find in the "single machine" maga- 
zines. No one type of computer is the 
solution to all problems, so no one com- 
puter will dominate this column. 

That's not to say that I won't write 
about IBM and clone machines or about 
Macintoshes. They are the most heavily 
used by the BYTE readership, and I will 
devote a lot of space to them. On the 
other hand, I won't ignore the Unix 
world or the less popular, specialty ma- 
chines either. All these areas show great 
promise, and the future of your business 
may lie with one of these machines. 

The PC Guru 

If you're reading this magazine, there's a 
good chance that you're the person in 
your organization who is the "Corporate 
Techie," or the "PC Guru." While you 
may or may not be in the organization 
chart as a computer staff resource, you 



serve as one. When people find out that 
they can't format a floppy disk, or that 
they did format their hard disk, you're 
the person who gets the call. You're also 
the person who seems to have a constant 
stream of visitors to your desk, all asking 
the same question: "I've been thinking 
about getting a personal computer. What 
kind should I get?" In many companies, 
you're also the person who wields a lot of 
the influence about what the company 
buys and how it uses small computers. 

One of the best ways to decide what 
will work in your office is to look at the 
experiences of others. It's a lot cheaper 
to let someone else take the risk while 
you learn from their experiences. Some- 
times you can't do that, though, so the 
next best thing is to read about them. 

For this reason, I'll try to illustrate my 
examination of the business small com- 
puter user with case histories where 
they're appropriate. I'll also tell you 
about trends I see that are important to 
business users, and I'll report on hard- 
ware, software, and services that might 
affect your business. What I won't do is 
give conventional, safe answers where 
another answer is better, nor will I deal 
with information you can find out from a 
quick read of the manual. 

Networking 

One question that inevitably crops up 
each week or so concerns networks. Now 
that local-area networks (LANs) are 
known to exist, everybody wants one. 
Usually, the rationale is as simple as, 
"We have to be able to talk to each 
other." This means that there is a need 
for some portion of an organization to 
share some common data. Normally, the 
first application that comes to mind in- 
volves a database, although word 
processing tends to follow closely. 

Often, the request for a LAN comes 
without a full understanding of whether 
that is the correct solution. Your col- 
league or client has read about these won- 
derful networks and thinks a LAN is the 



answer to the organization's information 
flow. It can be, of course, but it can also 
do a lot to impede that flow. 

The software you choose can play a big 
role in making the LAN work properly— 
especially when many users on the LAN 
need to use the same database. Choosing 
the wrong database can make your net- 
work seem to come to a stop. 

I ran across an example of this prob- 
lem with a network that was using 
dBASE III Plus on a number of worksta- 
tions to access a single large database on 
the file server. At the same time, other 
users were trying to use WordPerfect. As 
soon as more than three or four people be- 
gan to use the database, performance 
dropped drastically. 

This happened, of course, because all 
the database users were trying to use the 
file server's disk at the same time. The 
first user to try got control, and the 
others waited in a queue. Since many 
single-user databases running on a net- 
work, including dBASE, treat the LAN 
as a disk channel, all the work for all the 
stations was being done by a single drive. 
The drive churned away, searching and 
indexing, while the other users waited. 
Of course, the repeated disk accesses 
added to the network traffic, slowing 
things even more. Response time was 
well over a minute on some screens. 

Clearly, a number of actions can be 
taken to improve response time when 
using a database on a network. Some net- 
work operating systems, including 
Novell NetWare, allow very flexible ar- 
rangements of hard disks. Likewise, add- 
ing more network server cards to the file 
server can help improve throughput. 
Probably the best solution, though, is to 
pick a DBMS that's designed as a multi- 
user system in the first place. 

The Database Server 

Network performance problems with 
databases that were originally designed 
for single users have led a few manufac- 

continued 



AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 121 



DOWN TO BUSINESS 



turers to develop new solutions. One of 
the best is the database server. This is a 
database engine that resides on a CPU 
dedicated to database use. Queries come 
to the database engine, and results are re- 
turned to the users. Ashton-Tate, devel- 
oper of dBASE, has announced that, with 
Microsoft, it will develop just such a 
database server, but it has yet to deliver. 

Meanwhile, a few other companies 
have said that they will bring out server- 
based database engines. XDB Systems of 
College Park, Maryland, has one. 

A server database engine such as XDB 
works by dividing the DBMS into a front- 
end processor and the data engine itself. 
The front-end processor resides on the 
user's workstation. It provides the user 
interface and translates the user's actions 
into SQL commands. These commands 
are then sent to the database server. 

When the database server receives an 
SQL command from a workstation, it 
performs the requested operation and re- 
turns the result. The constant traffic of 
disk accesses is removed from the net- 
work, and the file server is freed from 
the need to support the database as well. 
As a result, functions not related to data- 
base management continue unimpeded, 
and your file server can be smaller. 

Powerful Engine 

There is a down side to all this, of 
course. In the first place, XDB requires 
that you dedicate at least one CPU as the 
database server. Although you can use 
any IBM PC clone as the server, the ca- 
pability of the server directly affects the 
speed of the database operations. Dr. 
Bing Yao, president of XDB, told me that 
an 80286-based machine should be con- 
sidered for serious database use, and that 
he would tend to recommend an 80386. 

There's also the need for disk space. 
In addition to buying a large-capacity 
disk for the file server, you also need one 
for the database server. Because this disk 
will be doing all the network's database 
work, it should be pretty fast. If perfor- 
mance gets to be a problem with a single 
database server, XDB allows you to add 
additional servers. 

Fast and Easy 

There is a silver lining. XDB uses indus- 
try-standard SQL to communicate with 
its database engine. This means that you 
can move your mainframe data to your 
microcomputer and take along the que- 
ries that you used with DB2 as well. You 
can also go in the other direction, using 
queries from XDB to extract information 
from a mainframe database. 

Setting up most applications is quick 



Products 
Mentioned 

XDB Server $1995 

XDB-SQL 

Developers $495 

Run-time $195 

XDB Forms 

Developers $295 

Run-time $95 

XDB Systems, Inc. 
7309 Baltimore Ave., Suite 220 
College Park, MD 20740 
(301) 779-6030 

Inquiry 846. 



and easy. XDB provides a fourth-genera- 
tion query language for writing custom 
applications. In addition, there is a forms 
manager that allows you to define the 
database as you design the forms. Expe- 
rienced developers can make use of C 
and COBOL libraries for creating appli- 
cations that can't be developed in other 
ways. Finally, experienced SQL users 
can enter queries directly into an interac- 
tive SQL system. 

Once the applications are developed, 
the user has no way of knowing whether 
the system is using the database engine 
on the network, or a single-user database 
on the local workstation. Indeed, XDB 
will work equally well in either case 
without changing the applications. That 
way, you can create an application for all 
your users without worrying whether it 
will ultimately find itself on a network or 
a stand-alone computer. 

If you've already made the decision to 
invest in the hardware, software, physi- 
cal plant, and personnel necessary to op- 
erate a LAN that carries a significant 
database processing load, the additional 
server and disk capacity you need to as- 
sure adequate performance is worth the 
cost. When you couple its fast operation 
and industry-standard query language, 
XDB is a good deal for the serious data- 
base installation. 

What's New for Business? 

The network version of XDB was one of 
the pieces of good news at Spring Com- 
dex. In some ways, though, this does not 
look to be an exceptional year for innova- 
tion in the world of IBM-compatible 
computers. When I checked with the 
firms claiming to have OS/2 products at 
Comdex in May, only 22 products were 
shipping. A few more were due out this 



summer, but many will not arrive until 
after Comdex in the fall, or even into 
1989. If you use IBM PCs or compatibles 
and need software, you probably should 
plan on looking to the DOS world in- 
stead. There, products seem to be gain- 
ing maturity and functionality. 

A number of Comdex vendors told me 
they were still waiting to see what would 
happen to the market before they com- 
mitted resources to OS/2. Hardware de- 
velopment likewise seems stunted, with 
most manufacturers simply creating new 
versions of add-on boards that already 
exist for PCs or PC ATs and clones. 
There were some significant efforts 
demonstrated to give the PC/AT world 
the same capabilities as the PS/2. These 
included VGA cards and hard disks and 
controllers with 1-to-l interleave. 

The Macintosh II continues to woo 
business buyers away from manufac- 
turers of IBM and compatible machines. 
Informix promised that its new super- 
spreadsheet, Wingz, would finally make 
it to market. WordPerfect for the Macin- 
tosh finally shipped just before Comdex. 
Autodesk announced a version of its 
AutoCAD for the Mac. Bolstered by the 
widespread belief that the Mac is faster 
and easier to use, these products are 
gaining interest from executives, espe- 
cially now that Presentation Manager for 
OS/2 seems to be so far away. 

Unix is making a push as the business 
standard for microcomputers. While at 
Comdex, I watched as Commodore's 
chief operating officer Henri Rubin used 
a mouse to click open windows on Unix, 
MS-DOS, and Amiga DOS on his Amiga 
2000 equipped with a 100-megabyte 
disk. Dr. Rubin told me that the Amiga 
would soon be available with additional 
ports to support multiuser operation. He 
also showed me an Amiga with a screen 
resolution of 1008 by 800 pixels. I won- 
der if Commodore is aiming at the lucra- 
tive workstation market. 

On the IBM side of business, things 
have slowed down a little just now. Per- 
haps this is the time for a breather. On 
the other hand, perhaps it will give some 
of the other architectures a chance for a 
little more market share. ■ 

Wayne Rash, Jr. is a member of the pro- 
fessional staff of American Management 
Systems, Inc. (Arlington, Virginia), 
where he consults with the federal gov- 
ernment on microcomputers. You can 
reach him on BIX as "waynerash. " 

Your questions and comments are wel- 
come. Write to: Editor, BYTE, One 
Phoenix Mill Lane, Peterborough, NH 
03458. 



122 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 



Great Selection + Superior Service 
+ Competitive Prices = Top Value 



We have the technical 
expertise to fulfill your 
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design, data analysis, CAD 
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Software Development Tools 



ASSEMBLERS 



ADVANTAGE Disassembler, Lifeboat ... S 279 

Microsoft MASM 105 

OPTASM, SLR Systems 179 

[HZHi^MHBI^nHHHHLMi 

Flash-up, Software Bottling Co $ 80 

MS Basic Comn. 8.0 229 

MS QuickBASIC 69 

QuickPak, Crescent Software 60 

T BASIC, TransEraCorp 453 

Turbo Basic, Borland 69 

Turbo Basic Toolboxes, Borland 69 

AZTEC C-Comrnercial, Manx $ CALL 

C-terp, Gimpel 232 

LatticeC V. 3.3 289 

■■/Source 499 

Microsoft C 299 

QuickC, Microsoft 69 

TurboC, Borland 69 

C TOOLS PLUS 5.0, Blaise S 101 

C Utility Library, Essential 125 

Essential Communications 125 

Greenleaf Turbo Functions 79 

Greenleaf Comm Library 155 

Greenleaf Functions 145 

PforCe, Phoenix 215 

TimeSlicer, Lifeboat 279 

TurboCTOOLS, Blaise 101 



COBOL 


Micro Focus Products 

MS COBOL, Microsoft 

Realia COBOL 


SCALL 
465 
799 


RM/COBOL,Aostec 


763 


SCREENIO, Norcom 


382 


| PASCAL J 




$ 199 


Pascal-2, Oregon Software 

Turbo Pascal, Borland 


199 

69 

R4§ 




L'.l WUI !:M:II4HMU:1 MI^IMi 



Turbo Pascal Dev. Lib. .Borland S 289 

Metrabyte Data Acq. TOOLS, Ouinn-Curtis 90 

Turbo Pascal S S E Tools, Quinn-Curtis .. 69 

Turbo HALO, Media Cybernetics 80 

Turbo MAGIC, Sophisticated Software ... 90 

Turbo ASYNCH PLUS, Blaise 101 

Turbo Power Tools Plus, Blaise 101 

LOGITECH Modula-2 

Compiler Kit $ 81 

Development System 199 

Toolkit 141 

SOLID B+ Toolbox, Solid Software 89 

StonyBrook Modula-2 1 79 

386-Max, Qualitas $ 66 

ADVANTAGE 386 C, Lifeboat 839 



386 DEVELOPMENT TOOLS 



FoxBASE + /386 459 

Hijh C, Metaware 839 

NOP FORTRAN, Microway 553 

Pharlap 386IASM/UNK. 422 

DESQview, Quarterdeck $ 115 

Microport— Sys. V/386 Comp 799 

MS Windows/3BB. Microsoft 130 

PC MOS/386, Software Link 1B1 

VM/386, IGC 182 

SCO XENIX-Complete 1279 

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IMUli— ™«ll 

Periscope II $ 141 

OTHER Periscope Products CALL 

Advanced Trace-86. Morgan Computing.. 121 

Breakout, Essential 89 

TdebugPLUSV.4.0, Turbo Power Soft ... 41 

w/Source 79 

Pfix86plus, Phoenix 215 

BRIEF. Solution Systems $ CALL 

w/dBRIEF CALL 

EDIX, Emerging Technology 169 

EMACS, Unipress 268 

Epsilon, Lugaru 151 

KEDIT, Mansfield 129 

MULTI-EDIT, American Cybernetics 90 

Norton Editor 70 

PC/EDT + , Boston Business Computing 269 

Pmate, Phoenix 115 

SPF/PC, Command Technology 185 

VEDITPLUS, CompuView ....... 131 

XTC, Wendin 

mmrnm 

Btrieve, Softcraft $ 185 

Xtrieve 189 

Report Option 109 

CBTfiEE, Peacock System 141 

c-tree, Fairconi 318 

r-tree 241 

dBC III, Lattice 172 

dBC lll/llw Source 363 

dBC III PLUS 599 

dbVISTA OR db QUERY, Raima CALL 

XQL, Softcraft 599 

ADVANTAGE Graphics, Lifeboat $ 229 



GOTO 

Drawbridge, Courseware Applic 1'i i 

Essential Graphics 229 

Graphic, Software Endeavors 322 

GSS Graphics Dev. Toolkit, Software 

Endeavors 399 

HALO '88, Media Cybernetics 229 

HOOPS, Ithaca Software 554 

MetaWINDOW.Metagrapnics 162 

MetaWINDOWPLUS ... 232 

Turbo WINDOW/C 80 

Turbo HALO (Turbo CI, Media Cybernetics 80 

ACTOR, White Water Group $ 423 

ADVANTAGE C + + , Lifeboat 479 

PforCe+ + , Phoenix 215 

Smalltalk/V, Digitalk 85 

Smalltalk/V28G 159 

Microport DOS Merge $ 219 

Microport Sys V/AT 579 

SCO XENIX System V 999 

Wendin-DOS 80 

Other Microport, Sco, Wendin Products CALL 

lllllllllllllllli^^^l 

Greenleaf Data Windows $ 229 

MS Windows, Microsoft 69 

MS Windows Dev. Kit, Microsoft 329 

PANEL Plus, Lifeboat 395 

PANEL/QCor/TC 99 

Vitamin C, Creative Programming 162 

Windows for Data, Vermont Creative CALL 

ScreenStarw/Source, Essential 169 

SoftCode, Software Bottling Co 119 

Turbo POWER SCREEN 101 

Dan Bricklin's Demo Program, 

Software Graden 5 60 

MKSToolkit 139 

MS OS/2 Programmer's Toolkit 239 

PC lint, Gimpel 101 

Plink8GPIus, Phoenix ....... 279 

PolytronPVCS CORPORATE 323 

Pre-C, Phoenix 159 

SEIDL Version Manager 269 

Source Print, Aldebaran Labs 81 



Science & Engineering Software 



CIRCUIT DESIGN SCHEMATIC CAPTURE 



HiWIRE, WmtekCorp $ 849 

MICRO-CAPII, Spectrurr Software 759 

PADS Drill, CAD Software CALL 

PADSPCB, CALL 

PADS Route, CALL 

PSpice, MicroSim 899 

Device Equations Source 309 

Probe graphics post-processor 399 

Parts parameter estimator 399 

Monte Carlo Analysis 309 

Digital Files 309 

Schema II. Omation 449 

smARTWORK, Wintek Corp B49 

Tango PCB, ACCEL Tech 469 

Tango Route, ACCEL Tech 469 



DATA ACQUISITION SIGNAL ANALYSIS 



Asyst 2.9 $2,179 

Asyst Modules 1,2, 3 1989 

Asyst Modules 1,2, 4 1,989 

Asyst Module 1.2 1,609 

Asystant Plus, Macmillan 849 

Asystant, Macmillan 469 

OADISP, DSP Systems 749 

OADISP-488, DSP Systems 175 

Fourier PERSPECTIVE II, Alligator Trans 329 

HYPERSIGNAL, Hyperception 309 

HYPERSIGNALPIus 439 

LABTECH Acquire, Lab Tech. Corp 179 

LAITECH CHROM, 709 

LABTECH Notebook, 759 

LABTECH Real Time Access, 269 

Lotus Measure 445 

Q.E.D. D.A. and Control, Hart Scientific 799 

SNAP-CALC, HEM Data Corp 350 

SNAP-FFT, HEM Data Corp 295 

SNAPSHOT STORAGE SCOPE 495 

UnkelScope Junior. Unkel Software 1 09 

UnkelScope Level 1, 315 

UnkelScope Level 2+ , 499 



PLOTTING AND GRAPHING 



ChartBuster PC, Interchart Software ..$ 369 

Datatap Graph, Milhalism Assoc 259 

Omniplot. Scientific Endeavors 269 

PC-MAP III, Peerless Engineering 755 

PLOTZ, Curtis TechmcalSoft 319 

TECH GRAPH°PAD, binary engineering.. 259 



EQUATION SOLVERS 



MathCAD 2.0, MathSoft 282 

Math Mate, MCAE Technologies 89 

muMATH, Soft Warehouse 189 

SolvelTI, Structured Scientific Software 79 

Solver-Q, SDDC 79 

TKISolver Plus, Universal Tech Sys 3S5 Hr:^ktJ[4-" 



EXP, Brooks/Cole Publishing 129 

For Math, Shantha Software 379 

Lotus Manuscript 445 

PCTEX, PersonalTEX 229 

T3 Sci. Word Proc, TCI Software Res.... 499 



E^jH ■■ 

AutoCAD, by Autodesk S CALL 

Autosketch, by Autodesk 65 

Speed Enhanced Version 79 

Design CAD, American Small Bus. Comp 219 

Drafix 1 Plus, Foresight 239 

Drafix3-DModeler,Foresight 169 

EASYCAD, Evolution Computing - ., 139 

ECAD, Pelton Engineering 699 

FASTCAD, Evolution Ccmout no 1,849 

Generic CADD 69 

Generic 3-D Solid Modeling 159 

3-D Rendering Module 119 

In^A^Vision, Micrografx 459 

Windows Draw w/Clip Art 239 

Windows Graph 319 

LaserCAD, DSL Link 89 

PR0-3D/PC, Enabling Technologies 355 

TurboCAD, MSA Group 79 



AUTOCAD ADD-ONS 



AutoESL, Systems Unlimited of CA $ 279 

AutoSHAPES 189 

FSIMPLEX, 89 

Turbo View, Sublogic Corp 44g 



ABstat, Anderson Bell $ 315 

CSS, StatSoft 469 

Microstat.Ecosoft 319 

NWASTATPAK, Northwest 749 

P-STAT 859 

The Scientific Wheel, Dalin Inc 99 

SPSS/PC -i- 749 

StatPacGold, Walonick Associates.... 539 

STATS+, StatSoft 229 

THESYSTAT CALL 



A00ITI0NALS6EPR00UCTS 



System ID Toolbox 375 

POINT FIVE, Pacific Crest 279 

The Professional Wheel, Dalin Inc 199 

Units, Curtis Technical Soft 25 



FORTRAN LANGUAGE 



DIFF-E-Q,Microcompatibles $ 449 

Extend, Design Decisions 131 

Grafmatic or Plotmatic, Microcompatibles 1 1 9 

Lahey F77L-EM/32 799 

Lahey Personal FORTRAN 89 

MathPac, Systolic Systems 445 

Microsoft FORTRAN w/CodeView 299 

Numerical Analyst, Magus 249 

RM/FORTRAN,Austec 479 

Spindrift Library, Laboratory LTD 135 

SSP/PC, Lattice 279 



ATLAS«GRAPHICS,STSC $ 339 

C0°MPEDITnVwn C |nn S0fl: ill GAUSS Proo. Lang., Aptech Sys J 240 

fflMfe^ 649 "USB MatUst S atS B ystem. y 380 

LABCAUX 1006 Calculator 55 



X-ASMS'SIMULATORS 



PC-Matlab, The Math Works 659 - - -— -•.-.- ... -^ „ 

Control System Toolbox 375 Microtec, Reims, Uniware, Quelo $ CALL 



MOUSE PRODUCTS 



LOGITECH HiREZ Mouse $ 149 

LOGITECH Serial or Bus Mouse 99 

LOGITECH Others CALL 

LOGITECH Series 2 Mouse 89 

Microsoft Ser or Bus Mouse 99 

W/EasyCAD 119 

W/MS Windows 139 

SUMMAMOUSE, Summagraphics 99 



I APL LANGUAGE 


APL'PLUS/PC.STSC 

APL'PLUS PC TOOLS, 

Pocket APL 


S 499 

209 

80 



SCIENTIFIC TEXT PROCESSING 



CHEM-TEXT, Molecular Design Ltd $1,500 

Eureka: The Solver, Borland $ 119 EXACT, Technical Support Software 419 



Ordering 
Information 

We accept AMERICAN EX- 
PRESS. MC VISA and 
PERSONAL CHECKS There 
is no surcharge on credit 
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sales tax Shipping and 
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• International orders add 
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Call for your FREE catalog today! 
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International Orders: 914-332-0756 

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— ■ SOFTWARE CO. J 

55 South Broadway, Tarrytown, NY 10591 



Circle 214 on Reader Service Card 



AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 123 



Hi * 



CrossCode 

for. ihe 

68000 

Microprocessor Fami 




Embedded systems designers have already used CrossCode C in over 172 different applications. 

Introducing CrossCode C 
for the 68000 Microprocessor Family 

Finally, a 68000 C Compiler that's 
tailor-made for ROMable applications 



CrossCode C is designed specifically to 
help you write ROMable code for all 
members of the Motorola 68000 family. 

A ROMable C Compiler? 

To get truly ROMable code, you have to start 
with a truly ROMable compiler. Here are 
three CrossCode C features that you won't 
find in any ordinary C compiler: 

• Compiler output code is split into five 
independent memory sections that you 
can assign into ROM or RAM as you 
please. 

• You can optimize the code for your 
application because you control the sizes 
of data types. For example, you can 
optimize for speed by using two byte mts, 
or get maximum versatility by using four 
byte ints. 

• You can easily write assembly language 
routines that call C functions and vice- 
versa, because the compiler uses simple, 
well documented parameter passing 
conventions. 

How About Low Level Control? 
CrossCode C comes with an assembler that 
has all the features that assembly language 
programmers require. In fact, you could write 



your whole application with it: 

• The assembler features an advanced 
macro language, conditional assembly, 
"include" files, and an unlimited size 
symbol table. 

• Detailed cross references show you 
where you've defined and referenced 
your symbols. 

• After a link, you can actually convert 
your "relocatable" assembler listings into 
"absolute" listings that contain absolute 
addresses and fully linked object code. 

Can It Handle The Link? 

The CrossCode C linker is designed to handle 
truly huge loads. There are no limits on the 
number of symbols in your load or on the size 
of your output file. And you can always count 
on full 32 bit target addressability, because the 
linker operates comfortably in the highest 
ranges of the 68020's address space. 

How Does It Get To ROM? 
CrossCode C comes with a downloader th&l 

puts you in touch with all EPROM 
programmers and emulators. It can convert 
your load into Motorola S-Records, Intel Hex, 
Tek Hex, Extended Tek Hex, and Data I/O 
ASCII Hex. You can also produce a binary 



image and convert that image into any format 
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Once you start using CrossCode C, you may 
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Microsoft. UNIX ' isa registered trademark of AT&T. XENIX^isa 
registered trademark of Microsoft. 



124 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 



Circle 221 on Reader Service Card 



EXPERT ADVICE 
MACINATIONS Don Crabb 



# 



WHAT'S UP 

with Apple? 



Late shipments, 
abandoned products, 
and blown promises 
are driving the 
rest of us crazy 



As I write this column, it is the 
third week of May. I am still 
waiting for Apple to release 
L its System Tools 6.0 software 
for the Mac. I had hoped to report on the 
updated released versions of the System, 
Finder, and MultiFinder. Apple prom- 
ised members of the Apple University 
Consortium (AUC) in March that the re- 
vised System software would be available 
on AppleLink, CompuServe, GEnie, 
MacNET, and elsewhere by the end of 
April, with complete shrink-wrapped 
kits (a la System Tools 5.0) and printed 
documentation soon after. 

Late, incomplete, and confused distri- 
bution has plagued the release of Mac 
system software since the first update in 
1984. In the last year, though, the confu- 
sion and problems have spread to other 
Apple software products, growing almost 
in parallel with Apple's impressive fiscal 
performance. As Apple has grown from 
an entrepreneurial enterprise to a more 
traditionally managed technology com- 
pany, several important products have 
either fallen between management cracks 
or been released woefully incomplete. 

The fact is, Apple has blown a lot of 
promises lately. Two more examples will 
serve to clarify my point: MacPascal and 
A/UX. 

MacPascal 

Ever wonder what happened to MacPas- 
cal? Did you know that you can't current- 
ly buy it from Apple (or anyone else)? I 
first discovered the "MacPascal prob- 
lem" in January. It was then that I had 




Apple's new System Tools 5.0 software 
installed on our laboratory Macs. One of 
the primary uses for these machines is to 
teach introductory programming. Be- 
cause of its friendly interface and novice- 
centered development environment, 
along with its multiple- window approach 
to interpreted execution and debugging, 
MacPascal is a perfect environment for 
learning. It's safe to say that MacPascal 
helped sell a lot of Macs to universities. 

Almost as soon as the System Tools 
5.0 was installed, we started having seri- 
ous problems with MacPascal 2.1 (the 
latest version). Program files became cor- 
rupted, printing failed, working pro- 
grams refused to run, and so on. To 
make an excruciating story short, after 
considerable effort I found that Apple 
had simply dropped MacPascal. No more 
versions. No bug fixes. No more Mac- 
Pascal. Nothing. Apple recommended 
that we either run MacPascal 2.1 with 
old system software or migrate to another 
Pascal. What was even more frustrating 



was that no one at Apple could point to 
whose decision it was to drop MacPascal. 
It's now 5 months later, and the only 
good news is that Apple is near an agree- 
ment with Symantec/Think Technol- 
ogies (the original authors) to take Mac- 
Pascal back into its fold for an eventual 
rewrite and rerelease next fall. Are they 
kidding? People who are using MacPas- 
cal can't put their work on hold until the 
autumn of 1989. Most Pascal users will 
probably adopt our strategy: migrate to 
Think' s Pascal compiler, Lightspeed 
Pascal, even though it's not as good a 
product for learning programming. 

A/UX 

Apple's much-ballyhooed Unix for the 
Mac II, A/UX, is another of Apple's 
software mistakes. The product missed 
its initial ship date (August 1987) by 
more than 6 months. When it finally 
shipped in February of 1988, Apple had 
not done its homework in addressing one 

continued 



ILLUSTRATION: ROBERT KAUFMAN 



AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 125 



MACINATIONS 



of its largest groups of potential A/UX 
customers: users of System V and BSD 
4.2/4.3 Unix. 

As announced, A/UX was simply not 
competitive with Unix offerings from 
Sun, Apollo, and AT&T. It was too ex- 
pensive, and could be purchased only on 
an Apple 80-megabyte hard disk; tape 
distribution was not available. Apple had 
made no provisions for distributing the 
source code for A/UX. Dedicated Unix 
users simply must have the source code. 



And despite earlier promises to the con- 
trary, A/UX deflated the hopes of a large 
segment of its intended market by being 
mostly plain vanilla System V. A/UX 
definitely was not Unix for the rest of us. 
To be fair, we should be able to forgive 
Apple for this last failing, especially 
since A/UX 1.0 is its first Unix release. 
Apple got a lot of technical things right 
with 1.0. It also broke new ground by 
making it easier to recover from Unix 
file-system errors and install new de- 



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vices. But the other A/UX problems 
point to a larger management problem: 
an inability to announce and deliver soft- 
ware on schedule and as described. 
Apple's spin-off company, Claris, will 
help somewhat (by taking applications 
like Mac Write away from Apple), but the 
management difficulties remain for 
Apple's languages and system software. 
Apple's mistakes make a disturbingly 
long list; I hope the folks there are learn- 
ing from the errors. All the lawsuits in 
the world won't help retain or increase 
market share if the way it has handled 
A/UX, MacPascal, and system software 
becomes a trend. 

System Tools 6.0 

I've worked with a beta version of System 
Tools 6.0 for several weeks. About all I 
can say is that it lives up to its beta desig- 
nation. It didn't work properly on the 
Mac II, SE, or Plus I used for testing. 
Whether I copied the files to clean hard 
disks or used the Installer to update an 
existing System, the stuff just didn't 
work right. Screens froze for no reason, 
the mouse went dead, and bombs with 
just about every ID number known to In- 
side Macintosh cropped up. Since this is 
labeled an "early beta," I hope the prob- 
lems are fixed before release. 

The new software included a couple of 
interesting new features worth remem- 
bering: a notification manager and a new 
font format. The notification manager is 
supposed to notify foreground applica- 
tions running under MultiFinder when a 
background application (e.g., a telecom- 
munications program) needs direct at- 
tention. As it stands now, the notification 
manager should be useful if you expect 
to upload or download several files in the 
background while working on something 
else in the foreground. I hope software 
publishers will take advantage of this ca- 
pability to allow other functions that 
need occasional attention to operate in 
the background (e.g., program compila- 
tion or hard disk backup). 

The new font format, NFNT, allows up 
to 16,000 fonts to be loaded into a sys- 
tem, up from the 256 you can load now 
(without using a third-party DA/font 
manager like AlSoft's Font DA/Juggler 
Plus). You can also install up to 32,000 
individual fonts in your system with the 
new format. The increased limits come 
from NFNT assigning font numbers to en- 
tire font families rather than to individ- 
ual fonts. Unfortunately, NFNT fonts are 
not compatible with the existing ones, 
and Apple does not yet have any software 
to convert the old fonts to the new format 

continued 



126 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 



Circle 175 on Reader Service Card 



An inside look at 
386 value around 




The more you look into 386 compatibles, the more 
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Best of all, the cache circuit 
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Circle 171 on Reader Service Card 



GV-386 
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Of course, our most important criterion when 
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AUGUST 1988 'BYTE 127 



Circle 119 on Reader Service Card 



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(the beta version of the Font/DA Mover 
3.8 that I tested in the System 6.0 pack- 
age lacked a conversion feature). 

The beta 6.0 System disks I tested, de- 
spite taking up four 800K-byte disks, 
also lacked any NFNT fonts. Still, Apple 
would not have created the new font for- 
mat if it didn't plan to use it, so NFNT util- 
ity software and fonts might appear as 
early as the Boston '88 Mac World Expo. 
I expect that vendors like Adobe, who 
have substantial investments in existing 
libraries of typefaces, will eventually 
convert some or all of their fonts to the 
new NFNT format. 

FoxBASE+/Mac 

I've been working with FoxBASE + / 
Mac, a relational database, since De- 
cember 1987, when it was a low-num- 
bered beta. I've had the initial released 
version (1.0) for about a month now, and 
I'm impressed. FoxBASE+/Mac is fast. 
Not just a little bit fast, but a lot fast. In 
the 1000-, 10,000-, and 50,000-record 
flatfile tests I've run, it's faster than any 
other Macintosh database, relational or 
not. The same blazing speed held up in 
the limited multifile relational tests I 
tried (relating 3 files of 10,000, 5000, 
and 2500 records each). FoxBASE + / 
Mac outruns 4th Dimension, McMax, 
dBASE Mac, FileMaker Plus, Reflex 
Plus, Omnis 3 Plus, Double Helix II, and 
others at the basic tasks of creating, im- 
porting, modifying, sorting, retrieving, 
and deleting database information. 

FoxBASE+/Mac is a dBASE III Plus- 
compatible database for the Mac. It can 
run any dBASE III Plus code directly 
(once you've ported it over to the Mac 
using TOPS, or through a serial connec- 
tion, or by using the Apple File Exchange 
software and a PC-compatible Mac disk 
drive). It can also read dBASE data files 
without modifications. FoxBASE + /Mac 
also read the PC FoxBASE files I tried. 

FoxBASE+/Mac, however, is not the 
first software to offer complete dBASE 
III Plus compatibility on a Mac. The 
dMacIII program, first published by 
Format Software (a West German com- 
pany), and rewritten and rereleased in 
1987 by Nantucket Software as McMax, 
claims that honor. McMax is fast too, al- 
though slower than FoxBASE. 

If FoxBASE + /Mac were just a faster 
version of McMax, its market would be 
limited primarily to developers who 
want to port their dBASE III applications 
over to the Mac. Happily, speed is just 
part of the appeal of FoxBASE + /Mac. 

Unlike McMax, FoxBASE + /Mac in- 
cludes a set of command extensions and 
additional features that go way beyond 



128 BYTE* AUGUST 1988 



Circle 125 on Reader Service Card 



MACINATIONS 



dBASE. FoxBASE can build applications 
that incorporate many familiar Macin- 
tosh software features, such as pull- 
down menus, radio buttons, scrollable 
and editable text windows, dialog and 
alert boxes, resizable and scrollable out- 
put windows, font and font-size control, 
icon-style menus, and color on the Mac 
II. These features give FoxBASE + /Mac 
much more utility as a Macintosh-only 
database applications development sys- 
tem than McMax. FoxBASE + /Mac's 
direct competition is Acius's 4th Dimen- 
sion. It easily beat 4D 1 .04 in my bench- 
mark speed tests (4D 1.04, the current 
release as of May 1988, suffers from a 
number of speed problems), and I sus- 
pect that even the improved 4th Dimen- 
sion, version 1.1, will still be drubbed by 
FoxBASE in speed testing. 

FoxBASE + /Mac also costs $300 less 
than 4D. But speed and price are not the 
only concerns for database developers 
and users. The total development and 
user environment is just as important as 
any performance and value rating based 
only on speed and list price. In this more 
complete comparison, FoxBASE still has 
a lot of catching up to do. 4D provides 
more features, more development aids, 
and a better overall environment than 
does FoxBASE + /Mac. 4D also offers a 
run-time version for developers, and it 
supports multiple users (with proper file 
and record locking) over AppleShare. 

Fox Software expected to release a 
run-time version of FoxBASE + /Mac in 
June for $300. By that time, the company 
should also have released a LAN version 
compatible with the file and record lock- 
ing utilities of AppleShare and 3Com's 
3 + Share. 

Given how rapidly Fox Software has 
gotten a serious Mac relational database 
into the market, I'd keep a close eye on it. 
I expect version 2.0 will keep its speed 
and add more development tools. 

FullWrite Professional 

Here's a program that looked like quint- 
essential vaporware. First announced at 
the January 1987 Mac World by Ann 
Arbor Softworks (the FullPaint people), 
its release was repeatedly postponed. 
Ashton-Tate finally bought it in Febru- 
ary and began shipping it at the end of 
April. I've tried version 1.0 for a week 
and have some initial impressions. 

At $395 it's competitively priced with 
Microsoft Word 3.02, although Micro- 
soft's aggressive volume and educational 
discount purchase program often drops 
Word's price to less than $90. In con- 
trast, I paid $219 for my copy of Full- 
Write Professional from a local Chicago 



Items Discussed 




Apple Macintosh 




FoxBASE+/Macl.O 


$395 


System Tools 6.0 


$39 


Fox Software, Inc. 




Apple Computer Inc. 




118 West South Broadway 




20525 Mariani Ave. 




Perrysburg, OH 43551 




Cupertino, CA 95014 




(419) 874-0162 




(408) 996-1010 




Inquiry 908. 




Inquiry 905. 












FullWrite Professional 


$395 


A/UX 1.0 




Ashton-Tate Corp. 




Apple Computer Inc. 




20101 Hamilton Ave. 




20525 Mariani Ave. 




Torrance, CA 90502 




Cupertino, CA 95014 




(213) 329-8000. 




(408) 996-1010 




Inquiry 920. 




Price not set at press time 








Inquiry 906. 









computer store (not a chain franchise). 

Version 1.0 is slow. In fact, as a basic 
editor, it is annoyingly slow. I tried writ- 
ing this column using FullWrite but gave 
up because the screen scrolled too slow- 
ly, and search-and-replace operations 
creeped along (I finished the column 
using MindWrite 1.1). I used a 1 -mega- 
byte Mac Plus in these tests. Brief testing 
on an 8-megabyte Mac II showed that 



I 



m 



impressed. FoxBASE is 

not just a little bit fast, 

but a lot fast. 



FullWrite performed well. Therefore, on 
a fully configured Mac II, FullWrite is a 
good editing choice. 

There's no question about FullWrite's 
credentials as a high-end word proces- 
sor, though. It surpasses Word's desktop 
publishing (DTP) features by adding 
page-layout and drawing functions (al- 
though it's no match for the page-layout 
capabilities of a complete DTP program 
like PageMaker 3.0). Besides the basic 
DTP capabilities, FullWrite has a slew of 
editing and formatting features just like 
Word: a spelling checker, an outliner 
(yes, a usable integrated outliner, unlike 
Word's useless one), automatic hyphena- 
tion, automatic indexing and table of con- 
tents creation, and floating footnotes. 
FullWrite also has some nice editing fea- 



tures that Word lacks, such as review 
notes and revision journaling. 

Like many beta testers, I had problems 
with FullWrite reading Word files, but 
my system didn't crash. Instead, the file 
would open with corrupted text. The re- 
leased version doesn't have this problem. 

Despite FullWrite's slowness com- 
pared to Word and MindWrite, I still 
liked the program. It's very easy to fig- 
ure out and use. If I was in the habit of 
creating long structured documents with 
some graphics elements in them, I'd 
probably choose FullWrite over a combi- 
nation of PageMaker and Word, because 
it would be simpler to learn and use and 
still produce an acceptable result. 

As a basic full-screen editor/word pro- 
cessor, though, FullWrite Professional is 
just too slow on a 1 -megabyte Mac Plus, 
and it requires too many machine re- 
sources (at least 1 megabyte of memory, 
preferably 2 megabytes, and as fast a 
hard disk drive as you can afford). For 
my basic writing needs, I'll stick with 
MindWrite 1. 1 and Word 3.02, because I 
don't need all the DTP features of 
FullWrite. MindWrite's wonderful out- 
liner is reason enough for me to rely on 
it, while Word's scrolling speed and 
global updating acumen more than make 
up for its other flaws. ■ 

Don Crabb is the director of laboratories 
and a senior lecturer for the computer 
science department and the college at the 
University of Chicago. He is also a con- 
sulting editor for BYTE. He can be 
reached on BIX as "decrabb. " The views 
expressed are his own. 

Your questions and comments are wel- 
come. Write to: Editor, BYTE, One 
Phoenix Mill Lane, Peterborough, NH 
03458. 



AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 129 






1-800-422-3525 



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ANALOG INPUT The analog input lunctipns ot the adapter oper- 
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lunctions provide i2-bit relative accuracy 

RESOLUTION - 12 bits 
INPUT CHANNELS- tour differential 



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unipolar 


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user-seieciabie 


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unipolar 


straight binary 


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Error 


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EXPERT ADVICE 

OS/2 AND YOU B Mark Minasi 




Why Os/2? 



It was the El Dorado 
of DOSes, lying 
beyond multitasking, 
beyond 640K bytes. 
This new column takes 
a practical approach 
to understanding— and 
living with— the reality 
of OS/2. 



One of the big selling points of 
the original 1981 IBM PC 
was its large (for the time) 
256K-byte memory and 
greater speed. Several microcomputers 
in the PC's price class, like the North 
Star Horizon II and the Altos machines, 
offered multiuser and multitasking capa- 
bilities. These capabilities were offered 
on machines with slower CPUs and less 
memory, so multitasking capabilities 
seemed (to me and to other IBM PC buy- 
ers at the time, that is) a reasonable fea- 
ture for the PC's operating system. In 
fact, at the time, Digital Research of- 
fered a multitasking version of CP/M for 
the PC. DOS 1.0 wasn't multiuser or 
multitasking, but at $40 it was the cheap- 
est available operating system, so 96 per- 
cent of the early PC owners chose it over 
the other options, CP/M or the p-System. 
By late 1982, everyone at the local PC 
user's group had heard of a rumored 
DOS 2.0. Some of the rumors said that it 
would be multiuser and multitasking. 

DOS 2.0 arrived, sans multiuser and 
multitasking. Ah, well, we told our- 
selves, the next version would redress 
these deficiencies. In 1984, IBM fired 
our hopes by offering a new and more 
powerful computer. The initial press re- 
leases showed a computer with dumb ter- 



minals on it and made reference to a 4- 
megabyte memory capacity. The new 
"multiuser" AT had powers and abilities 
beyond that of the PC, we were told. A 
new DOS, version 3.0, came with it, but 
it didn't really do anything new save take 
up an extra 10K bytes or so. IBM said 
that a DOS to exploit this new machine's 
powers would be released "soon. " 

The rumors continued. DOS 4.0 
would be bypassed altogether for DOS 
5.0, the El Dorado of DOSes: Beyond 
multitasking, and memory beyond 640K 
bytes— the once-monstrous 640K bytes 
had become a straitjacket. The trade rags 
said Microsoft figured that it could 
knock it out by early 1986. DOS 5.0 then 
tried to go undercover, assuming new 
names seemingly each week: CP-DOS, 
A(dvanced) DOS, 286DOS. We didn't 
care what they called it. We wanted more 
memory and multitasking. 

Finally, on April 2, 1987, IBM an- 
nounced a whole slew of new hardware 
and software. DOS 5.0 was finally an- 
nounced, calling itself OS/2. 

The attractive features of OS/2 are 
multitasking, access to larger memory, a 
graphical user interface, an improved 
local-area network manager, legal termi- 
nate-and-stay-resident programs, better 
harmony among programs, a rich system 
interface, and compatibility with many 
familiar DOS commands, and, with the 
Presentation Manager, OS/2 provides a 
device-independent platform. I'll exam- 
ine the first three this month and take the 
rest up next month. 

Multitasking 

OS/2 is designed to be a single-user, 
Unix-like operating system for 80286 
and 80386 PCs. A dozen or more (12 for 
OS/2 1.0, 17 for OS/2 1.1) programs can 
run at the same time, all loaded into 
memory and executing. 

This concurrent multitasking goes be- 
yond many simple systems currently 
available under DOS that load several 
programs into memory but give actual 



CPU attention only to the one that you are 
currently interacting with. In these sim- 
ple systems, no background processing 
occurs. Such systems' main values are 
that they let you cut and paste between 
applications and that they eliminate the 
time required to load and unload a pro- 
gram. A good and inexpensive example 
of these programs is Software Carousel 
from SoftLogic Solutions. 

Gordon Letwin, Microsoft's chief ar- 
chitect of OS/2, says that it is fundamen- 
tally different from minicomputer oper- 
ating systems like Unix. Multiuser 
systems, he says, must appear to fairly 
allocate computer resources among 
multiple users. OS/2, on the other hand, 
need not appear fair to the multiple pro- 
grams running in the system. In fact, 
Letwin argues, you really want to give 
the lion's share of the CPU time to the 
program in the foreground— the one the 
user is currently interacting with. Letwin 
claims that OS/2 does this. 

OS/2 has a relatively sophisticated 
task-switching algorithm, incorporating 
a 189-level priority scheme and a dy- 
namic adjustment algorithm for those 
priorities that takes into account things 
like how long a task has been CPU- 
starved and whether or not the task is just 
waiting for I/O. In a future column, I'll 
show you how to manipulate these priori- 
ties for optimum performance. 

Large Memory 

"Breaking the 640K-byte barrier" has 
become a cliche, but OS/2 does it. The 
80286 and 80386 have, of course, always 
had the ability to address large amounts 
of memory, but not while in the "real 
mode" (are the other modes "unreal"?) 
that DOS requires. Access to more mem- 
ory is allowed under "protected mode" — 
16 megabytes of memory, in fact. 

OS/2 even goes beyond 16 megabytes. 
It can use extra disk space where there is 
insufficient RAM. If you try to run, say, 
a 3-megabyte program where only 2 

continued 



AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 131 



OS/2 AND YOU 



megabytes of RAM are free, OS/2 will 
transparently store 1 of the 3 megabytes 
on disk, treating it as if it were RAM. 
This scheme, called "virtual memory," 
is OK in a pinch, but access to disk is so 
much slower than access to memory that 
you'll want to avoid this one where 
possible. 

Another reason to avoid virtual mem- 
ory under OS/2 is that the virtual mem- 
ory manager is buggy. The process of 
moving memory blocks temporarily to 
disk and back is called "swapping." The 
swapper program will use all the free 
space on your hard disk drive— you can't 
tell it to use only x megabytes for swap- 
ping. The swapper under 1.0 is moder- 
ately stable, although I've crashed it a 
few times. The swapper under the cur- 
rent 1.1 beta release is very fragile. If 
you want a stable OS/2 platform for your 
programs, disable the swapper by adding 
MEMMAN=N0SWAP,M0VE to your CONFIG.- 
SYS file. Bugs like this are fairly com- 
mon in a new system, and they will no 
doubt be fixed in a future release. 

As the largest disk addressable by 
OS/2 is the familiar 32 megabytes (yes, 
the old DOS limitation on disk size is still 
with us), and the maximum RAM ad- 
dressable by OS/2 is 16 megabytes, a 
program using both RAM and virtual 
memory could theoretically be as large 
as 48 megabytes. 

The virtual memory scheme could be 
very useful were it not for the fact that 
OS/2 seems unable to swap itself. An 
IBM PC AT with 2.5 megabytes of RAM 
cannot boot the Presentation Manager 
code that Microsoft shipped to develop- 
ers in April, as it must have at least 2.7 
megabytes to boot. Apparently, all of 
OS/2 must reside in RAM. 

Another disappointment about OS/2's 
use of large memory is not Microsoft's 
fault, but Intel's. Even in protected 
mode, the 80286/80386 chips are de- 
signed to address the 16 megabytes in 
terms of 64K-byte segments. Going 
across segments requires more code and 
is slower. Many compiler writers, dis- 
mayed at how much more slowly a pro- 
gram runs when doing a lot of segment 
swapping, have simply limited static data 
areas to 64K bytes— one segment. 

It would be a real shame if inexpensive 
compilers maintained this now antedilu- 
vian constraint. There are, of course, no 
inexpensive compilers for OS/2 cur- 
rently. But an expensive one, the BASIC 
compiler, still has the 64K-byte limita- 
tion on static data. 

For OS/2 to get beyond the 64K-byte 
segments, it would have to put the chip in 
a different, incompatible mode, the "32- 



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bit" protected mode, but this is only 
available on the 80386 chip. 

Graphical User Interface 

Whether you like them or not, WIMP 
(windows, icons, mice, and pointers) in- 
terfaces are chic these days. The Mac has 
established a solid market, and the well- 
dressed PC these days looks like a Sun 
engineering workstation with a small 
screen. The hardware for WIMP is now 
in place— VGA is as good as Mac graph- 
ics , and the PS/2 comes with a rodent in- 
terface built right in. OS/2 supports EGA 
and VGA, as well as a variety of mice. 
Unfortunately, the current OS/2 releases 
do not support Hercules graphics. 

The "point and click" ease of a graph- 
ical user interface makes using applica- 
tions easier and reduces training time. 
The Mac can be described as not an ap- 
plication platform, but rather an applica- 
tion funnel in the sense that all Mac ap- 
plications not only can look the same, but 
pretty much must look the same. The 
downside of this uniformity is that it 
grinds programmers' gears: All of us 
who have ever touched a compiler to code 
fancy ourselves artists in the field of user 
interface design. 

The graphical user interface is han- 
dled by an optional program called the 
Presentation Manager (PM). The PM is 
to OS/2 as Windows is to DOS: Windows 
is not necessary under DOS, and the PM 
is not necessary under OS/2. Including 
Windows/PM, however, opens the doors 
to some interesting applications. 

It's hard to say too much good or bad 
about the PM, as the current beta code 
(early June 1988) is very, well, unstable. 
In his letter to developers, Microsoft's 
Steve Ballmer basically said, "Here's 
what we've got so far, it's not reliable, 



better stuff is coming. ..." 

I can't see how Microsoft will have a 
shippable final product by October— the 
date Microsoft and IBM have promised 
release to the general public— but I wish 
them luck. It's easy to take potshots at 
Microsoft for everything being so late, 
but I don't see how it couldn 't have been 
late. According to Microsoft, it took 35 
programmers 4 years to write OS/2. 
That's a mighty large programming proj- 
ect to manage— larger, I'd guess, than 
anything the company has tried before. 

If you know Windows, you'll spot a lot 
of it in the PM. The Control Panel is the 
same, the Alt-spacebar character does 
similar things, and, as in Windows 2.0, it 
can be managed without a rodent by 
using Alt keys. Applications can still 
communicate via the Clipboard. 

However, you'll also miss a few 
things. As of this writing, Microsoft 
does not provide the desk accessories that 
Windows has— the clock, calculator, Re- 
versi game, notepad, paint program, and 
terminal. This is a serious flaw, and it 
points to a major deficiency in OS/2: The 
frills are gone. Where DOS generally 
came with a BASIC interpreter and the 
all-purpose DEBUG, neither is supplied 
with OS/2 despite its $400 price tag. 
Come on, now. Would giving us DEBUG 
and GWBASIC really hurt sales of those 
$500 compiler/CodeView combinations? 

OS/2 Tip of the Month 

If you're going to use a serial printer 
under OS/2, OS/2 won't talk to the 
printer if it doesn't see some activity on 
the CTS line of the serial port, line 8 on 
an AT's 9-pin port or line 5 on a standard 
25-pin port. The following minimum 
cable worked to let me "print" from my 
desktop OS/2 machine with a 9-pin serial 
connection to my 9-pin laptop (a sneaky 
way to capture screens for use in text): 

Side 1 Side 2 

2 3 

3 2 

5 5 

7 7 



Mark Minasi is a managing partner at 
the firm ofMoulton, Minasi & Company, 
a Columbia, Maryland, which special- 
izes in technical seminars. He can be 
reached on BIX as "editors. " 

Your questions and comments are wel- 
come. Write to: Editor, BYTE, One 
Phoenix Mill Lane, Peterborough, NH 
03458. 



132 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 



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134 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 



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EXPERT ADVICE 
C0M1: ■ Brock N. Meeks 




The Wired 
Society 



Surveying the 
electronic 
communications 
landscape 



Cyrus Field never imagined in 
his wildest dreams the global 
effect of his accomplishment 
in 1866: the laying of the At- 
lantic cable. Ten years later, Secretary of 
State William Evarts spoke the following 
words at a ceremony commemorating 
that event: 

"Columbus said, 'There is one world, 
there shall be two.' Cyrus W. Field said, 
'There are two worlds— there shall be 
one.' " 
Welcome to the wired society. 
Telecommunications is the infrastruc- 
ture of the computer industry, the lifeline 
of a wired society. Whether you're push- 
ing binary files across the country on a 
dedicated line or simply typing in a com- 
ment on BIX over voice-grade telephone 
lines at 1200 bits per second (bps), some 
form of communication is taking place. 

Consider this electronic communica- 
tions landscape: Local-area networks 
(LANs) are the city streets; computer 
conferencing systems are the interstate 
highways; packet-switched networks are 
the global trade routes; and bulletin 
board systems are the rambling country 
roads that stitch communities together. 

A Technological Misfit 

The world's economy flows across an 
electronic global highway every day, 
much of its information base at the beck 
and call of a simple carrier tone. Yet, for 
all its importance, telecommunications 
is a bastard child: merely acknowledged, 
begrudgingly accepted, never quite fit- 
ting in. 

For example, a BYTE survey shows 
that 60 percent of you own a modem and 




18 percent plan to buy a modem in the 
near future. However, use of communi- 
cations software ranks a distant fourth 
behind the "big three" of applications: 
word processing, spreadsheets, and data- 
base programs. 

My love affair with PC-based commu- 
nications began with a Commodore Vic- 
20, a 9-inch black-and-white TV, and a 
300-bps direct connect modem. After 
some 6 years on-line, half of that spent 
writing about telecommunications topics 
ranging from pirate bulletin boards to se- 
curity issues to governmental attempts to 
strangle free access to public informa- 
tion, my blind love affair has matured 
into a clearer understanding of and a 
healthy respect for telecommunications. 

A good friend and fellow communica- 
tions writer, Art Kleiner, told me he hit a 
"curmudgeon stage" with the technol- 
ogy a couple years back. This stage en- 
tailed an uneasy satisfaction with the 
overall environment of "being on-line." 
So, instead of merely defending the tech- 



nology to critics, he began asking ques- 
tions. And demanding answers. 

Why is the technology so difficult to 
understand? Why is it so difficult to get a 
modem and communications software 
package to successfully dial a remote 
computer? Why, why, why? 

My own curmudgeon stage shortly 
followed Art's. But this isn't a bad thing. 
As Art told me, "It's made me look for 
answers and explore ways to push the 
technology, instead of just accepting 
whatever came along as well and good. " 
His philosophy is an information-age 
extension of the old dictum "Question 
authority." 

So I'm a bit skeptical when I hear that 
telecommunications is just about to take 
off, poised to become the "next wave" of 
computer productivity. It hasn't hap- 
pened, folks. And for good reasons. 

For example, people still oversell the 
technology. It's good for some things, 
but bad for others. And there are built-in 

continued 



ILLUSTRATION: PAUL COZZOLINO © 1988 



AUGUST 1988 • B Y T E 135 



C0M1: 



problems with every application, but that 
should come as no surprise; few things 
more technologically advanced than a 
disposable lighter work dependably. 

For all the above grousing, however, I 
believe the real advancements and advan- 
tages of telecommunications are indeed 
just around the corner (the trouble comes 
in defining just how far up the street that 
corner lies). 

In this column I'll look at the complex 
factors driving the communications in- 
dustry today and tomorrow. To do that, 
I'll examine three broad areas of the in- 
dustry: technology, issues, and effects. 

Technologies 

For the purposes of this column, com- 
munications technology deals with the 
nuts and bolts of pumping bits and bytes 
from the desktop to other intelligent de- 
vices. Access may be via a direct connec- 
tion, a local-area network, or dial-up 
communications. 

My discussions will focus on topics 
such as modem technology. Modems are 
becoming more sophisticated, capable of 
pushing data faster and more efficiently. 
How is this being accomplished, and why 



isn't it being done on a larger scale? 

The burgeoning modem market is be- 
ginning to demand dial-up 9600-bps 
modems, and the industry is starting to 
respond. One small catch, however, is 
compatibility, the plague of the computer 
industry. For example, many 9600-bps 
modem manufacturers use the Microcom 
Networking Protocol (MNP) for error 
correction, but each implements it in a 
slightly different way. 

The telecommunications environ- 
ment, as a whole, is no different. The 
drive for faster, faster, faster creates a 
fractured marketplace with incompatible 
implementations of "standards" in a 
kind of free-market "to each his own" 
mentality. 

There are signs of a "coming togeth- 
er" on these issues, however, and I'll 
keep a close watch on those develop- 
ments. One good sign is the growing ac- 
ceptance of the X.400 electronic message 
exchange standard among providers of 
electronic mail services. 

Then there's communications soft- 
ware, which is like any other piece of 
software: The one you're reared on is the 
one you'll most likely die for. Trying to 



get people to change their brand of com- 
munications software is like trying to get 
the Dalai Lama to change his religion. 

When are communications software 
developers going to learn that the quint- 
essential user isn't the quintessential pro- 
grammer? And that the user doesn't want 
to learn a programming language that 
may as well be Urdu, just to write ad- 
vanced script files? 

For telecommunications to become as 
indispensable as the word processor, pro- 
grammers are going to have to concen- 
trate on truly seamless approaches to 
telecommunicating. The program should 
take care of most of the work so you can 
just boot up and go on-line. 

I'll be looking at the best and brightest 
of the future communications packages 
here. I don't expect miracles right away, 
but I'm impressed with rumblings I hear 
coming just over that horizon. 

Another aspect of the technology is 
the systems— the networks and informa- 
tion services— with which the modems 
and communications software interact. 
These include computer conferencing 
systems like BIX, consumer information 

continued 



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136 BYTE' AUGUST 1988 



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applications up to 20 times faster. But there's a lot 
more to it than raw speed. 

Because new Clipper is one of the most powerful, 
full-featured development languages ever. And 
gives you more control over your applications than 
any release of dBASE ever will. Now or in the future. 

Instead of designing Clipper as an add-on, we've 
structured it as an extended database language that 
uses dBASE as a subset. In addition to emulating 
the dBASE language, we've added commands for 
menus, screens, windows and extended functions. 
As a result, you get dBASE compatibility and an 
entirely new level of power and versatility. 

And with Clipper's open architecture, you can 
write functions in Clipper, C, Assembler or other 
languages, and integrate them into one seamless 
application. Which helps you create more sophisti- 

© Nantucket Corporation, 1988. Nantucket is a registered trademark and Clipper is a 
trademark of Nantucket Corporation. dBASE is a registered trademark of Ashton-Tate. 

Circle 155 on Reader Service Card 



cated applications in less time. And by using our 
full-featured debugger, you'll be done even faster. 

We also give you source code security that 
keeps users from damaging your application. And 
sophisticated record and file locking capabilities that 
make networking applications easier to create. But 
no matter what you create, you don't have to buy 
runtime modules or additional software.You don't 
even have to pay licensing fees. 

If you haven't tried Clipper yet, just call (213) 
390-7923 today. We'll send you full information and 
a free demo diskette. Or the complete program, 
if you'd rather. 

But call today. And see how easy it is to find the 
best dBASE development 
language. Just get the fastest 
compiler. And open the box. 

Clipper 

Nantucket, 12555 W. Jefferson Boulevard 
Los Angeles, CA 90066 Telex: 650-2574125 

AUGUST 1988 'BYTE 137 




C0M1: 



utilities like CompuServe, LANs, elec- 
tronic mail (E-mail), and international 
packet-switched networks. It's in these 
"hot spots" of telecommunications that 
the technology comes alive, or should 
come alive. 

Tom Mandel, a futurist and senior an- 
alyst at the Stanford Research Institute in 
Palo Alto, California, is completing a 
landmark study entitled Interactive Tele- 
communications Services: Precursors of 
the Wired Society. He says, "Direct con- 
sumer access to information through elec- 
tronic means is going to grow dramatically 
in the next 5 years. I think we'll see a 
growth rate, in terms of users, of anywhere 
between 25 and 30 percent. " 

Although Mandel is optimistic about 
the growth of interactive systems like 
BIX, CompuServe, and E-mail, he says, 
"We won't see a true mass market 
emerge." Instead, several niche markets 
will spring up and profit. 

Such niche markets include services 
like NewsNet, which offers the full text 
of some 300 specialized newsletters and 
publications; on-line services like BIX, 
which cater primarily to a more techni- 
cal crowd; or Quantum Link, an on-line 
entertainment service for owners of 
Commodore computers. In essence, 
there isn't likely to be one service for all 
people in the near future. 

"To create sufficient demand for a 
mass market, people are going to have to 
be given a reason to go outside their nor- 
mal media requirements: TV, the news- 
paper, and magazines," says Mandel. 
"To create sufficient demand for new 
services at levels attractive to the every- 
day Joe, the design, delivery, and pricing 
of consumer services will have to im- 
prove significantly." 

Here, I'll examine these "niche mar- 
kets"— what's hot, what's not, and why. 

Issues 

Congress, in grappling with the effects of 
new technologies on today's society, has 
issued several reports out of the Office of 
Technology Assessment (OTA). The 
bottom line for the OTA is that any kind 
of electronic communications systems, 
with the possible exception of E-mail ser- 
vices, is actually a publishing medium. 
When you place something on-line, you 
become an author; the system becomes 
the publisher. 

This author/publisher relationship 
raises issues of copyright, intellectual 
property rights, free speech, and the 
rights of privacy. A 1986 OTA report 
states, "Electronic dissemination creates 
some very complex issues with respect to 
the public interest, and involves the intel- 



lectual property system in other issues 
such as communications, antitrust, and 
freedom of speech." A broad brush, 
indeed. 



I 



ve 



had students from 

around the world take 

my class, and I've never 

set foot in a classroom. 



Beyond these thorny issues are those of 
governmental regulation and legislation. 
Earlier this year, the Federal Communi- 
cations Commission (FCC) withdrew a 
proposal that would have dramatically 
increased the rates that on-line service 
subscribers would have to pay. The FCC 
withdrew it, in large part, because of a 
tremendous grass-roots coalition be- 
tween service providers and their sub- 
scribers: you and me. 

It was an issue near and dear to all 
users of on-line services. And they won. 
But only because the entire issue was 
hashed out on every imaginable system 
from the basement BBS to BIX. 

In 1986 Congress saw the need to pass 
the Electronic Communications Privacy 
Act, an amendment to the Wiretap Act of 
1968. This landmark legislation gave at 
least some basic privacy rights to private 
electronic correspondence. And earlier 
this year, the first lawsuit under the 
ECPA was filed in an Illinois court. 

Such issues can't be separated from 
discussions about communications, be- 
cause after the smoke of technological 
advancement clears, the issues are still 
smoldering. I'll look at these, too. 

Effects 

Any technology that directly affects the 
way humans interact creates unexpected 
results. A historical example is the tele- 
phone. Thought of as merely a business 
tool when first brought into the public, a 
way for the boss to stay in touch with the 
remote worker, it quickly became a social 
tool and has largely remained so, relegat- 
ing its original intent to a secondary level. 
Electronic communications change the 
way people work, how they work, and 
the very structure of organizations that 
implement such systems (ask Oliver 



North— who destroyed paper documents 
but didn't understand that deleted E-mail 
messages on a PROFS system are ar- 
chived—about the effects of electronic 
communications). For example, commu- 
nications technology is changing how edu- 
cational systems accomplish tasks, and 
new methods of teaching are springing up. 

I teach graduate-level courses for Con- 
nected Education, a program for the 
Media Studies department under the aus- 
pices of the New School for Social Re- 
search in New York. And although I've 
had students from around the world take 
my courses, I've never set foot in a class- 
room; the courses are all taught via the 
EIES conferencing system located on the 
campus of the New Jersey Institute of 
Technology. 

Nonprofit organizations are beginning 
to use computer communications to ex- 
tend their effectiveness— and their bud- 
gets. And the presidential candidates are 
relying on telecommunications to help 
them coordinate campaigns and keep 
statewide campaign offices informed of 
new strategies. 

These effects are crucial to the success 
of communications because they offer 
tangible results that you can point out to 
the critics of the technology. 

This column will also highlight note- 
worthy applications of communications 
and keep you informed on how they af- 
fect various segments of the world. 

Future Stock 

In the coming months, I'll take a look at 
aspects from each of these various areas. 
From the bumpy back roads of BBSes to 
the superhighways of computer confer- 
encing systems, the global highway will 
be well traveled. 

My regular "watering holes" are: BIX 
("brock"), MCI Mail ("bmeeks"), and 
CompuServe (7036,1355). For those of 
you who are hooked into the more eso- 
teric Usenet (you know who you are), I 
can be reached on the WELL via the path- 
way "ihnp4!ucbvax!cogsci.berkeley.- 
edulwell'.brock." 

As well-traveled as I am across this 
electronic landscape, I don't stop every- 
where. If there's an issue, a topic, or a 
technology that you think deserves a stop 
along the way, let me know. ■ 

Brock N. Meeks is a San Diego-based 
freelance writer who specializes in high 
technology. You can reach him on BIX as 
"brock. " 

Your questions and comments are wel- 
come. Write to: Editor, BYTE, One 
Phoenix Mill Lane, Peterborough, NH 
03458. 



138 BYTE* AUGUST 1988 




Introducing REMOTE 2 
It's never been so easy to do so much 
in distant PC operation. 

Until now, to have this kind of flexibility and control 
over a host PC, you'd have to be in the same room. 

Now, even if you're thousands of miles away, REMOTE 2 
allows you to operate a host PC's application software with 
total control and exact mapping of the host keyboard . . . fast 
file transfers even while an application program is running 
. . .remote printer redirection. . .an error-checked, data- 
compressed link even with conventional modems. . .and 
CGA color graphics. 

REMOTE 2 comes in two parts-R2HOST and R2CALL- 
available together or separately, so you can create the 
combination to meet your exact needs. R2H0ST is also 
accessible from most terminals and terminal emulators. 

Circle 65 on Reader Service Card 



REMOTE 2 is packed with features users have asked 
for. A choice of three distinct automatic and manual 
answering modes. Directory-to-directory file transfers 
using a half-screen display of host files. Proprietary file 
transfer protocol with redundant file skipping and partial 
file recovery (other popular protocols also supported). A 
"Phone Book" that facilitates one-entry calls from listings 
of names, numbers, and passwords. Host call-back capa- 
bility. Integrated, context-sensitive help system. LAN 
access. Mainframe access to an IBM host with IRMA. 
And more. 

Discover the new remote control program from the 
makers of CROSSTALK. Ask your dealer about REMOTE 2 
or write us. ^.^ 

REM0FE 2 

CROSSTALK COMMUNICATIONS/1000 Holcomb Woods Parkway, 

Roswell, Georgia 30076/(800) 241-6393 

A Division of Digital Communications Associates, Inc. dcci 

CROSSTALK is ;i registered trademark of Digital Communications Associates, Inc./CASL, IRMA and Smart 
Alec arp trademarks of Digital Communications Associates, Inc./CompuServe is a registered trademark of 
CompuServe, Inc., an II&R Block Company 

AUGUST 1988 • BYTE 139 



FIRST IMPRESSIONS 



Rick Grehan 



25-MHz 

Computing 

Buzzsaws 



She Canna Go 

Much Faster Than This, 

Captain! 



The 80386 system builders have 
cranked the dial up another 
notch. And from Compaq, 
Everex, Intel, and SimpleNet, 
here they come: the first of the 25-MHz 
80386-based AT clones. Several other 
companies, including IBM, Advanced 
Logic Research, and Everest Computer 
have also announced 25-MHz machines. 
Judging from the preproduction sys- 
tems I just looked at, "AT clone" is not a 
precise term. It's probably more accurate 
to say that these machines have AT parts 
grafted onto them. Like the Six Million 
Dollar Man, with his frail, biologic 
human parts stitched together with 
superhuman bionic limbs, these ma- 
chines marry a significant portion of an 
8-MHz AT that limps alongside a high- 
speed, 32-bit 80386 system. Each ma- 
chine accomplishes this dual personality 
in different ways, yet there are striking 
similarities— at least on the surface. 

All four machines 
have a number of 
8-MHz AT- 
compatible 
expansion 



Compaq 
Deskpro 386/25 




slots that you can feed from the market's 
never-ending supply of peripheral 
boards. Each machine also has a 32-bit 
expansion bus for a high-speed memory 
board supplied by the company (sort of a 
similarity and a difference— since each 
machine's 32-bit expansion bus is propri- 
etary). This leaves you in a predicament: 
If you want to upgrade memory beyond 
what you can place on the motherboard, 
you can either buy a slow, less-expensive 
AT-bus memory board from any number 
of sources, or a fast, more expensive 32- 
bit memory board from the company that 
made your machine. 

Compaq Deskpro 386/25 

Compaq's Deskpro 386/25 looks so 
much like the Deskpro 386/20, you'd 
swear all the company did was jack up 
the CPU to 25 MHz and jack up the price 
to over 10 grand. But if you examine the 
motherboards, there has been some re- 
design: Most of the remaining dual in- 
line package (DIP) chips have been re- 
placed with surface-mount technology. 

However, Compaq refers to most of 
the design and options of the Deskpro 
386/25 as "current technology." Cur- 
rent, that is, with respect to the 386/20. 
(For a review of the Deskpro 386/20, see 
the February BYTE.) 
The only new options for 
the 386/25 are 
new hard disk 



drives (up to 600 megabytes in an expan- 
sion unit), a new 80386 hardware techni- 
cal manual, and sockets for the new 25- 
MHz versions of the 80387 and Weitek 
1167 coprocessors. Interestingly, you 
can install both coprocessors in the same 
machine. They will coexist peacefully, 
and your software can choose between 
them. (A 25-MHz Weitek processor was 
not available at the time I was writing 
this. I did, however, benchmark the ma- 
chine with a 25-MHz 80387). 

The Flex architecture is still there (see 
the February review for details), only 
now it's running at a higher clock speed. 
As with the 386/20, you can download 
the BIOS (including the video BIOS) to 
RAM for faster execution. The CPU and 
math coprocessor sit on a local high- 
speed bus with cache memory and are 
managed by an 82385. Compaq contin- 
ues to deliver the high level of quality the 
company is famous for. The chassis is 
well built, with plenty of attention to 
radio-frequency-interference shielding. 

My test system was loaded: a 300- 
megabyte ESDI (enhanced small device 
interface) hard disk drive, 3 megabytes 
of RAM, a 1.2-megabyte 5 U -inch flop- 
py disk drive, a 135-megabyte tape back- 
up unit, Compaq's Video Graphics Con- 
troller board (VGA- 
compatible) and 
more stan- 
dard periph- 
erals than I 



Everex 
Step 386/25 



140 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 




have space to mention. You can purchase 
the Deskpro 386/25 in one of two models 
that differ only in mass storage. The 
Model 300 has a 1.2-megabyte 5 V* -inch 
floppy disk drive and a full-height 300- 
megabyte hard disk drive and sells for 
$13,299; the Model 1 10 has a half-height 
1 10-megabyte hard disk drive and a price 
tag of $10,299. You can add combina- 
tions of 1- and 4-megabyte memory- 
expansion boards to bring the system's 
total memory up to 16 megabytes. 

Everex Step 386/25 

What really attracts me to the Everex is 
the tinted-glass window on the front 
panel that slides open to reveal a minia- 
ture starship's control panel. This 2'A by 
5-inch area is a tiny paradise of switches 
and lights. Across its top is an amber 
alphanumeric LED panel that keeps you 
abreast of equipment checks at boot-up 
(it says things like "DMA OK") and 
which disk, cylinder, and head is ac- 
cessed during normal operation 
("C:0017 0" means drive C, cylinder 
17, head 0). Beneath the LED is a power 
light and a hard disk access light. Farther 
down is a three-position toggle switch be- 
side three lights, one each for 8-, 12-, 
and 25-MHz operation. The next panel 
down holds the turnkey lock for locking 
your keyboard, and moving lower you 
come to a pair of push buttons: one for 
shutting off the speaker and another for 
rebooting the system. 

Inside, the Everex is all business. It 
houses eight expansion slots: six AT- 
style, one 8-bit "drop-slot," (for 8-bit 
boards that have added to their real estate 
by extending below the lip of the connec- 
tor) and one 32-bit slot. The 32-bit slot in 
the review machine held a 2-megabyte 
RAM card. On the motherboard were 
eight 256K-byte single in-line memory 
modules (SIMMs) (filling all the SIMM 
slots available) and 
256K bytes of 
high-speed 
static RAM 
(SRAM) for 



the cache. The review system also had an 
80-megabyte full-height hard disk, a 1 .2- 
megabyte 5 14 -inch half-height floppy 
disk drive, and a 1 .44-megabyte 3 '/2-inch 
floppy disk drive. For video, Everex 
supplied one of its EGA boards and an 
Evervision MN-200 monitor. 

Everex also provides extensive utility 
software, including a hard disk utility 
package and RAMdisk software. The 
hard disk utility software includes an ex- 
tensive diagnostic section, as well as 
software for creating either Extended 
DOS partitions, which allow you to 
create logical drives of up to 32 mega- 
bytes each on a single physical drive, or 
Super DOS partitions, which allow you 
to create a single partition of up to 285 
megabytes on one drive. 

You must be careful about one thing on 
the Everex, though: The configuration 
program (you get to it by a hot-key se- 
quence—I stumbled into it via a bug in 
the ROMs that an engineer at Everex as- 
sured me would be eliminated on future 
machines). The program asks you a lot of 
questions. Unless you have the manual to 
explain what they all mean, and unless 
you are intimately familiar with the op- 
tions you have tacked onto your system, 
you can really bunge things up. 

The cost for a minimum Everex 
386/25 system— case, power supply, 
motherboard, keyboard, 1 megabyte of 
memory, DOS 3.3, and a 1.2-megabyte 
floppy disk drive and controller— is 
$5999. The configuration I tested has a 
price tag of just over $9500. 

Intel SYP302 

Here's a machine for OEMs only. I've 
included it here because it will show up 
on the shelves as the basis for systems 
from other manufacturers. The System 
SYP302 from Intel's OEM Platform di- 
vision gets you a motherboard (populated 



with a range of memory amounts), power 
supply, and hard and floppy disk drives 
(optional). The OEM has to supply the 
frivolities of computing . . . such as a key- 
board, video boards, CRTs, and what- 
ever additional peripherals you need. 
(For a motherboard with 2 megabytes, a 
chassis, and a power supply, an OEM 
can expect to pay $6449.) 

My Intel system came with a half- 
height 44-megabyte hard disk drive, with 
a pop-out to either add another one or re- 
place the current one with a full-height 
drive. It also had a 1.2-megabyte 5Vt- 
inch floppy disk drive and pop-outs for 
three more half-height drives under that. 
Between the power supply and I/O sock- 
ets, I found 4 megabytes of memory in 4 
SIMM packages, with room for 4 more. 
(You can take the machine to 24 mega- 
bytes with plug-in memory cards.) Hid- 
den somewhere on the motherboard (I 
looked, but couldn't find it— I suspect it 
was in the darkness beneath the drives) is 
64K bytes of 35-nanosecond SRAM used 
as processor cache memory. There's also 
a socket for a 25-MHz 80387. Fortunate- 
ly, the socket was occupied on the ma- 
chine I tested. 

There is no Intel 82385 cache control- 
ler chip on the SYP302, though I fully 
expected to see one. In conversation with 
an Intel engineer, I was told that this is 
because at the time the engineers were 
designing the SYP302 system, Intel was 
unsure that a 25-MHz version of the 
82385 would be available in time for the 
SYP302. Consequently, the engineers of 
the 302 set about creating a cache con- 
troller from discrete components. The 
caching system is posted write-through 
(more on this later) and uses a direct- 
mapping scheme; that is, there is no so- 
phisticated algorithm— such as a least- 
recently used formula— used to update 
main memory from the cache. 

Arranged along the back of the 

motherboard 

is a lineup of 

eight I/O 

continued 




Intel SYP302 



Netpro 386/25 



AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 141 



25-MHz 80386 MACHINES 



connectors. You can use seven of these as 
16-bit AT slots (they operate as though 
attached to an 8-MHz AT machine), and 
the eighth as an 8-bit drop slot. Two of 
the seven AT-compatible slots are lined 
up with 86-pin AT32 32-bit expansion 
slots that operate at full 25-MHz proces- 
sor speed. Currently, the AT32 slots will 
accept only an Intel AT MEM8 8-mega- 
byte expansion board. 

The Intel SYP302 uses the Phoenix 
BIOS. You can have the BIOS down- 
loaded to RAM at boot-up time (the 
BIOS routines execute faster out of RAM 
than out of ROM), and a jumper on the 
motherboard chooses either DOS or 
Unix operation. Unix operation maps the 
ROM to the very top of the physical mem- 
ory-address space so that Unix sees a 
large contiguous RAM space. 

The Intel machine has to take the prize 
for being the most unattractive of the 
group. Its left front panel juts out in a way 
that suggests either a design afterthought 
or an engineering kludge and is actually 
an artistic attempt to hide the intake 
vents that span the front underside of the 
chassis. Keep in mind, however, that this 
is an OEM machine. Anything that 



might be even remotely mistaken for a 
frill took a back seat to function. 

Netpro 386/25 

SimpleNet's Netpro 386/25 is one of the 
first systems based on the Intel SYP302 
box. On the outside, the Netpro 386/25 
looks just like the Intel system. When 
you remove the cover and look inside, the 
Netpro 386/25 looks just like the Intel 
system. Then, when you run the bench- 
marks, the Netpro 386/25 performs— if 
you allow for statistical errors in tim- 
ings—just like the Intel system. 

The only possible performance differ- 
ences you will see depend on the periph- 
erals you plug in. In the case of my Net- 
pro machine, I received an Orchid 
Designer VGA board and a combination 
hard/floppy disk drive controller hooked 
to an 80-megabyte hard disk drive, a 1.2- 
megabyte 5 14 -inch floppy disk drive, 
and a 1.44-megabyte 3'/2-inch floppy 
disk drive. 

At the time of this writing, the Netpro 
386/25 is available in two models: The 
Model 1 is a 4-megabyte monochrome 
system with an 80-megabyte hard disk 
drive, a 1.2-megabyte 5 14 -inch floppy 



Table 1: Speed differences between 20- and 25-MHz 80386-based systems 
range from about 50 percent improvement to more than double, when running 
such standard tests as BYTE's Matrix inversion. 



CPU IBM IBM PS/2 Compaq 

PC AT Model 80 Deskpro 

386/20 



Everex Compaq Intel Netpro 
Step Deskpro SYP302 386/25 
386/25 386/25 



Matrix 


11.69 


4.75 


3.06 


2.44 


2.47 


2.25 


2.56 


String Move 
















Byte-wide 


80.41 


39.51 


26.11 


16.02 


25.01 


21.59 


21.57 


Word-wide: 
















Odd-bnd. 


80.41 


39.09 


31.01 


20.01 


25.65 


23.64 


23.60 


Even-bnd 


40.26 


19.66 


13.07 


8.02 


12.51 


10.80 


10.80 


Sieve 


73.65 


29.11 


23.18 


15.25 


15.25 


16.33 


16.34 


Sort 


84.39 


33.11 


26.89 


11.44 


11.45 


12.19 


12.19 


CPU Index: 


1.00 


2.27 


3.13 


5.08 


4.20 


4.44 


4.35 


FLOATING-POINT1 














Math 


46.46 


10.77 


7.01 


5.71 


5.64 


5.86 


5.82 


Error 2 


0.00E+00 


0.00E+00 


O.OOE+00 


O.OOE+00 


0.00E+00 


O.OOE+OO 


0.00E+00 


Sine(x) 


20.05 


4.61 


3.29 


2.65 


2.58 


2.64 


2.66 


Error 


2.00E-09 


2.00E-09 


2.00E-09 


2.00E-09 


2.00E-09 


2.00E-09 


2.00E-09 


e* 


17.20 


4.50 


3.06 


2.54 


2.47 


2.56 


2.57 


Error 


1.00E-09 


1.77E-02 


1.77E-02 


1.77E-02 


1.77E-02 


1.77E-02 


1.77E-02 


FPU Index: 


1.00 


4.15 


6.10 


7.47 


7.64 


7.40 


7.38 



i The floating-point benchmarks use 8087-compatible instructions only. 

2 The errors tor the floating-point benchmarks indicate the difference between expected and actual values, correct 
to 10 digits or rounded to 2 digits. 

All times are in seconds. All figures were generated using the 8088/8086 version of Small-C (1 6-bit integers). 
Figures for 80386 machines do not use 80386-specific instructions. For a full description of all the benchmarks, see 
"Introducing the New BYTE Benchmarks." June BYTE. 



disk drive, an EtherLan adapter, and a 
retail price tag of $12,499; the Model 2 
sports a VGA display, an extra 3'/2-inch 
floppy disk drive, a 102-megabyte hard 
disk drive, andaprice of $13,499. 

As an aside, the monitor I received 
with the Netpro was an RE5515 multi- 
scan monitor from Relisys. For the most 
part, it worked quite well, but during the 
benchmarking, the BYTE Lab personnel 
noticed that whenever the system 
changed graphics modes, they had to ad- 
just the horizontal width of the display. 
This did no damage to the hardware or 
program execution, but the effect was 
unbearably annoying. 

All the Difference in the World 

These machines' claim to fame is speed. 
Caching obviously plays an important 
role in this area; when I inadvertently 
disabled the cache on the Intel machine, 
its performance dropped to what I would 
expect from a 16-MHz AT. Many manu- 
facturers of these (and other) high-speed 
systems spend much of their time touting 
their caching system's high "hit rate" 
and low "effective wait states." What 
about these systems? 

The Everex uses a proprietary Ad- 
vanced Memory Management Architec- 
ture (AMMA) that— according to the 
company— gives the system a perfor- 
mance boost beyond standard cache sys- 
tems. First, AMMA permits you to ex- 
pand the cache memory from 64K bytes 
(the minimum) to 256K bytes as your 
system memory expands. Second, pro- 
cessor cache systems based on the Intel 
82385 cache controller chip— the Com- 
paq uses the 82385— are write-through, 
which means that as the processor writes 
data into the cache memory, it also 
writes the data to the system memory so 
that system memory is kept up to date 
with cache memory. A write-through 
cache will experience a performance re- 
duction during write operations that ac- 
cess the slower main memory. (To be 
specific, Intel refers to the 82385's cache 
implementation as posted write-through 
and claims that a posted write-through 
allows the 80386 to issue a write to the 
cache and proceed with the next opera- 
tion without having to wait for the update 
to slower main memory. However, if 
multiple write operations occur back-to- 
back, the system can bottleneck as the 
processor waits for the cache controller 
to update main memory.) 

Everex's AMMA controller imple- 
ments a true buffered-write cache that 
updates main memory only when neces- 
sary (e.g., when the direct memory ac- 
cess system reads a section of main mem- 



142 BYTE' AUGUST 1988 



25-MHz 80386 MACHINES 



ory that corresponds to memory updated 
in the cache) and does so in blocks of up 
to 128 bits at a time. 

Is the AMMA worth its salt (or sili- 
con)? My guess is that the best indicator 
of the AMMA's speed advantage over an 
82385-based cache would be the String 
Move benchmark (see table 1), and in 
fact the Step 386/25 does turn in times 
that are noticeably faster than the other 
systems for that benchmark. Whatever 
the reason— larger cache size or smarter 
cache management— the Everex does 
seem to be able to move data between the 
CPU and memory more quickly than the 
other machines. For the other bench- 
marks, the Everex shows no clear win 
over the Compaq, and only a marginal 
lead over the Intel and Netpro. 

A Dual Personality 

As sophisticated as these machines are, I 
cannot help pointing out how similar 
their philosophy is to that of the Apple 
IIGS. The IIGS used the 65816, a pro- 
cessor that was an upgrade to the 6502, 
with larger registers and a wider address 
range. Compare this with the 803 86 's 
improvements over the 80286/8086. The 
IIGS had internal fast RAM, but the sys- 
tem was slowed to 1 MHz during access 
to the lie-compatible I/O slots. Compare 
this with how these machines must re- 
duce execution speed during access to 
the AT-compatible slots. Finally, the 
IIGS had a special fast-RAM/ROM 
memory-expansion slot. Compare this 
with each of the 25-MHz machines' pro- 
prietary 32-bit high-speed memory ex- 
pansion slots. It seems that compatibility 
plagues the hardware engineers of the PC 
world as well as the Apple world. Are 
these dual-personality machines the only 
possible response in the demanding face 
of compatibility? And how much trouble 
are we getting into with all the propri- 
etary 32-bit buses? 

My personal choice among these ma- 
chines is a toss-up between the Everex 
and the Compaq. The Everex does ap- 
pear to have a leg up on the Compaq and 
the Intel-based machines in terms of raw 
speed, but the Compaq comes from a 
fine heritage of dependable workhorses, 
and there's certainly plenty of Compaq 
peripherals to draw from. 

Ultimately, you have to ask yourself 
whether or not the extra speed is worth 
the extra cost. Is there enough software 
out there that makes use of the 80386 that 
you need right now? The 80386 should 
begin showing its real power as more 
multitasking applications appear, and a 
serious Xenix or Unix user might have no 
other choice. For those who use these 



The Compaq 386s 



Though not a 25-MHz machine, I 
find the new Compaq 386s to be 
more interesting than the other ones re- 
viewed here. Why? Because the Com- 
paq 386s uses the new Intel 80386SX 
processor, a 16-MHz CPU that is re- 
lated to the 80386 in the same way the 
8088 is related to the 8086. 

Internally, the 80386SX and 80386 
look identical, externally the 80386SX 
uses a 16-bit data bus. For the manu- 
facturer, this translates to simpler 
board design, lower chip cost, and 
smaller package size. For us, it means 
we can get a good 80386 system for less 
money. 

Another attraction of the Compaq 
386s is its integration of much of the pe- 
ripheral hardware onto the mother- 
board. Not only will you find the ex- 
pected: real-time clock and calendar, 
parallel printer port, and serial port; 
there's also the unexpected: VGA con- 
troller (with a 16-bit data path that soft- 
ware may one day take advantage of), 
and a mouse port. Compaq also throws 
in some welcome utilities: their 
expanded memory manager (CEMM) 
package for support of the Lotus/Intel/ 
Microsoft Expanded Memory Specifi- 
cation (LIM/EMS) and Compaq's own 
disk-caching software. 

Compaq serves the 386s in a variety 
of flavors. You have your choice of no 
internal hard disk drive (the Model 1 at 
$3799), a 20-megabyte hard disk drive 
(the Model 20 at $4499) or a 40-mega- 
byte hard disk drive (the Model 40 at 
$5199). All three models include 1 
megabyte of memory, a 5 W -inch 1.2- 
megabyte floppy disk drive, and 4 AT- 
style expansion slots as standard. If 
backup is one of your sensitive areas, 
you might check into their tape backup 
systems: 40 or 135 megabytes. Be care- 
ful when exploring the memory-up- 
grade paths for the Compaq 386s, 
though. There are four memory expan- 
sion options available in a variety of per- 
mutations that take the system to a max- 
imum system memory of between 4 
megabytes and 13 megabytes. Inside the 
Compaq 386s are four AT-style slots 
and one high-speed memory expansion 
slot. 
I'm also giving the Compaq 386s 




Compaq 386s 



CPU 
Sieve: 
Sort: 
Matrix: 
String Move: 
Byte-wide: 
Word-wide: 
Odd-bnd.: 
Even-bnd.: 
Doubleword-wide: 
Odd-bnd.: 
Even-bnd.: 

Floating Point 
Math: 

Error: 

Sine(x): 

Error: 
e x. 

Error: 



32.73 

27.04 

5.38 

52.24 

44.05 
26.14 

29.42 
19.70 



11.12 

0.0 

4.63 

2E-9 

4.53 

1.77E-2 



high marks for external appearance— 
particularly when placed next to the 
Bauhaus design of the Intel box. It has a 
smaller footprint than an AT (15 by 16 
inches), so it fits nicely onto typing 
tables that the other 80386 systems 
would topple. 

For an idea of the machine's perfor- 
mance, the table above shows the bench- 
mark results for our 80386 low-level 
tests. The Compaq 386s runs at about 
half the speed of it's bigger brother (the 
Deskpro 386/20) for the CPU and FPU 
tests. The Compaq 386s is not a barn- 
burner in the speed category, but if your 
plans include a solid 80386 machine it's 
worth a closer look. 



machines as MS-DOS applications 
boxes, it may well be that a specimen 
from the apparently endless supply of 
faster-and-faster AT clones will do. Still, 
it's nice to put on your goggles, black 
flight jacket, and Red Baron scarf and sit 
down in front of all those megabytes and 



megahertz to whip through an applica- 
tion in a morning instead of a whole 
day. ■ 

Rick Grehan is a BYTE senior technical 
editor. You can reach him on BIX as 
"rick_g. " 



AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 143 



The Dell System 220, 

Once again the critics 

stole the words right 

out of our mourn. 



"The Dell System 220 runs most PC Labs system 
benchmark tests at speeds that would make you think 

you're running a 386." 



-PC MAGAZINE 



(< the Dell machine is renewed evidence that the 

price of 286-based desktop equipment continues to 

drop rapidly, making such machines very attractive for 

daily work under MS DOS even as they hold out the 

promise of running OS/2 in the future" 



-WILL FASTIE, PC WEEK 



"...includes a year's on-site support...in the price of the 

computer. This is the sweetest support deal offered by any 

computer vendor in the industry" 



-ERIC KNORR, PC WORLD 



"The hot item from a technical point of view is the 
System 220. This machine runs a 286 processor at 20 MHz, 

which is its major claim to fame" 



-WILL FASTIE, PC WEEK 



"the System 220 has more going for it than just speed!' 



-PC WORLD 
144 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 




The reviews are beginning to pour in. 

And they read like a wish list for 
every power user looking to exceed the 
ordinary limitations of a 286 computer. 

The computer everyone is praising in 
such glowing terms is the Dell System 220. 

The first 286 computer with a clock 
speed of 20 MHz. 

It's totally MS-DOS® and MS @ OS/2 
compatible. Yet it sells for much less than 
you may pay for a 386 computer. 

Because you buy it direct from us. 

Eliminating the mark-ups and mar- 
gins of computer stores. 

We design and build every Dell 
computer right here in Austin, Texas. 

We put each and every one through 
a comprehensive burn-in and a battery of 
diagnostic tests before we ship it. 

And after we ship, we give you the 
best technical support you'll find any- 
where in the computer industry 

Our technicians are on the phone 
from 7AM to 7PM every business day. 



Almost any question you may have 
about a Dell system can be answered over 
the phone. 

And, in the rare case, that your ques- 
tion can't be answered by an on-line tech- 
nician, we'll send a Honeywell Bull tech- 
nician by the next business day 

A full year of on-site Honeywell Bull 
service is included within the purchase 
price of your Dell system. 

Your Dell computer also comes with 
a thirty-day money back guarantee. 

And we back every one of our com- 
puters with a one year limited warranty 
on any defective parts or workmanship. 

For more information about Dell 
computers, read the reviews in the trade 
press, turn the page, review our product 
offerings, and call us at (800) 426-5150. 

You'll like what we have to say. 

TO ORDER, CALL 

800426-5150 



COMPUTER 



CORPORATION 



IN THE US. AND CANADA 



AUGUST 1988 'BYTE 145 



The Dell 

Computer 

Store* 

Welcome to our store. 

We believe you'll find this an extremely 
pleasant shopping experience. 

Our sales staff is on hand to serve you 
from 7AM to 7PM (CSV) from Monday thru 
Friday 

Just call (800)426-5150 and we'll give you 
the technical assistance and information you 
need to make sure you're buying the system 
that's right for your needs. 

Then you have the option of either 
a direct purchase or your company can take 
advantage of our Leasing Plan? 

Once you've made your choice, our 
Total Satisfaction Guarantee gives you thirty 
days from the day you receive your system, 
to decide if you are absolutely, totally satisfied 
with the product. 

If you're not, simply return the system and 
you'll receive a full refund. No questions asked. 

Your Dell computer is supported by a 
team of technical experts that can be reached 
every business day, from 7AM to 7PM (CST), 
simply by calling (800) 624-9896. 

In most cases, any question you may have 
about your Dell system can be answered by 
one of our technicians on the phone. 

Our technicians are also supported by 
Honeywell Bull service engineers who can be 
sent to your office by the next business day, 
should on-site service be required. 

This optional service contract is avail- 
able in over 95% of the United States, with 
over 1,000 engineers in 198 service locations. 

We also offer a One Year Limited War- 
ranty, which warrants each system we manu- 
facture to be free of defects in materials and 
workmanship for one full year. During that 
period we will repair or replace any defective 
products properly returned to our factory. 

Feel free to call or write for the com- 
plete terms of our Honeywell Bull Service 
Contract, Guarantee and Warranty. Dell 
Computer Corporation, 9505 Arboretum 
Blvd., Austin, Texas 78759-7299. 

Dell products are available on GSA con- 
tract. Calf us to get GSA pricing. 

146 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 



THE NEW 

20 MHz 386 

SYSTEM 

3ia 

The top of the line. It's our highest 
performance computer available, 
faster than the IBMtPS/2t Model 
80 and the Compaqf 386/20. It 
runs at 20 MHz with the latest 32- 
bit architecture. Since it also has 
Intel's Advanced 82385 Cache 
Memory Controller, and high per- 
formance disk drives, the System 
310 is ideal for intensive database 
management, complex spread- 
sheet development, CAD/CAM, 
desktop publishing or perfor- 
mance as a network file server. 

Standard Features: 

■ Intel! 80386 microprocessor 
running at 20 MHz. 

■ 1 MB of 80 ns 32-bit RAM 
expandable to 16 MB without 
using an expansion slot. 

■ Advanced Intel 82385 Memory 
Controller with 32 KB of high 
speed static RAM. 

■ Socket for 20 MHz 80387 
coprocessor. 

■ 5.25" 1.2 MB or 3.5" 1.44 MB 
diskette drive. 

■ Dual diskette and hard disk 
drive controller. 

■ Enhanced 101-key keyboard. 

■ 1 parallel and 2 serial ports. 

■ 200-watt power supply. 

■ 8 expansion slots. 

Options: 

■ 1 MB RAM upgrade kit. 

■ 20 MHz Intel 80387 math 
coprocessor. 

■ 2 MB or 8 MB memory expan- 
sion boards. 

''Lease for as low as $148/Month. 



System 310 


With Monitor & Adapter 


Hard Disk 
Drives 


VGA 
Mono 


VGA 
Color 


VGA 

Color 
Plus 


40 MB- 
28 ms 


$4,099 


$4,299 


$4,399 


90 MB- 
18 ms 
ESDI 


$4,899 


$5,099 


$5,199 


150 MB - 
18 ms 
ESDI 


$5,399 


$5,599 


$5,699 


322 MB- 
18 ms 
ESDI 


$7,399 


$7,599 


$7,699 



THE NEW 

20 MHz 286 

SYSTEM 

220. 

As fast as most 386 computers, 
at less than half the price— more 
power for the money than any 
other system. An 80286 system 
that runs at 20 MHz, with less 
than one wait state. Completely 
compatible for both MS-DOS® 
and MS® OS/2 applications (it 
runs faster than IBM PS/2 Model 
80), and with a remarkably small 
footprint, the System 220 is the 
ideal executive workstation. 
The system uses page mode inter- 
leaved memory resulting in a 
performance increase of about 
15 percent. 

Standard Features: 

■ 80286 microprocessor running 
at 20 MHz. 

■ 1 MB of RAM expandable to 
16 MB (8 MB on system board). 

■ Integrated diskette and VGA 
video controller on system 
board. 

■ One 3.5" 1.44 MB diskette drive. 

■ Integrated high performance 
hard disk interface on system 
board. 

■ Enhanced 101-key keyboard. 

■ 1 parallel and 2 serial ports. 

■ LIM 4.0 support for memory 
over 1 MB. 

■ Real-time clock. 

■ Three full-sized ATf compatible 
expansion slots. 

■ Socket for 80287 coprocessor. 

Options: 

■ 3.5" 1.44 MB diskette drive. 

■ Intel 80287 coprocessor. 

■ 1 MB RAM upgrade kit. 
''Lease for as low as $85/Momh. 



Svsrem 
220 


With Monitor 


VGA 
Mono 


VGA 
Color 


VGA 
Color 
Plus 


One 

Diskette 

Drive 


$2,299 


$2,499 


$2,599 


40 MB- 

29 ms 

Hard Disk 


$2,999 


$3,199 


$3,299 


100 MB - 

29 ms 

Hard Disk 


$3,799 


$3,999 


$4,099 




THE 
12.5 MHz 
SYSTEM 

20a 

A great value in a full-featured AT 
compatible. An 80286 computer 
running at 12.5 MHz, this compu- 
ter is completely MS-DOS and 
MS OS/2 compatible. The System 
200 offers high speed drive options, 
industry standard compatible BIOS 
and on-site service. As Executive 
Computing said of this computers 
predecessor, "If faster processing 
speed and low cost are two key issues 
affecting your purchase decision, 
this machine might be the ideal 
choice for your office!' 

Standard Features: 

■ Intel 80286 microprocessor run- 
ning at 12.5 MHz. 

■ 640 KB of RAM expandable to 
16 MB (4.6 MB on system board). 

■5.25" 1.2 MB or 3.5" 1.44 MB 
diskette drive. 

■ Dual diskette and hard disk 
drive controller. 

■ Enhanced 101-key keyboard. 

■ 1 parallel and 2 serial ports. 

■ 200 watt power supply. 

■ Real-time clock. 

■ 6 expansion slots. (4 available 
with hard disk drive controller 
and video adapter installed). 

■Socket for 8 MHz 80287 
coprocessor. 

Options: 

■512 KB RAM upgrade kit. 

■ 8 MHz Intel 80287 coprocessor. 
"Lease for as low as $78/Month. 



System 
200 


With Monitor & Adapter 


Hard 
Disk 
Drive 


Mono 


VGA 
Mono 


VGA 
Color 


VGA 
Color 
Plus 


20 MB 


$2,099 


$2,299 


$2,499 


$2,599 


40 MB- 
40 ms 


$2,299 


$2,499 


$2,699 


$2,799 


40 MB- 
28 ms 


$2,499 


$2,699 


$2,899 


$2,999 


90 MB- 
18 ms 
ESDI 


$3,299 


$3,499 


$3,699 


$3,799 


150 MB- 
18 ms 
ESDI 


$3,799 


$3,999 


$4,199 


$4,299 


322 MB- 
18 ms 

ESDI 


$5,799 


$5,999 


$6,199 


$6,299 




A Full Line Of Computers With 
A Full Line Of Configurations, 



At Dell, we understand that 
different users have different needs. 
So we tailor each system to the 
user's individual requirements. 

We offer monitors, graphics 
boards, tape backups, dot matrix 
and laser printers, hard disk and 
diskette drives, expanded memory 
boards, serial mice and more. 

We also offer third party soft- 
ware applications for virtually 



every business application includ- 
ing: accounting, communications, 
desktop publishing, graphics, word 
processing, integrated applications 
and user training. 

So when your Dell System 
arrives, you can do productive 
work the minute you unpack 
the box. 

We can build you the system 
you've been looking for. 



COMMON TO THE SYSTEM 310, SYSTEM 220 AND SYSTEM 200: 

The Dell System Analyzer. MS-DOS and OS/2 compatible. Security lock with locking chassis. 
12 month on-site service contract (Available on complete systems). 



PRINTERS/SOFTWARE. We offer a full-line of printers and popular software. 
All printers come with our 30-day money-back guarantee and one year warranty. 



LASER PRINTERS. 

LASER SYSTEM 150; $5,995. 
15 pages per minute, text 
and full-page graphics. 
Dual 250 sheet-input trays. 



LASER SYSTEM 80; $3,295. 
8 pages per minute, text 
and full-page graphics. 



LASER SYSTEM 60; $2,195. 
6 pages per minute, text 
and full-page graphics. 



DOT MATRIX PRINTERS. 



PRINTER SYSTEM 800; 

$699.95. 

Highest resolution text and 

graphics from a 24-wire dot 

matrix printer. 

Draft quality at 200 cps. 

Correspondence quality 

at 132 cps. 

Letter quality at 66 cps. 

Standard parallel and serial 

interfaces. 

Wide carriage. 



PRINTER SYSTEM 600; 

$499.95. 

9-wire dot matrix. 

Draft quality at 240 cps. 

Near-letter quality at 60 cps. 

Standard parallel interface. 

Wide carriage. 



PRINTER SYSTEM 300; 

$199.95. 

9-wire dot matrix. 

Draft quality at 144 cps. 

Near-letter quality at 36 cps. 

Four standard fonts. 

Paper parking. 

Standard parallel interface. 



SOFTWARE. Operating System Software. 

Dell Enhanced MS-DOS 3.3 with disk cache and other utilities; $119.95. 

Dell Enhanced MS OS/2 Standard Edition 1.0 $324.95. 



TO ORDER, CALL 

800426-5150 

IN THE US. AND CANADA 

All prices and specifications are subject to change without notice. Please inquire for current details. Dell cannot be responsible for 
errors in typography or photography. In Canada, leasing is not currendy available and configurations and prices may vary. Microsoft? 
MS " and MS-DOS® are owned by Microsoft Corp. fSignifies registered or unregistered trademarks owned by entities other than Dell 

Computer Corporation. *Payments based on a 36-month open-end lease. Please inquire for further details , , 

© 1988 DELL COMPUTER CORPORATION. | adcodenoiieh8| 



COM TUTER 



CORPORATION 



Circle 261 on Reader Service Card 



AUGUST 1988 • B Y T E 147 



Product Focus 



Communications Software 



^ 



Communications 



The BYTE Lab 
tests communications 
programs that can 
go to work 
when you go home 



Steve Apiki and Stan Diehl 

Carbon Copy Plus 
Crosstalk Mk.4 
Crosstalk XVI 
HyperACCESS 
Instant Terminal 
MaxOnline 
Mirror II 
Move-It 
PC BLAST II 
Procomm Plus 
Relay Silver 
Smartcom III 
Softerm PC 



f you were stranded on an island with 
a bottle of aspirin, a personal com- 
puter, and a modem, what communi- 
cations package would you most like 
to have along? Make the wrong decision 
and you're likely to need the aspirin. 
Finding software that lets you use your 
modem may be easy, but the package 
with the speed, automation, and flexibil- 
ity to let you make the most of your sys- 
tem is a rare find indeed. 

Data communications is often the 
same procedure from day to day. But say 
you just got a new 19,200-bit-per-second 
modem and you need to find a package 
that can handle it. You may want some- 
thing that can run in the background 
without a multitasking operating system. 
Or maybe you're just tired of running 
through the same log-on procedure by 
hand, over and over again. The best thing 
about new software is the performance 
increase you can get for a relatively small 
amount of money. 

The subjects of this month's product 
focus are MS-DOS-based, stand-alone 
communications software packages that 
have a script language— a feature that can 
relieve you of hours of tedium and hours 
of connect time. Generally, a script lan- 
guage lets you program your system to 
handle a communications session unat- 
tended. Programmed with a sophisti- 
cated script, your computer can recog- 
nize prompts from the host systems and 
act accordingly— say, sending queries or 
transferring files. 

The packages we reviewed vary, how- 
ever, in their ability to save you from 
sinking that saved time back into learn- 
ing a cumbersome script language or a 
difficult command sequence. They also 
range in maximum transfer speeds from 
2400 to 115,200 bps, and in price from 
about $70 to about $250— but you don't 
always get what you pay for. 

System requirements are generally the 
same: Most run under DOS 2.0 on a sin- 
gle 3!/2-inch or 5 '4-inch floppy disk 
drive and in 192K bytes of RAM. All the 



packages let you use BIX, CompuServe, 
or other information services, and they 
let you upload and download files from 
your company's mainframe. However, 
many of them will perform at their top 
transfer rate only when they're talking to 
a computer running the same software. 
We'll highlight differing requirements in 
the individual sections that follow (also 
see table 1). 

Carbon Copy Plus 5.0 

Meridian Technology's Carbon Copy 
Plus 5.0 is a good example of a package 
that is strong overall and provides unique 
features for specialized needs. It re- 
quires an unusually large (256K-byte) 
section of memory, but it exchanges code 
size for speed by loading its configura- 
tion program directly into memory. It in- 
cludes 224 pages of documentation. 

Carbon Copy is more than a utility for 
communicating with mainframes— it's 
also a remote PC control package. Be- 
cause of this, it is broken down into two 
executable programs, CC for the host and 
CCHELP for the remote side. The remote 
user can access host command files to 
read or write, control the host's graphics 
screen, and send output to the host's 
printer. Disk access is made possible 
through CCDOS, a DOS look-alike that 
gives host file control to the remote user 
through an almost transparent additional 
program layer. For example, CCHELP is 
able to specify the host's drive C by en- 
tering HC : . Actual file transfers are ac- 
complished with a simple COPY com- 
mand and are conducted using Carbon 
Copy's own error-checking protocol. 

The host can limit file access by dis- 
abling CCDOS. As an added security 
measure, the host can dial a preset call- 
back number upon receipt of a valid pass- 
word from an inquiring computer. CC 
can also be run in a resident (back- 
ground) mode so the host user can con- 
tinue to run applications while file trans- 
fers are taking place. 

continued 



148 BYTE' AUGUST 1988 



According to Script 





1:29 an, Monday, August 15, 1968 # 





PHOTOGRAPHY: PAUL AVIS © 1988 



AUGUST 1988 • B Y T E 149 



PRODUCT FOCUS 
COMMUNICATIONS SOFTWARE 



Table 1: Features and price are unrelated in the packages we tested (• = yes; O = no). 
Package name 



Price Copy- Documen- 

protected 2 tation 



Minimum 

RAM 

(bytes) 



Maximum 

data 

transfer rate 

(bps) 



Learn Text Back- 

mode editor ground 
operation 



Carbon Copy Plus 5.0 $195 • 

Crosstalk Mk.4 1 .01 $245 O 

Crosstalk XVI 3.61 $195 O 

HyperACCESS3.28 $149 • 

Instant Terminal 1.1 $ 95 O 

MaxOnline2.4 $ 70 O 

Mirror II 3.6.12 $ 70 O 

Move-It 4.02 $150 O 

PC BLAST II $250 O 

ProcommPlus1.1A $ 75 O 

Relay Silver 1 .01 $150 O 

Smartcom III 1.08 $249 O 

SoftermPC3.0 $195 O 



1 Requires two floppy disk drives. 

2 Disks can be copied, but duplicates will not work together. 



224 pages 
424 pages 
1 99 pages 
232 pages 
71 pages 
222 pages 
368 pages 
1 55 pages 
322 pages 
340 pages 
591 pages 
218 pages 
728 pages 



256K 
256K 
96K 
192K 
192K 
256K 
192K 
128K 
256K 
192K 
192K 
512K 
256K 



38,400 

115,200 

115,200 

57,600 

19,200 

19,200 

115,200 

19,200 

38,400 

115,200 

19,200 

115,200 

115,200 



O 
O 

o 

• 

o 
o 

• 



o 

• 
o 
o 
o 
o 
• 
o 



o 

O 

o 
o 
o 
• 
o 
o 
o 



All this host mode power doesn't 
come at the expense of terminal-emula- 
tion capability. Carbon Copy can hold its 
own against dedicated mainframe links, 
with transfer speed that puts it right up 
with Crosstalk Mk.4, support for the 
most common transfer protocols, and 
emulation support for five popular 
terminals. 

The terminal commands are clear and 
efficient, mostly Alt-key combinations. 
In fact, Carbon Copy was the best at our 
manual keystroke benchmark, and, 
though the commands are short, they are 
by no means cryptic. The compilable 
script language is similarly tight, al- 
though it does not contain the advanced 
decision-making structures of some 
packages. 

If you're interested primarily in MS- 
DOS-based communications and need a 
package that will enable very intimate 
data sharing over the telephone, then this 
may be the one you're looking for. Keep 
in mind, however, that all the special- 
ized features require at least two copies 
(one for the host and one for the remote 
terminal) at nearly $200 apiece. 

Crosstalk Mk.4 version 1.01 

A real communications software Cadil- 
lac, Crosstalk Mk.4 version 1.01 from 
Digital Communications Associates 
(DCA) is a hefty package that requires 
two 360K-byte floppy disk drives and the 
assimilation of a 424-page user's man- 
ual. It includes a comprehensive script 
language and a top-drawer price of $245 . 
The list of terminals it can emulate is as 
long as your arm (see table 2); you can 



edit text with a built-in editor; and, in ad- 
dition to supporting every major file- 
transfer protocol, it introduces one of its 
own, called DART. 

DART is essentially an upgrade of the 
older Crosstalk protocol, with new fea- 
tures that include crash recovery and 
time and date stamping. Crash recovery 
enables file transfers to continue after an 
error is corrected, appending new data 
onto that already sent. 

If, despite all the protocol options 
available, you still must do an ASCII 
transfer, you won't have to worry about 
speed. With a rate of 115,200 bps sup- 
ported and the ability to send and receive 
with only limited line waits, Crosstalk 
turned in an excellent time on our file- 
transfer benchmark. 

The command mode is built on the 
Crosstalk system of loading command 
modules for making preset calls. The 
modules can contain connection settings, 
protocols, and terminal emulations. This 
system is relatively easy to use once you 
get familiar with it, although keeping 
track of all the two-letter commands 
often requires hunting through the man- 
ual. Crosstalk Mk.4 had an average 
showing on our keystroke benchmark; it 
suffered from the need to send an atten- 
tion signal before any commands. 

Most outstanding of all its features is 
its CASL script language. CASL uses 
multiple decision loops, has specialized 
disk-access commands, and can create 
much more than script files. Because of 
its command specialization and its size 
(over half the manual is dedicated to 
CASL commands), writing simple 



scripts like our script benchmark can be 
difficult for those unfamiliar with the 
language. Fortunately, Crosstalk Mk.4 
provides a learn script that lets you 
record a session into a script file that can 
simply be edited. With the learn script, 
what would have taken nearly 500 key- 
strokes to program by hand was reduced 
to the 197 indicated in table 3. 

Although Crosstalk Mk.4 is a very 
powerful package, its price puts it in a 
range (shared by Smartcom III, as dis- 
cussed later) reserved for only those in 
real need of its most advanced features. 

Crosstalk XVI 3.61 

Crosstalk XVI, though the standard by 
which other communications packages 
are measured, falls short of the mark it- 
self in our tests. Version 3.61 requires 
only 96K bytes of RAM and costs $195 . 
The software emulates nine popular 
terminals, but it supports fewer proto- 
cols and is more difficult to learn than 
most modern packages. The common 
way to run command mode is to load 
command files containing directory in- 
formation. You can supplement this by 
following script menus or by entering 
two-letter commands. As with Crosstalk 
Mk.4, the process takes some getting 
used to but can be efficient once you are 
familiar with the language. There is a 
status table that you can access with a sin- 
gle key to find your connect options; 
however, finding the table with less com- 
monly used information (like the modem 
commands) can take several commands. 
The system had an average score on our 

continued 



ISO BYTE' AUGUST 1988 



You can rely on your file server 
for LAN communications... 




All you need is patience. 
And faith. 



You're getting the drift of this message already. File 
servers aren't designed to solve the PC user's commu- 
nications problem. But now there's a system that is. 

Now there's COMMIX 32. 

It's a general purpose local area network for PCs and 
minicomputer hosts. It connects you with the host, 
other PCs, and peripherals such as printers, plotters, 
or modems through simple, pop-up menu commands. 

For file transfer and E-mail as a background 
task. For printer spooling and sharing directly from 
your applications programs. For terminal emulation 
that's automatic. COMMIX 32 will let anyone perform 
common LAN tasks — without the need for expert 
assistance. 

Install it quickly. Expand it easily. 

Almost any PC user can install and connect with 
COMMIX. With each connection, you're saving time 
and money. Because each COMMIX connection costs 
as little as $125. 

Circle 110 on Reader Service Card 



Then take advantage of expansion possibilities. 
With our optional Ethernet® Link Module, you can 
create larger LANs with thousands of users. And 
through our optional Wide Area Network Module, 
distant COMMIX LANs can appear as one network. 

If you're lost at sea. 

And looking for solid LAN. The COMMIX 32 is 
available now. Send us a message: ITRON, a Division 
of Infotron Systems Corporation, 130 Gaither Drive, 
Suite 116, Mount Laurel, NJ 08054. 
TEL: (609) 722-5575 FAX: (609) 234-0451 

1-800-423-8044 





ITRON 

An Infotron Division 



COMMIX is a trademark of Matron Corporaiion. Elhernei is a neural trademark of Xerox Corporation 



AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 151 



PRODUCT FOCUS 
COMMUNICATIONS SOFTWARE 



Table 2: You should check a package carefully to make sure it supports the protocols and emulations you need (• = yes; O = no). 

Protocols 





f 


i * 


f t 

£ \2 * 
25 C •* «i- 


i i / i i i i s & s 


Package name 


8 # 


/ 


/ 


/ 


/ 


CO 


9 * 


£ S S? S Q § § 

g $ $ § g 




If 


4? 


Carbon Copy Plus 5.0 


o o 


o 


o 


• 


• 


o 


o o 


o • o • • • o 


o 


o 


• 


Crosstalk Mk.4 1.01 


• • 


o 


o 


• 


• 


• 


o 






o 


• 


Crosstalk XVI 3.61 


• o 


o 


O 


o 








o o 


o • o o o o o 


• 


o 


• 


HyperACCESS 3.28 


o o 


o 


o 


• 


• 


o 


o o 


O • O • o o 


o 


O 


• 


Instant Terminal 1.1 4 


o • 


o 


o 


• 








o • 


• • o o • • o 


o 


u 


• 


MaxOnline2.4 


o o 


o 


o 


• 


o 


o 


o • 


o • o • • • • 


o 


o 


• 


Mirror II 3.6.12 


• o 


• 


o 


• 


o 


o 


o o 


o • o • • • o 


• 


O 


• 


Move-It 4.02 


o o 


o 


o 


o 


• 


O 


o o 


o • o o • o o 


o 


o 


• 


PC BLAST II 


o o 


o 


o 


o 


• 





o o 


o • o o • o o 


o 


• 


• 


Procomm Plus 1.1 A 


o • 


o 


• 


• 


• 





• • 


• • o o • • • 


• 


o 


• 


Relay Silver 1.0 


o o 


o 


o 


• 


• 


O 


o o 


o • o o • o o 


o 


o 


o 


Smartcomlll 1.08 


o o 


o 


o 


• 


o 


O 


o o 


o • • o • • • 


o 


u 


• 


Softerm PC 3.0 5 


• o 


• 


o 


• 


• 


o 


o o 


o • o o • o o 


• 


o 


• 



' Character mode only. 

' Requires additional hardware (e.g., IRMA and SmartAlec). 

3 Requires 7171 protocol converter or equivalent. 

4 DEC emulators included; 40 others available at additional cost. 

5 Supports 33 additional terminals not listed here. 



manual keystroke test. 

Writing a script file is simply a matter 
of listing commands, and there are no 
shortcuts except for abbreviated com- 
mand strings. Decision loops based on 
received strings must be implemented 
using the when construct— a technique 
that can lead to errors with unexpected 
input. 

Only the XMODEM error-checking 
protocol is supported in addition to Cros- 
stalk's own. Data transfer rates are sup- 
ported to 115,200 bps, but our ASCII 
transfer test shows the severe perfor- 
mance hits that you get when flow-con- 
trol characters and character waits are 
necessary for error- free transmission. 
Crosstalk XVI was one of the few pack- 
ages we tested that took longer to send a 
file to a faster machine than to receive 
it— a clear indication of high software 
overhead. 

Overall, Crosstalk XVI is an average 
package at an above-average price. 
Crosstalk look-alike programs are easy 
to come by, but many of them have added 
features and flexibility that Crosstalk 
has not. 

HyperACCESS 3.28 

Hilgraeve's HyperACCESS is a versatile 
communications package with solid file- 
transfer ability and unique features that 



make it useful for widely varying appli- 
cations. Version 3.28 sells for $149. 

HyperACCESS supports XMODEM, 
Kermit, and its own Hyper protocol. De- 
spite its moderate maximum transfer 
rate, HyperACCESS compared favor- 
ably to higher-rated packages in our 
throughput tests, with low overhead and 
flawless XON/XOFF synching. The 
software features optional data compres- 
sion capability for both XMODEM and 
the Hyper protocol. 

But speed is not HyperACCESS 's only 
asset. It also has a powerful host mode 
that allows remote control over DOS and 
DOS programs. Remote user access can 
be limited to read only, DOS only, or one 
program only. 

One weakness in an otherwise good 
package is its use of a menu-driven com- 
mand mode. Although the manual key- 
stroke score was average, the commands 
involve constant flipping through layers 
of menus. Transferring files is especially 
taxing. 

HyperACCESS features Hyper Pilot, 
a compilable script language that lets you 
check for syntax errors before you're 
actually on-line. Unfortunately, the 
script language itself does not allow 
many shortcuts, and it fared poorly on 
the programming keystroke test. In addi- 
tion, if you're used to other software's 



script languages, which are all similar, 
you'll find that learning Hyper Pilot re- 
quires some adjustments. 

Instant Terminal 1.1 

Take our advice: When the Instant Ter- 
minal manual mentions that a little file 
on the supplemental disk is intended only 
for a "computer engineer, technician, or 
programmer," don't listen. Print the 
file. Using the sparse 55-page reference 
manual that came with the package, we 
assumed Instant Terminal was a cheap 
Procomm clone. In fact, the sign-on 
screen tells you that Datastorm Technol- 
ogies, the Procomm people, licensed the 
software to Softronics. But with a little 
digging, we found a full scripting lan- 
guage and features that are only hinted at 
in the published documentation. 

Instant Terminal even ran a Procomm 
script, including GOSUBs and condition- 
als, without an edit or a hitch. Still, it's 
not a full implementation, the most nota- 
ble omission being a learn facility. 

One other problem with the "cheap 
Procomm clone" assumption: Procomm 
costs less. With a single emulation, In- 
stant Terminal will run you $95. 

As the name suggests, Instant Termi- 
nal touts its terminal-emulation features. 
Our review copy included a software 
module and documentation supplement 



152 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 



PRODUCT FOCUS 
COMMUNICATIONS SOFTWARE 



Terminals Emulated 


















<?■ 


























a« 






o* 


















,S> iV 


o 






4? 






▼ 














o 


A* 


V T T V a 

Ai K A.' A.' i? 

^ i ^. ^ tv 

o o o o o 

& # & & p 
o o o o o 


K 

Fs. 

o° 


/ 


f f £ £ 

$ $ & Q 


i 


£ f £ 
i 3 /? 


if 


O) 


i 




i 


/// 


o 


• • o o 


o 


o 


o 


o o 


•1 o 


o 


o o o 


o 


o 


• 


o 


o 


o o 


o 












o o 


• »2 


•2 


• 2 • o 


o 


• 


• 


• 


• 


o o 


o 


o 


• • o o 


o 


o 


o 


o o 


•1 o 


o 


o o • 


• 


o 


• 


o 


• 


o o 


o 


o 


• • o • 


o 


o 


o 


• o 


• «3 


• 3 


o o o 


o 


o 





• 


• 


o • 


o 





• •••■< 


O 


o 


o 


O 


o o 


O 


o 


o 





o 


o 


o 


O 





O 


• • o o 


• 


• 


o 


o o 


• 


O 


o o o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


• o 


o 


o 


• • o 


• 


o 


o 


O 


• o 


o 


o • • 


o 


• 


• 


• 


o 


o o 


o 


O 


o o o o 


o 


o 


o 


o o 


o o 


o 


o o o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o o 


o 


o 


• • • • 


• 


• 


o 


o • 


o o 


o 


o • o 












o o 


o 


o 


• o • o 


o 


o 


o 


• o 


• «3 


o 


o • o 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


o o 


• 


o 


• • o o 


o 


o 


o 


o o 


•1 o 


o 


o o o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o o 


o 


o 


• • • o 


o 


o 


o 


o o 


o o 


o 


o o o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


O 


o 


o 








o 


o • 


• o 





o • o 












o o 


o 



Table 3: The packages varied 


widely in ease of programming and thoughput. (All times are in seconds.) 






Keystrokes 


Keystrokes 


1 -megabyte 


1 -megabyte 


Perfect-line 


Perfect-line 


Typical-line 


Typical-line 




to create 


for manual 


send at 


receive at 


1200-bps 


1200-bps 


1200-bps 


1200-bps 


Package 


BIX script 


BIX session 


highest bps 


highest bps 


send 


receive 


send 


receive 


Carbon Copy Plus 


286 


19 


310 


722 


590 


588 


592 


589 


Crosstalk Mk.4 


197 


26 


318 


770 


595 


592 


589 


591 


Crosstalk XVI 


237 


24 


873 


618 


592 


591 


588 


589 


HyperACCESS 


479 


26 


296 


770 


589 


592 


593 


597 


Instant Terminal 


343 


19 


885 


884 


596 


597 


596 


595 


MaxOnline 


158 


26 


579 


549 


619 


597 


606 


598 


Mirror II 


117 


25 


475 


926 


594 


598 


597 


597 


Move-It 


145 


44 


1653 


1660 


589 


590 


587 


593 


PC BLAST II 


419 


38 


435 


1259 


596 


592 


600 


594 


Procomm Plus 


142 


22 


452 


542 


587 


587 


590 


588 


Relay Silver 


117 


30 


740 


656 


593 


592 


594 


595 


Smartcom III 


162 


23 


98 


262 


582 


584 


587 


585 


Softerm PC 


195 


33 


950 


954 


667 


665 


655 


661 



for DEC VT-220 emulation. An order 
form enclosed with the package lists 40 
additional emulator modules. Although 
most of the telecommunications pack- 
ages reviewed here include a variety of 
common emulations, documentation was 
almost invariably poor. Instant Terminal 
fills this gap. So if you need to emulate 
an obscure terminal, or if you have a spe- 



cific application on only one or two ter- 
minals, look into Instant Terminal. 
However, if you access multiple hosts, 
take note: The first emulation goes for 
$15; after that, they're $50 a shot. 

MaxOnline 2.4 

Though sometimes bogged down by 
multiple menus, this $70 package offers 



abundant features for its price. The 
menus are well designed, making Max- 
Online a very easy package to use, espe- 
cially for novices. The operations you 
need most show up on the first screen. 
And if anything's missing, you can add 
new functions by editing USER.MNU. 
MaxOnline reaches a maximum data 

continued 



AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 153 



Circle 131 on Header Service Card (UtAL, 

"Give 
me one 

reason 
to give 



PRODUCT FOCUS 
COMMUNICATIONS SOFTWARE 



"How about 43?" 

Modula-2 saves more time 
and money than any other 
programming environment. 

1. High-level language 

2. Readable, maintainable code 

3. Ideal for team programming 

4. Supports multi-tasking 

5. Emerging international standard 

6. Pascal or C programmers learn it 
in hours 

7. Language for modern engineering 

8. Consistency checks across modules 

9. User control over exported/imported 
objects 

10. Traps most programming errors 

1 1 . Fewer bugs in final code 

12. Easy low-level access 

The LOGITECH Modula-2 

programming environment 

goes far beyond the language. 

13. Faster project throughput 

14. Corporations rely on it 

1 5. Adds a rich set of tools to the language 

1 6. Best debuggers for any language 

17. Configurable, easy-to-use text editor 

18. Integrated environment 

19. Powerful windowing interface 

20. Compiles twice as fast as MS-C 

21 . Code as fast as the best C compilers 

22. Mature and reliable 

23. Extended library 

24. Standard object format 

25. C libraries can be used 

26. Supports EGA 43-line mode 

27. Automatic MAKE 

28. Flexible overlays ^ 

29. Price/performance leader 



transfer rate of only 19,200 bps, but it 
scored credibly on our benchmarks, tim- 
ing under 10 minutes on both 1 -megabyte 
transfers. Adequate scripting and a func- 
tional learn mode combine for easy auto- 
mation, while the 222 pages of documen- 
tation include plenty of instructive 
programming routines and command ex- 
amples. The distribution disk also con- 
tains demonstration scripts. 

MaxOnline touts a windowing feature 
that supports simultaneous file transfer 
from two COMM ports. It falls short of 
true background mode, but it can speed 
up extensive file-transfer tasks. While 
one window downloads from a remote 
host, the other port can process files over 
a direct line. You can customize each 
window and easily jump back and forth. 
Remote operation excels for a program in 
this price category. Simple commands 
set passwords, restrict log-ons to specific 
users, allow varying levels of access, and 
trigger an interactive chat mode. Easy 
file management is also available. 

The compact scripting language han- 
dles most basic commands. It would not, 
however, support an IF WAITF0R state- 
ment, counting instead on a time-out 
error to break from the mail loop. Pa- 
rameters are easy to change, with an 
overview screen and menus available for 
most entries. MaxOnline illustrates how 
far communications software has come: 
A little money buys a professional pack- 
age with plenty of power. 

Mirror II 3.6.12 

Being accustomed to a given command 
system and script language may be your 
only reason for sticking with an other- 
wise weak communications product. 
SoftKlone's Mirror II 3.6.12 solves that 
problem by letting you use the familiar 
Crosstalk system while adding a learn 
command, background mode, text edi- 
tor, strong terminal emulation, and some 
friendly screen displays. All this, includ- 
ing 368 pages of clear documentation, 
will run you a mere $70. 

Although the command structure is 
virtually identical to Crosstalk's and is 
not any easier to learn, Mirror IPs screen 
displays present your connect informa- 
tion clearly and let you scroll through all 
the parameters you have set. It per- 
formed at Crosstalk's level in the manual 
keystroke test, the only difference being 
an added stroke to get past the initial 
screen display without waiting it out. 

Running Mirror II in the background 
is easy, requiring only a hot-key toggle to 
switch between itself and another appli- 
cation. It can handle the difficult task of 
simultaneously receiving a file and 



doing disk-intensive operations with only 
about a 5 percent performance hit, and 
without errors. Be warned that Mirror's 
192K bytes plus your operating system 
take up a big chunk of a 640K-byte mem- 
ory, and you may be severely limited as 
to the other applications you can run. 

If you're not used to the Crosstalk 
script language, there is a learn facility 
to help get you started. Using it enabled 
us to cut the programming keystrokes 
down to an excellent 1 17, including edit- 
ing. Mirror adds the ability to access a 
command completion register to the stan- 
dard Crosstalk command set, which 
makes possible decision loops based on 
22 separate conditions. 

The software supports all common 
protocols, including Crosstalk. It scored 
very well in our ASCII send test, but 
lower than average on our ASCII receive. 
In this case, the flow control necessary 
to properly send the file from the Com- 
paq 386/20 to the AT at 1 15,200 bps was 
unusually sluggish. 

Mirror II is a very good, strong, and 
flexible package for less than half the 
price of Crosstalk. Those comfortable 
with the Crosstalk command file format 
may well find a new favorite here. 

Move-It 4.02 

When you boot up Move-It, all you get 
back is an asterisk. After delving 
through so many programs with reams of 
overlapping menus and multiple key- 
strokes for one simple command, that 
lonely command prompt was refreshing. 
Of course, you have to rely on the 155 
pages of documentation— without an in- 
dex—and a few help screens to get you 
through the learning phase. The stark 
screen display disguises a powerful pro- 
gram with a full scripting language. 

Though simple in concept, the pro- 
gram's price tag ($150) puts it in a class 
where it must match the performance of 
some tough competition. Unfortunately, 
it lacks the basic features required to 
meet that goal. Take the phone book, for 
example: It is a raw ASCII file, where 
each line contains an entry, and a comma 
separates each argument of an entry 
(e.g., phone number, data transfer rate, 
and parity). Again, the simplicity ap- 
pealed to us, but for the price of this 
package, you should not have to exit the 
program and run up a word processor 
each time you add a phone entry. And 
during XMODEM transfers, you should 
get more of a status update than just a row 
of dots across the screen. 

Move-It's elegant scripting almost 
makes up for the lack of a learn facility. 
Even without automatic generation of 



154 BYTE* AUGUST 1988 



PRODUCT FOCUS 
COMMUNICATIONS SOFTWARE 



code, it took only 145 keystrokes to pro- 
gram the full BIX session. Move-It han- 
dles the BIX mail loop with typical effi- 
ciency. It first looks for the read/action 
prompt (meaning mail is in the box), 
then jumps to one label if the prompt is 
encountered, or to another label if it is 
not; thus: 

MA read/action: 

JU no_more_raail FALSE 
JU more_mail 

Unlike many of the programs we re- 
viewed, you don't have to wait for a time- 
out to fall through the mail loop. This 
structure not only produces efficient 
code but also handles a variety of com- 
plex chores. 

Still, when the program drifts away 
(an affliction all too common during 
telecomputing), you start to miss the 
menus and status prompts so common in 
the other packages. And this program 
drifts off more than others. It hung when 
it couldn't detect a dial tone, it hung 
when connected to a Hayes-compatible 
modem it didn't think was compatible 
enough, and it even hung when an invalid 
data transfer rate was entered. There's 
nothing more infuriating than a hung 
program that stares back at you with only 
that lonely asterisk. 

PC BLAST II 

In a category with Smartcom III and 
Crosstalk Mk.4, the $250 PC BLAST II 
faces some brutal competition. Even 
with 300-plus pages of documentation 
and some powerful features, it just 
doesn't achieve top-of-the-line status. 
The manual lacks coherent organization, 
and the sparse index skips the first two 
sections. BLAST scripts handle complex 
chores, but they run erratically— a fatal 
flaw when automating on-line proce- 
dures. BLAST also comes up short on 
maximum data transfer rate (38,400 bps) 
and number of protocols supported (only 
XMODEM and the functional, though 
nonstandard, BLAST protocol). 

BLAST reverts to some cryptic script- 
ing language. Unfortunately, the docu- 
mentation covering the command struc- 
ture doesn't help much. While most 
programs use the Wait For standard to 
await specific prompts, BLAST uses a 
TTRAP command. Still, even after em- 
ploying numerous traps and delays, 
BLAST insisted on flooding BIX with a 
burst of commands. Although BIX han- 
dled it, some services won't. For proto- 
col transfers, you've got to access the on- 
line menu and then send local keystrokes 
to automate the menu selections. This in- 



efficient method invites trouble. The 
TUPLOAD and TCAPTURE commands sup- 
port only text transfer. On top of that, 
BLAST lacks a learn facility. 

The setup file enhances automation by 
triggering script files and loading vari- 
ables such as @logf ile and gpassword, 
but this doesn't make up for the ineffi- 
ciencies. A keystroke count exposes the 
problem: The manual session took 38 
keystrokes to complete, while the com- 
mand script required 419. For the price 
BLAST demands, it should be doing 
more of your work. Other programs in 
BLAST'S price category deliver elegant 
scripting, full features, and smooth op- 
eration—an enviable standard, and one 
that BLAST simply does not meet. 

Procomm Plus 1.1 A 

Procomm Plus offers the best of both 
worlds: cheap yet powerful, easy to use 
yet rich with features. At first glance, it 
appears plain enough for public domain, 
and yet it supports almost any telecom- 
puting application: 11 standard proto- 
cols, 14 terminal emulations, every com- 
mon configuration up to 115,200 bps, 
host mode, split-screen chat mode, an 
automated phone book, macros, and a 
surprisingly powerful script language. 
In the old price ($75) versus perfor- 
mance ratio, Procomm leads the field. 

Procomm employs the familiar PC- 
Talk key sequences to get the job done. 
The key combinations are, for the most 
part, logical; and for those that aren't, 
one keystroke calls a comprehensive 
overview screen. The 340-page manual, 
well-organized and indexed, does not 
leave you ripping out pages with one hand 
and hair with the other. Page references 
at the beginning of each chapter supple- 
ment a detailed table of contents and a 
complete index. 

Although some compatibility quirks 
are to be expected in the world of tele- 
communications programs, Procomm 
did better than some. A few of the pack- 
ages could not handle the POPCOM 
modem, a purported Hayes compatible, 
but Procomm had no trouble with it at 
all. Another Hayes compatible inces- 
santly reported Carrier Detect High, and 
most of the programs had problems with 
this. Some dealt with it on boot-up by 
flashing a warning or initiating a reset. 
Some even dropped into terminal mode, 
fully on-line, refusing to believe that no 
one was home. Procomm Plus simply ig- 
nored it. Perhaps this exposes a lack of 
sophistication, but it can be a blessing. 
Telecomputing causes enough headaches 
without your program getting picky. 

continued 




Announcing Modula OS/2. 

The operating system finally 

catches up with the language. 

30. Support for dual mode operations 

31 . Dynamic link libraries 

32. For standard/extended version of OS/2 

33. Multiple threads 

34. Virtually unlimited program size 

35. Makes mixing languages easy 

36. Most powerful editor under OS/2 

37. Background compilation while editing 

38. Run-time checks 

39. Stack checks even in threads 

40. OS/2 uses Modula-2 parameter 
passing mechanism 

41 . Upgrade available for Modula-2 DOS 
users 

42. Direct Hotline and free Bulletin Board 
support for all Modula-2 products 

43. It's affordable! 



Call toll-free: 






800-231-7717 






In California: 






800-552-8885 






pLesendme: 






□ Modula-2 Compiler Pack (DOS)$ 


99.00 


□ Modula-2 Toolkit (DOS) 


$ 


169.00 


3 Modula-2 Development 
System (DOS, includes 
Compiler and Toolkit) 


$ 


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LOGITECH 

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LOGITECH UK 

Tel: ++44 (0)525-22-22-11 

AUGUST 1988 'BYTE 155 



PRODUCT FOCUS 
COMMUNICATIONS SOFTWARE 



Our tests seek to evaluate communi- 
cations software performance in 
two broad categories: throughput and 
ease of use. To this end, we devised 
benchmarks to pinpoint performance 
ability in eight separate areas. 

The first is our manual keystroke 
test, where we record the number of 
keystrokes necessary to carry out a de- 
fined session on the BIX conferencing 
system. It provides a quantitative mea- 
sure of the relative complexity of using 
the command mode. The session con- 
sists of logging on, filing and download- 
ing mail, filing and downloading mes- 
sages, and logging off. Keystrokes that 
are used for commands in terminal 
mode (i.e., commands for BIX's use 
only) are not counted. We made every 
effort to use keyboard shortcuts where 
these were available. The count begins 
on the first stroke after the program is 
started and ends when we have returned 
to DOS. 

For our second test, we wrote a script 
language program to automate the same 
BIX session, and we determined the 



The Tests 

keystrokes needed to enter and execute 
the script. Since BIX's mail subsystem 
requires that you file memos individu- 
ally, and the amount of messages can 
vary from day to day, the program must 
have some kind of input-based decision 
structure to work properly. 

We chose to use the language's best 
structure, not necessarily its most com- 
pact, for handling unexpected condi- 
tions. If abbreviated commands were 
possible, we used them. If the package 
had a learn facility, we counted only the 
keystrokes needed to use the learn mode 
and to edit the resulting script. 

Throughput was measured using two 
data files (a 64K-byte file and a 1 -mega- 
byte file), transferred between a stan- 
dard IBM PC AT and a Compaq Desk- 
pro 386/20 under fixed conditions. The 
terms send and receive are always refer- 
enced to the AT. The 1 -megabyte ASCII 
transfer test times the send and receive 
timings of one million A characters via a 
null modem connection and using no 
error checking. We pushed for the 
greatest error-free transfer rate we 



could get, which is not merely a func- 
tion of data transfer rate; it often meant 
adjusting flow control and line or char- 
acter wait parameters. At 115,200 bps, 
we should see 1 -megabyte transfer 
times of about 90 seconds (1 megabyte/ 
(115200/10)), but typical times were 
more on the order of 10 minutes, which 
was the fastest transfer time the soft- 
ware (and the disks) could correctly 
handle. 

To determine how the software re- 
acted under everyday conditions, we 
measured the transfer rate of a 64K-byte 
data file at 1200 bps over two simulated 
phone lines. The first line, simulated by 
our modem testing equipment, was a 
"perfect" line, with virtually no noise 
and no line impairment. The connection 
was made using two 1200-bps Hayes- 
compatible modems. The second line 
simulated was a "typical" line, with 
typical noise, attenuation, and phase jit- 
ter. These parameters were determined 
by the preliminary draft of EIA-496, a 
specification for universal communica- 
tion equipment tests. 



As for the script language, Procomm 
boasts a complete command set: if . . . 
then. . .else looping, case structures, a 
Shell command for DOS operation, sub- 
routines, and advanced screen handling. 
This power does not come at the cost of 
simplicity. For instance, Procomm han- 
dled the BIX mail loop with ease: 

WAITF0R "read/action" ;BIX prompt 

; when you have mail 
IFWAITFOR ; if you have mail, 

GOTO morejiail ; go get it 
ENDIF 

Sure, it looks obvious; but few packages 
handle the loop so easily. For all but the 
most complex programming projects, 
Procomm scripting will do the job. Only 
the lack of a true background mode 
dampens our endorsement. The Shell 
command allows you to escape to DOS 
while still on-line, but file transfers will 
not proceed until Procomm returns to the 
foreground. 

Procomm meets a software designer's 
most stringent standard: Pack in the fea- 
tures, but keep the interface simple. It 
doesn't intimidate, but it can still handle 
complex applications. Above all, it 
strives for invisibility, flashing menus at 
you only when asked and remaining as 



unobtrusive as possible. A noble achieve- 
ment, and a goal all too often neglected. 

Relay Silver 1.0 

Relay Silver 1.0 is a fully featured com- 
munications software package that re- 
quires 192K bytes of RAM and two flop- 
py disk drives. It includes two manuals 
with over 500 pages of well-referenced 
documentation, and it sells for $150. Re- 
lay Silver is weak in throughput, ease of 
commands, and terminal emulation, and 
the unusual extra features it adds are not 
enough to make up for these basic lacks. 

Among the added features are a so- 
phisticated background mode, a text edi- 
tor, and a script language learn facility. 
The background mode allows Relay Sil- 
ver to run as a true terminate-and-stay- 
resident (TSR) program, always accessi- 
ble through a hot-key combination. 
Unfortunately, background file transfers 
were quite slow when running a disk- 
intensive application in the foreground. 

ASCII transfers were quick enough, 
but hard to get going. At high speeds, the 
software occasionally locks when using 
XON/XOFF, apparently because the re- 
ceiver doesn't catch all the data and never 
sends the next XON. For hard- wired con- 
nections, Relay Silver needs a null 
modem cable configuration that differs 



from that of almost every other package. 

The command mode is menu-driven 
beyond reason, and to accomplish any 
file transfers with the menu, you must 
edit an entire directory specification. A 
command entry mode of sorts is avail- 
able through an attention key, but that 
handy bit of information is buried well 
within the documentation. Once you find 
it, you can enter script commands di- 
rectly from the keyboard. Even with this 
shortcut, Relay Silver had a lower-than- 
average score on manual key counts. 

On the plus side, Relay has a powerful 
script language and a good learn facility. 
Relay also finished with an excellent 
keystroke count in our programming 
test. The commands are simple and intu- 
itive, and editing a learned script can 
take remarkably little effort. In addition, 
Relay includes an application program 
interface— software hooks that let you 
easily incorporate Relay scripts into your 
own programs. The manufacturer says a 
new release of Relay Silver with script 
enhancements and additional terminal 
emulations will be available this fall. 

Smartcom III 1.08 

For elegant scripting, full features, and 
pure telecomputing power, you just can't 

continued 



156 BYTE' AUGUST 1988 



How to look good from start . . . 







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The HP LaserJet 
Series II Printer. 

Nothing brings your 
ideas to life like the HP 
LaserJet Series n Printer— 
from office memos to forms 
to newsletters. As the leading laser 
printer, it works with all popular PCs 
and PC software packages. And, with 
a wide range of fonts, you get more 
options to create superior looking 
documents. 




With additional 
memory you can even 
print sophisticated 300 
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And with HP's ScanJet 
scanner, you can also 
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illustrations and text. 

No wonder more people choose 
the original over all other laser printers 
combined. 

So caH 1 800 752-0900, Ext. 900D 
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m 



HEWLETT 
PACKARD 



© Hewlett-Packard 1988 
Circle 102 on Reader Service Card 



Print samples were created using Microsoft Word. Microsoft Excel, and Aldus PageMaker. 



AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 157 



PRODUCT FOCUS 
COMMUNICATIONS SOFTWARE 



Company Information 


Communications Research Group 

5615 Corporate Blvd. 
Baton Rouge, LA 70808 
(504) 923-0888 
Inquiry 900. 


Meridian Technology, Inc. 

7 Corporate Park, Suite 100 
Irvine, CA 92714 
(714)261-1199 
Inquiry 893. 


Datastorm Technologies, Inc. 

1621 Towne Dr., Suite G 
Columbia, MO 65202 
(314)474-8461 
Inquiry 901. 


Relay Communications, Inc. 

41 Kenosia Ave. 
Danbury, CT 06810 
(800) 222-8672 
Inquiry 902. 


Digital Communications Associates, Inc 

1000 Holcomb Woods Pkwy. 
Roswell, GA 30076 
(404) 998-3998 
Inquiry 894. 


. SoftKlone 

336 Office Plaza Dr. 
Tallahassee, FL 32301 
(904) 878-8564 
Inquiry 898. 


Hayes Microcomputer Products, Inc. 

P.O Box 105203 
Atlanta, GA 30348 
(404) 441-1617 
Inquiry 903. 


Softronics 

7899 Lexington Dr., Suite 210 
Colorado Springs, CO 80918 
(800) 225-8590 
Inquiry 896. 


Hilgraeve, Inc. 

P.O. Box 941 
Monroe, MI 48161 
(800) 826-2760 
Inquiry 895. 


Woolf Software Systems, Inc. 

23842 Archwood St. 
West Hills, CA 91307 
(818)703-8112 
Inquiry 899. 


Maxon Systems, Inc. 

353 Vintage Park Dr. , Suite B 
Foster City, CA 94403 
(415) 377-0269 
Inquiry 897. 





beat the Old Guard. Smartcom III re- 
quires a hefty 512K bytes of RAM, an 
80-column display, and a hard disk 
drive, but the package includes every- 
thing: a full-functioned editor, file com- 
pression and data encryption, on-line 
disk management, a complete command 
set, an integrated compiler, simulta- 
neous sessions, remote access capability, 
and an excellent learn facility. The four- 
disk set is not for the casual user, as the 
$249 price tag attests, but if you have 
heavy-duty uses in mind, Smartcom III 
will do the job. 

Multiple menus and excessive help 
screens can be annoying and inflexible, 
but Smartcom Ill's implementation of 
those features works. You can find your 
way around the system and experiment 
with only occasional glances at the ample 
(218-page) documentation. 

The editor, unlike many integrated 
editors, is fairly painless, and, when 



editing script files, it offers some helpful 
debugging tools. Debugging the scripts 
of other packages can become tiresome 
because most errors are only discovered 
on-line. The Smartcom compiler, acces- 
sible from within the editor, catches 
many errors; and when problems do 
arise, you can avoid the headache of 
switching from one module to another 
or, worse, from one program to another. 
After Smartcom detects a compilation 
error, it puts you right where you need to 
be: back in the editor. 

Hayes has included a complete pro- 
gramming environment with multiple 
conditional structures, windowing, 
speed optimization, and full error trap- 
ping. The language is verbose (even with 
a learn facility, it took 162 keystrokes to 
edit the automated session). But the sell- 
ing point here is power. With the less ex- 
pensive packages, you usually employ a 
generic routine and hope all unfolds as 



expected, but Smartcom lets you pick the 
right command for each application. 
Start the learn facility and watch Smart- 
com create your script in an upper win- 
dow as the session churns along on the 
main screen. It even scrambles your 
password. Slick. 

Smartcom blazed through our 1 -mega- 
byte benchmarks. Unlike almost every 
other program, Smartcom could truly 
handle its advertised maximum data 
transfer rate. Sending the file from the 
AT to the Compaq, Smartcom scorched 
along at 1 15,200 bps with no delays at all 
and broke the tape in 98 seconds. Of 
course, the AT can't capture that fast, but 
Smartcom let us know about character 
errors right up front. Instead of waiting 
for the 1 -megabyte transfer to complete, 
only to find errors in the file, we simply 
aborted the process, popped down to 
38,400 bps, and sent the file to the AT in 
a record 262 seconds. 

If you need a full range of features, or 
if you plan an extensive programming 
project (such as a bulletin board system 
or a complex sequence of unattended ses- 
sions), the Smartcom investment pays off 
quickly. 

SoftermPC3.0 

Although Softerm did not excel at our 
benchmarks, registering 954 seconds on 
the important 1 -megabyte receive test, it 
did run through them with admirable 
ease. The configuration parameters were 
not only comprehensive but easy to find 
and modify. When a problem did occur, 
the excellent documentation (over 700 
pages packed in two manuals) covered it. 
And there's lots to cover: a complete 
script language, learn mode, background 
operation, direct remote access, six pop- 
ular protocols, queue scheduling, and a 
text editor. 

For terminal emulation, Softerm 
breaks away from the pack. Chapter 4 of 
the reference manual lists 45 terminals, 
and each is well documented. That chap- 
ter alone runs 200 pages. In an area 
where most of the packages come up 
woefully short, Softerm deserves spe- 
cial accolades. 

Unique resident features are also note- 
worthy. Softerm's Communication 
Agent, coupled with an unattended host 
mode, enables true background opera- 
tions. A hot-key toggle lets you queue a 
script file containing the MONITOR com- 
mand, turning control to the remote ter- 
minal while the local computer runs 
DOS operations or application pro- 
grams. Resident menus also offer disk 
management and sophisticated host ac- 

continued 



158 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 



Small cash input 
for laser-quality output. 



E9 



HEWLETT 
PACKARD 



Dear Reader: 

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today. 

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1 







Circle 103 on Reader Service Card 




Zjm HEWLETT 
HM PACKARD 

AUGUST 1988 • B Y T E 159 



A Message To 
Our Subscribers 



FROM TIME TO TIME WE MAKE THE BYTE SUBSCRIBER 
list available to other companies who wish to send our subscribers 
material about then products. We take great care to screen these com- 
panies, choosing only those who are reputable, and whose products, 
services, or information we feel would be of interest to you. Direct mail 
is an efficient medium for presenting the latest personal computer goods 
and services to our subscribers. 

Many BYTE subscribers appreciate this controlled use of our mailing 
list, and look forward to finding information of interest to them in the 
mail. Used are our subscribers' names and addresses only (no other 
information we may have is ever given). 

While we believe the distribution of this information is of benefit to 
our subscribers, we firmly respect the wishes of any subscriber who 
does not want to receive such promotional literature. Should you wish 
to restrict the use of your name, simply send your request to the following 
address. 



Exit Magazine 

Attn: Subscriber Service 

P.O. Box 7643 
Teaneck, NJ 07666-9866 



ilfnll 



"IT MAKES C-C-CROSSTALK 
SEEM T-T-TONGUE-TIED." 

If you're talking to a DEC mainframe, no communication 
software emulates the VT220, VT100 or VT52 terminal more 
accurately, easily, or eloquently than VTERM. * 

Hot keys. Kermit. Automatic reformatting for spreadsheets 
and databases. VTERM has it all. 

Why not join the 60,000 users of VTERM (many of whom 
moved up from Crosstalk). And try the DEC terminal emulation 
package that has everyone in the business buzzing. 

" r^ "evaTua^ion k7t" " 

[ ~J Yes, send me a free time-limited, full-blown working copy ofVTERM/220, 
which is mine to keep. 

Name 

Title 



Company 
Address 



VTERM 

o 

DEC Terminal Emulator 

Telephone 

I am a user n dealerQ- Mail to: 

Coefficient Systems Corporation 

611 Broadway, New York, New York 10012 (212) 777-6707 B 

* VTERM refers to VTERM/220, VTERM/4010, etc. products from Coefficient Systems Corporation. 
Crosstalk is a trademark of Digital Communications Associates. Inc. 

Questions? Want faster action? Call (212) 777-6707, ext. 420. 



PRODUCT FOCUS 
COMMUNICATIONS SOFTWARE 



cess. The File Agent uses configurable 
device specifiers, letting you access re- 
mote computers as if they were local disk 
drives. 

Softerm's learn mode creates only 
macros; you've got to enter script code 
manually. The editor saves you some 
keystrokes by generating commands and 
by catching entry errors, but it can be in- 
flexible. In fact, the script language it- 
self suffers from a rigid structure . Not an 
open programming environment, but the 
kind you may appreciate at debugging 
time or when coding complex sessions. 

The menu structure is somewhat con- 
fusing. For instance, F4 from the Sof- 
term Functions menu, labeled File 
Transfer, does not let you transfer files; 
for that feature, you must call the Utility 
Functions menu. A better design would 
save keystrokes and enhance clarity. 

With so many features and admirable 
power, Softerm deserves its place along- 
side the expensive communications 
packages. It can do the job, but it's not a 
program you can go to work on right out 
of the box. A steep learning curve, an- 
noying rigidity, and poor performance in 
our benchmark tests thwart the promise 
of this full-featured package. 

The Big Picture 

Today's communications software has 
come a long way. Learn modes, easy 
macro definition, and context-sensitive 
help make telecomputing simpler than 
ever. With powerful scripting and abun- 
dant features, the best programs don't 
sacrifice sophistication. If you have a 
quick and easy session to run, complex 
features stay out of your way; but if you 
need more power, it lies in wait. By 
gleaning the features and checking 
benchmarks, you should pick a package 
that is most closely aligned to your 
application. 

For instance, if you have limited hard- 
ware and perform long file transfers, 
background operation becomes vital. It 
frees your local keyboard and enhances 
productivity. It also limits your choices 
considerably: While most programs can 
access DOS without logging out, they 
lack true background. On the other hand, 
if you desire simultaneous transfers, a 
program like MaxOnline or Mirror II 
can do the job by accessing both COMM 
ports. 

Our line simulator benchmarks show 
all packages performing XMODEM 
transfers equally well. Clearly, though, 
with 1-megabyte transfer rates ranging 
from over 20 minutes to less than 2 min- 
utes, software affects throughput. And a 
high data transfer rate does not necessar- 
ily ensure performance; software over- 



160 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 



Circle 45 on Reader Service Card 



PRODUCT FOCUS 
COMMUNICATIONS SOFTWARE 



head and line waits can significantly 
hamper transfer speed. Crosstalk XVI 
and Smartcom III both tout maximum 
data transfer rates of 115,200 bps, yet 
their 1 -megabyte transfer times differ by 
as much as 13 minutes— very significant 
when tying up a valuable resource. 

Proprietary protocols can make a dif- 
ference. Carbon Copy compressed our 
file of 64,000 A characters and sent it in 
12 seconds. The BLAST protocol han- 
dles noise exceptionally well. Each pack- 
age emphasizes specific features, but a 
couple of them bring it all together. 

Top of the Line 

For overall performance, Smartcom III 
leads the field. It set the standard for 1- 
megabyte transfer, the most telling of our 
benchmarks. It includes all necessary 
features and throws in all those little ex- 
tras that make the job easier— such as re- 
calling filenames from the first couple of 
keystrokes, encrypting files and scram- 
bling passwords for added security, and 
allowing simultaneous on-line sessions. 

Smartcom's scripting also sets the 
pace. When faced with ever-changing 
prompts and the vagaries of on-line com- 
munications, you need a language that 
has full error trapping and can handle all 
the anomalies. You'll still run into pro- 
gramming limits, but, for an application 
language, Smartcom attains the state of 
the art. 

Price vs. Performance 

Here Procomm Plus wins our endorse- 
ment. Unobtrusive and easy to use, it 
still includes all major features and sup- 
ports an enviable set of protocols and ter- 
minal emulations. It achieves simplicity 
with standard Alt-key combinations and 
with a comprehensive menu that's a sin- 
gle keystroke away. Its power comes 
from a surprisingly strong scripting lan- 
guage. And it's highly flexible — an in- 
dispensable feature for telecomputing 
tasks. Although it lacks the sophistica- 
tion of Smartcom III or Crosstalk Mk.4, 
Procomm Plus does the job admirably 
well at a reasonable price. 

Generally, we were impressed by the 
overall quality of all the packages tested. 
Once lagging behind the telecomputing 
revolution, communications software has 
filled the gap with full programming ca- 
pability and creative proprietary fea- 
tures. Going on-line has never been 
easier. ■ 

Steve Apiki and Stan Diehl are testing 
editors for the BYTE Lab. They can be 
reached at One Phoenix Mill Lane, Pe- 
terborough, NH 03458, or on BIX as 
"apiki " and "sdiehl. " 



Circle 238 on Reader Service Card 



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rn 



"IT MAKES PROCOMM LOOK 
LIKE AMATEURC0M 



5J 



If you talk to a DEC mainframe, no software emulates 
the VT220, VT100 or VT52 terminal more accurately or 
professionally than VTERM. * 

Hot keys. Kermit. Automatic reformatting for spread- 
sheets and databases. VTERM has it all. 

Why not join the 60,000 users of VTERM (many of 
whom moved up from Procomm). And try the DEC terminal 
emulation package that's in a totally different league. 

" FRErTl^ALUATION Klf" ™ ™ ™ ™ ™ ™ " 

[J Yes, send me a free time-limited, full-blown working copy of VTERM 1220 
which is mine to keep. 

Name 

Title 



Company 

Address 



Telephone 



) 



VTERM 

o 



DEC Terminal Emulator 



I am a user D dealerD- Mail to: 

Coefficient Systems Corporation 

611 Broadway, New York, New York 10012 (212) 777-6707 b- 

* VTERM refers to VTERM/220, VTERM/4010, etc. products from Coefficient Systems Corporation. 
Procomm is a trademark of Datastorm Technologies, Inc. 

Questions? Want faster action? Call (212) 777-6707, ext. 419. 



Circle 46 on Reader Service Card 



AUGUST 1988 'BYTE 161 



System Review 




Variations on the 
20-MHz Theme 



The Tatung TCS-8000, 
Proteus 386A, 
and Everex Step 386/20 
take different paths 
to high performance 



Ed McNierney 



As more 80386-based computers 
become available, you'd think 
they'd be as similar as peas in a 
pod. But that's not the case. As 
computers based on the 80386 move be- 
yond the initial 16-MHz wave to 20 
MHz, design variations between differ- 
ent systems become more prominent. 
Those variations show up clearly as dif- 
ferences in performance. 

The 20-MHz systems reviewed here— 
the Tatung TCS-8000, Proteus 386A, 
and Everex Step 386/20— follow differ- 
ent design philosophies. The three sys- 
tems show a remarkable range of perfor- 
mance and operational capabilities for a 
set of machines that are superficially so 
similar. Each couples its CPU with an 
enhanced AT-style keyboard, a reason- 
able-size hard disk drive, and an EGA 
display subsystem. Yet on closer inspec- 
tion and testing, each shows unique per- 
formance features, and the group as a 
whole shows a variation in performance 
of more than 100 percent on some of the 
benchmarks. 

Fast Cache 

The most prominent factor in an 80386- 
based system's performance is the mem- 
ory architecture. Since the 20-MHz 
80386 is an exceptionally memory- 
hungry processor with a instruction pre- 
fetch queue to keep filled, its demands 



on memory access are severe. Unfortu- 
nately, memory costs are such that the 
several megabytes of sub-50-nanosecond 
static RAM (SRAM) required to give the 
80386 unimpeded memory access would 
make any system prohibitively expen- 
sive. But that much fast memory isn't 
necessary; good performance can be ob- 
tained for a fraction of the cost by using a 
well-designed memory system. Each of 
the three systems reviewed uses a differ- 
ent approach to memory architecture. 

The Tatung TCS-8000 takes the sim- 
plest approach. The CPU accesses all the 
80-ns memory, through a 16-bit data path 
and requires no proprietary 32-bit exten- 
sion bus. The resulting system runs with 
two wait states at all times, and you can 
add more memory with any conventional 
memory-expansion board. Unfortu- 
nately, this simple solution almost al- 
ways results in a performance penalty 
that puts the TCS-8000 at the bottom of 
this three-system heap in memory-inten- 
sive operations. However, that fast RAM 
makes the Tatung TCS-8000 almost as 




fast as the Compaq Deskpro 386/20, 
which uses 100-ns RAM. 

The Proteus 3 86 A takes an intermedi- 
ate approach with a motherboard that can 
support 4 megabytes of 100-ns memory 
with a 32-bit data path. This dynamic 
RAM (DRAM) is supplemented by a 
64K-byte 45-ns SRAM cache. Since 
most applications do not require more 
than 4 megabytes of RAM, this system 
provides a reasonable performance com- 
promise. This system also does not use a 
proprietary 32-bit expansion slot, so if 
you add more memory, it must be ac- 
cessed through a 16-bit bus. The cache 
system caches all memory, however, not 
just the memory on the motherboard; as a 
result, the performance degradation that 
the 16-bit memory produces is moder- 
ated. Testing showed that this caching 
had little effect on the performance of the 
system, which ran memory-intensive op- 
erations just slightly faster than the 
Tatung TCS-8000. 

The Everex Step 3 86/20 's memory 
system is perhaps the most unusual of the 



Not peas in a 
pod: From left to 
right, the Tatung 
TCS-8000, 
Proteus 386A 
and Everex Step 
386/20 travel 
different paths 
to improved 
performance. 



162 BYTE* AUGUST 1988 



group, but it produces the best overall 
performance. You can install up to 8 
megabytes of 120-ns DRAM on the sys- 
tem board, with another 8 megabytes 
available in a full 32-bit expansion slot. 
To boost the performance of this 
DRAM, a 64K-byte SRAM cache (ex- 
pandable to 256K bytes) is also used— 
but with a twist. 

Most PC cache systems are the write- 
through type. If data is in the cache, it's 
read from there; otherwise, it's read 
from main memory. But when data is 
written, it's always written to the cache 
first and then "through" the cache into 
main memory. As a result, the cache of- 
fers little benefit on memory writes. 
However, since the bulk of a CPU's work 
consists of reading instructions to exe- 
cute, this write penalty does not seri- 
ously affect performance. 

But Everex, deciding to squeeze all 
possible speed out of its system, has im- 
plemented a write-back cache instead. In 
this cache system, if a data write occurs 
to a memory location in the very fast 25- 
ns cache, that write occurs only to that 
memory and not to main memory. It then 
marks the cache location as "dirty" be- 
cause its value differs from the main 
memory location it is caching. When that 
same location is read again, it is read di- 
rectly from the cache until a new mem- 
ory access causes that cache location to 
be overwritten. When new memory is 
moved into the cache, the current con- 
tents of the cache are checked to see if 
they are dirty. If so, those contents are 



written out to main memory before 
they're overwritten. Thus, a memory lo- 
cation that is frequently written to gets 
written much more quickly than in a con- 
ventional "write-through" system. 

Tatung TCS-8000 

The TCS-8000 as reviewed lists for 
$5288, not including a math copro- 
cessor. The system supports a 10-MHz 
80287 or 80387 coprocessor, neither of 
which Tatung supplies; the review sys- 
tem was equipped with a 10-MHz 80287. 
You can't vary the coprocessor speed, 
but you can switch the system CPU speed 
between 20 MHz and 8 MHz from the 
keyboard using the Ctrl- Alt-Minus keys. 
The system always powers up in the 
slower 8-MHz speed. If you really get 
into trouble, a convenient hardware reset 
switch is provided on the front panel of 
the system unit. 

The motherboard of the review unit 
held 2 megabytes of 80-ns RAM on 
SIMM (single in-line memory module) 
chips, with sockets for up to 4 mega- 
bytes. You can add more memory with an 
AT-style memory card. There are eight 
slots: two 8-bit and six 16-bit. The serial/ 
parallel card and the EGA card take up 
both 8-bit slots, and the floppy /hard disk 
drive controller takes one 16-bit slot, 
leaving five 16-bit slots free. 

The review unit had one 1 ,2-megabyte 
5 l A -inch floppy disk drive and one full- 
height hard disk drive. There is room for 
two other half-height devices. The Mini- 
Scribe 6053 40-megabyte hard disk drive 



performed well and reliably, but it fell 
behind the performance expected of a 
drive in this class. According to the 
Coretest, it had a data transfer rate of 
169.9K bytes per second, an average 
seek rate of 33.7 milliseconds, and a 
track-to-track rate of 5.7 ms. As a result, 
all the Tatung 's disk-based benchmark 
results were the poorest of the three 
machines. 

Although a disk support software 
package was included with the system, it 
did not include a disk-cache utility, as the 
other two systems did. Disk-cache util- 
ities are becoming standard equipment 
on 80386 machines, and one could im- 
prove the Tatung TCS-8000's general 
performance. 

The display adapter is an ATI EGA- 
compatible short card with additional 
support for Hercules graphics modes and 
several enhanced EGA modes, including 
800 by 560, 640 by 480, and 752 by 410 
pixels. Tatung supplied its own EGA 
CM- 1480 monitor, which features an ad- 
ditional monochrome mode: When the 
monitor is operating in text mode, a 
switch can change the normal white-on- 
black display to amber on black, green on 
black, or bright white on blue. 

The Tatung system suffers from a poor 
keyboard. Although the feel of the keys is 
similar to that of many of the softer key- 
boards, the lack of a firm touch is over- 
shadowed by the poor layout. The layout 
resembles the new IBM Enhanced 101- 
key layout at first glance, but there are 

continued 




















imj* 1 J 












! ■ 




1 


■ 

III 
III 
III 

llllllll!!!!!! 


. .■zz'-aaan-np v 







AUGUST 1988 • B Y T E 163 



Everex Step 386/20, Proteus 386A, Tatung TCS-8000 



APPLICATION-LEVEL PERFORMANCE 



WORD PROCESSING Everex 386/20 


Proteus 386A 


Tatung TCS-8000 


DATABASE 


Everex 386/20 


Proteus 386A 


Tatung TCS-8000 


XyWrlte III +3.52 Mod/1 .rg 


Med/Lrg 


Med/Lrg 


dBASEIII+1.1 








Load (large) 


:14 


:13 


:13 


Copy 




51 


:50 


1:42 


Word count 


02/: 16 


:02/:17 


:03/:22 


Index 




19 


:19 


:23 


Search/replace 


04/:20 


:05/:22 


:05/:23 


List 


1 


52 


2:56 


3:44 


End of document 


02/: 13 


:01/:13 


:02/:14 


Append 


1 


40 


1:35 


2:03 


Block moves 


107:10 


:10/:10 


:11/:11 


Delete 




02 


:02 


:03 


Spelling check 


07/:47 


:07/:50 


:09/1 :02 


Pack 


1 


19 


1:36 


2:30 


Microsoft Word 4.0 








Count 




17 


:16 


:19 


Forward delete 


:11 


:11 


:14 


Sort 


1 


16 


1:15 


1:23 


Aldus PageMaker 1 .0a 
























Load document 


:11 


:05 




16 


D Index: 


1.55 


1.45 


1.06 


Change/Bold 


:21 


:23 




28 










Align right 


:16 


:20 




21 


SCIENTIFIC/ENGINEEF «; 






Cut 1 pages 


:16 


:17 




19 




Everex 386/20 


Proteus 386A 


Tatung TCS-8000 


Place graphic 


:04 


:05 




05 


AutoCAD 2.52 








Print to file 


1:40 


1:44 


2 


02 


Load SoftWest 


:38 


:57 


2:01 










Regen SoftWest 


:26 


:45 


:47 










D Index: 


3.06 


2.73 


2.31 


Load StPauls 


:10 


:19 


:15 










Regen StPauls 


:05 


:09 


:09 


SPREADSHEET Eve 


rex 386/20 


Proteus 386A 


Tatung TCS-8000 


Hide/redraw 


8:48 


14:37 


15:22 


Lotus 1-2-3 2.01 








STATA1.5 








Block copy 


:02 


:03 




03 


Graphics 


1:27 


1:17 


2:17 


Recalc 


:01 


:01 




01 


ANOVA 


:14 


:23 


:28 


Load Monte Carlo 


:15 


:16 




16 


MathCAD 2.0 








Recalc Monte Carlo 


:04 


:03 




03 


IFS 800 pts. 


:12 


:22 


:23 


Load rlarge3 


:04 


:04 




04 


FFT/IFFT1024pts. 


:13 


:26 


:25 


Recalc rlarge3 


:01 


:01 




01 










Recalc Goal-seek 


:03 


:03 




03 


D Index: 


3.68 


2.26 


1.94 


Microsoft Excel 2.0 
















Fill right 


:04 


:04 


:05 


COMPILERS 


Everex 386/20 


Proteus 386A 


Tatung TCS-8000 


Undo fill 


1:26 


1:28 


2:01 


Microsoft C 5.0 








Recalc 


:01 


:01 


:01 


XLisp compile 


3:33 


4:20 


4:51 


Load rlarge3 


:20 


:22 


:26 


Turbo Pascal 








Recalc rlarge3 


:01 


:01 


:01 


Pascal S compile 


:04 


:05 


:06 



D Index: 



3.37 



3.20 



2.98 



D Index: 



2.75 



2.22 



1.92 



All times are in minutes:seconds. Indexes show relative performance; for all indexes, an 8-MHz IBM PC= 1 . 



LOW-LEVEL PERFORMANCE 1 



CPU 

Matrix 
String Move 

Byte-wide 
Word-wide 
Odd-bnd. 
Even-bnd. 
Sieve 
Sort 



Everex 
386/20 

3.04 

20.05 

25.05 
10.00 
19.10 
14.29 



Proteus 
386A 

3.19 

31.25 

25.29 
15.65 
20.00 
21.48 



Tatung 
TCS-8000 

3.54 

29.42 

29.59 
14.74 
22.50 
25.00 



D Index: 



4.07 



FLOATING POINT' 
Everex 
386/20 
Math 7.18 

Errors 0.00E+O0 

Sine(x) 3.30 

Error 2.00E-09 

e x 3.19 

Error 1 .00E-09 



3.22 



Proteus 
386A 

32.52 
0.00E+O0 

14.37 
2.00E-09 

12.10 
1.00E-09 



3.01 



Tatung 
TCS-8000 

27.99 
0.00E-+O0 

11.17 
2.00E-09 

9.76 
1.00E-09 



DISK I/O 

Hard Seek* 

Outer track 
Inner track 
Half platter 
Full platter 
Average 

DOS Seek 
1 -sector 
32-sector 

File 1/06 
Seek 
Read 
Write 

1 -megabyte 
Write 
Read 



Everex 
386/20 

3.33 

3.31 

10.00 

12.56 

7.30 

11.97 
41.90 

0.11 
1.09 
1.01 

6.89 
7.03 



Proteus 
386A 

3.28 
3.33 
6.64 
8.35 
5.40 

8.25 
41.82 

0.13 
1.16 
1.14 

7.33 
7.66 



Tatung 
TCS-8000 

3.31 

3.30 

13.29 

16.64 

9.13 

18.47 
64.30 

0.11 
0.98 
1.14 

8.55 
8.22 



D Index: 



1.41 



1.44 



1.17 



VIDEO 

Text 

ModeO 
Model 
Mode 2 
Mode 3 
Mode 7 
Test 
average 
Graphics 
CGA: 
Mode 4 
Mode 5 
Mode 6 
EGA: 
Mode 13 
Mode 1 4 
Mode 16 
Graphics 
average 



Everex 
386/20 

9.12 
9.09 
8.59 
8.57 
N/A 

8.84 



1.70 
1.65 
1.67 

3.48 
3.59 
3.70 

2.63 



Proteus 
386A 

16.53 
16.51 
16.55 
16.55 
16.87 

16.60 



1.56 
1.54 
1.65 

3.35 
3.65 
3.70 

2.57 



Tatung 
TCS-8000 

22.02 
22.01 
21.68 
21.68 
N/A 

21.85 



2.00 
2.01 
2.01 

3.98 
4.27 

4.12 

3.06 



D Index: 



1.59 



1.17 



0.94 



D Index: 



5.96 



1.42 



1.74 



N/A = Not applicable; mode not supported by graphics adapter. 

1 All times are in seconds. All figures were generated using the 8088/8086 version (1 .1) of Small-C (1 6-bit integers). 
Figures for 80386 machines do not use 80386-specific instructions. 

2 The floating-point benchmarks use 8087-compatible instructions only. 

3 The errors for the floating-point benchmarks indicate the difference between expected and actual values, correct to 
1 digits or rounded to 2 digits. 

4 Times reported by the Hard Seek and DOS Seek are for multiple seek operations (number of seeks performed 
currently set to 1 00). 

5 Read and write times for the File I/O benchmarks are in seconds per 64 Kbytes. 

6 For the Livermore Loops and Dhrystone tests only, higher numbers mean faster performance. 



CONVENTIONAL BENCHMARKS 



Everex 


Proteus 


Tatung 


386/20 


386A 


TCS-8000 


LINPACK 172.03 


623.40 


507.90 


Livermore Loops 6 






(MFLOPS) 0.17 


0.04 


0.05 


Dhrystone (MS C 5.0) 






(Dhry/sec) 6793 


5945 


5291 



For a full description of all the benchmarks, see "Introducing the New BYTE Benchmarks," June BYTE. 
164 BYTE • AUGUST 1988 




Everex Step 386/20 



14.4 



14.4 



Proteus 386A 



11.9 



11.9 



Tatung TCS-8000 



10.2 



10.2 



Compaq 386/20 18.0 



IBM PS/2 Model 80 11 



IBM PC AT 5 



Word j—. 

Processing | | 

Spreadsheet |_| 

Database [_J 

Scientific/ | — | 

Engineering | | 

Compilers | | 



'Cumulative applications index. Graphs are 
based on indexes at left and show relative 
performance. 



Everex Step 386/20 



Proteus 386A 



Tatung TCS-8000 



Compaq 386/20 



IBM PS/2 Model 80 



IBM PC AT 



CPU |_| 

FPU [~] 

Disk I/O Q 

Video l~l 



REVIEW 

VARIATIONS ON THE 
20-MHZ THEME 



some variations in key positions. 

The system's documentation includes 
four binders of material, two of which 
are supplied by Microsoft for the Tatung 
version of MS-DOS 3.21 and for GW- 
BASIC. The other two manuals are the 
Tatung user's guide and technical refer- 
ence; these two suffer severely from con- 
fused English, spelling and grammatical 
mistakes, and poor organization and in- 
dexing. Information is scrambled 
throughout the manuals, and not much 
effort was spent keeping complex and 
technical information separate from the 
standard user information required to set 
up and operate the system. 

A poor set of documentation makes it 
difficult to take a computer system seri- 
ously. The cost of writing documentation 
is small compared to developing and dis- 
tributing an 80386-based computer sys- 
tem, yet better documentation would pro- 
duce a big benefit for both the 
manufacturer and the user. 

The TCS-8000 has a 1-year parts and 
labor warranty; service is provided by 
Tatung. 

In general, while the Tatung system 
did not fail or break down, it didn't have 
any outstanding features. Its quirky key- 
board and generally ordinary perfor- 
mance put it near the bottom of the list 
when compared to the other systems 
available. A new manual, better support 
software, and a new keyboard could 
make the system a reasonable, if unre- 
markable, 20-MHz 80386 choice. 

Proteus 386A 

The Proteus approach to personal com- 
puters is to be a hardware supermarket. 
Its catalogs include a wide variety of 
hardware options, and you order them in 
whatever combination you want. Proteus 
offers support and service with a 15- 
month on-site warranty with each of its 
systems. For users who don't have the 
courage or the time to take the cover off 
their system units every time something 
goes wrong, a comprehensive support 
system like Proteus's can be very 
welcome. 

The Proteus 20-MHz 80386 system 
comes with a socket for an optional 
80287 math coprocessor. The keyboard 
controls the system's operating speed 
and cache memory controller. The Ctrl- 
Alt-Plus and -Minus keys switch the op- 
erating speed between 20 MHz and 6 
MHz, and the Ctrl-Alt-Left-Shift-Plus 
and -Minus keys enable or disable the 
SRAM cache memory when the system is 
running at 20 MHz. The cache is always 
disabled at 6 MHz, because at that speed 

continued 



AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 165 



REVIEW 
VARIATIONS ON THE 20-MHZ THEME 





Tatung TCS-8000 


Proteus 386A 


Everex Step 286/20 


Company 


Tatung Co. of America, Inc. 


Proteus Technology Corp. 


Everex Computer Systems Division 




2850 El Presidio St. 


377 Route 1 7 


48431 MilmontDr. 




Long Beach, CA 90810 


Airport 17 Center 


Fremont, CA 94538 




(213)979-7055 


Hasbrouck Heights, NJ 07604 
(201)288-8629 


(800) 356-4283 


Components 


Processor: 80386 running at 20 


Processor: 80386 running at 20 


Processor: 80386 running at 20 




MHz, switchable to 8 MHz; socket 


MHz, switchable to 6 MHz; socket 


MHz, switchable to 10 or 7 MHz; 




for optional 10-MHz 80287 or 


for optional 10-MHz 80287 math 


optional 20-MHz 80387 math 




80387 math coprocessor 


coprocessor 


coprocessor 




Memory: 1 megabyte of 1 6-bit 


Memory: 4 megabytes of 32-bit 


Memory: 2 megabytes of 32-bit 




two-wait-state DRAM standard on 


zero-wait-state DRAM on 


zero-wait-state DRAM on 




motherboard, expandable to 16 


motherboard, expandable to 16 


motherboard, expandable to 16 




megabytes 


megabytes; 64K bytes of 45-ns 


megabytes; 1 28K-byte 25-ns 




Mass storage: 1 .2-megabyte 5 1 /t- 


SRAM cache memory 


SRAM cache memory, 




inch floppy disk drive; optional 40- 


Mass storage: 1 .2-megabyte 514- 


expandable to 256K bytes 




megabyte 5 1 /4-inch hard disk drive 


inch floppy disk drive; optional 


Mass storage: 1 .2-megabyte 5V4- 




Display: Optional Enhanced EGA 


720K-byte 3 1 /a-inch floppy disk 


inch floppy disk drive; optional 80- 




card with Hercules emulation; 


drive; optional 320-megabyte 5Va- 


megabyte hard disk drive 




optional Tatung CM-1480 EGA 


inch hard disk drive 


Display: Optional Everex EGA 




monitor 


Display: Optional Everex EVGA 


card; optional Everex EGA monitor 




Keyboard: 101 -key Modified 


enhanced EGA with Hercules 


Keyboard: 101 -key Modified 




Enhanced keyboard 


emulation and high-resolution 


Enhanced keyboard 




I/O interfaces: One DB-25 parallel 


EGA display modes; optional NEC 


I/O interfaces: 1-to-1 interleave 




port; one DB-9 serial port; six 16- 


MultiSync II display monitor 


floppy/hard disk drive controller; 




bit and two 8-bit expansion slots 


Keyboard: 101 -key Modified 


one DB-9 serial port; one DB-25 




Other: Phoenix Technologies 


Enhanced keyboard 


parallel port; six 16-bit, one 8-bit, 




BIOS with ROM-based Setup 


I/O interfaces: One DB-9 and one 


and one dual 32-bit or 8-bit 




utility; hardware reset switch 


DB-25 serial port; one DB-25 


expansion slot 






parallel port; six 1 6-bit and two 8- 


Other: Front-panel LED status 






bit expansion slots 


display; hardware reset switch; 






Other: American Megatrends 


speaker disable switch; Everex 






BIOS with ROM-based Setup 


Enhanced American Megatrends 






utility; hardware reset switch 


BIOS with ROM-based Setup utility 


Size 


6 3 /4 x 22V2 x 18y 3 inches; 59V2 


63/ 4 x 21 y 3 x 1 7'/ 3 inches; 54 


7 x 22 x 17V2 inches; 58 pounds 




pounds 


pounds 




Software 


MS-DOS 3.21 ; GWBASIC 3.2; 


MS-DOS 3.30; GWBASIC 3.3; 


MS-DOS 3.3; GWBASIC 3.3; 




Tatung display drivers; MiniScribe 


Everex EVGA utilities; SpeedStor 


Everex Magic I/O support 




disk management and diagnostic 


disk caching and utility software 


software; Everex EGA display 




software 




adapter support software 


Options 


Monochrome display adapter: $99 


720K-byte 3 1 /2-inch floppy disk 


80387-20 coprocessor: $1495 




Hercules/EGA card: $189 


drive: $98 


Weitek 1 1 67 math coprocessor 




VGA card: $595 


20-megabyte to 320-megabyte 


board: $1995 






hard disk drives: $261 to $2895 


40-megabyte hard disk drive: 






Everex EGA card: $139 


$550 






Everex EVGA card: $269 


80-megabyte hard disk drive: 






14-inch monochrome monitor: 


$795 






$129 


Everex EGA card: $169 






EGA monitor: $375 


Everex EGA monitor: $399 






NEC MultiSync II monitor: $675 




Documentation 


Tatung TCS-8000 User's Manual; 


MS-DOS User's Guide; GWBASIC 


Everex System 386 User's Guide; 




Tatung TCS-8000 Technical 


Manual; Everex Magic I/O Adapter 


NEC Everex Magic I/O operating 




Manual; MS-DOS User's Guide; 


reference; Everex EVGA Display 


manual 




GWBASIC Manual 


Adapter reference; SpeedStor disk 
utility software reference; Proteus 
User's Guide 


■ 


Price 


Standard system with 1 megabyte 


Standard system with 1 megabyte 


Standard system with 1 megabyte 




of RAM, 1 .2-megabyte 5 1 /4-inch 


of RAM, 64K-byte cache, floppy/ 


of RAM, 64K-byte RAM cache, 




floppy disk drive, and floppy/hard 


hard disk drive controller, and 1 .2- 


floppy/hard disk drive controller, 




disk drive controller: $3500 


megabyte 5 1 /4-inch floppy disk 


and 1 .2-megabyte floppy disk 




System as reviewed: $5288 


drive: $3190 


drive: $4399 






System as reviewed: $8522 


System as reviewed: $6437 




Inquiry 883. 


Inquiry 884. 


Inquiry 885. 



166 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 




Princeton's Very Good Answers. 

Without question, Princeton's PSC-28 and PSM-03 monitors will bring you the ultimate in 
VGA performance. Princeton was the first to offer truly compatible VGA dedicated monitors. 
Our PSC-28 is a 770 x 570, .28mm dot pitch, high resolution analog color monitor that can 
display an infinite number of colors. The PSC-28 also features a convenient color button for 
green, amber or cyan text. The PSM-03, a high resolution analog monochrome monitor 
gives you outstanding 800 x 630 resolution, and the ability to display infinite shades of 
gray. Plus sharp crisp graphics and character definition from its dynamic focusing circuitry. 

Both monitors are compatible with IBM PC* XT* AT* PS/2, Apple Macintosh SE* 
and compatible personal computers. Each gives you full compatibility with the leading 
VGA adapter cards including the QuadVGA and VEGA VGA. So if VGA meets all your 
needs (and you don't require the additional flexibility of our famous ULTRASYNC and 
MAX- 15 autosynchronous monitors), investigate the cost/performance value of the 

PSC-28 and PSM-03. 

Unsurpassed quality, service and 
performance make it hard to beat 
Princeton monitors. We offer better 
value than our competition. We call it 
the Visible Edge. For answers to all 
your questions about VGA compatible 
monitors, contact us at 601 Ewing 
Street, Building A, Princeton, New 
Jersey 08540 (609) 683-1660, x 810. 

*Requires proper adapter card 

PRI NCETON 

GRAPHIC SYSTEMS 

AN INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS COMPANY 



PSM-03 




PSC-28 



THE VISIBLE EDGE 



Circle 178 on Reader Service Card 



AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 167 



TURN-POINT AMERICA 




a) 80286 Motherboard - 12.5 Mhz wait state, Norton SI 15.3, socketed for 4 Mb DRAM, EMS 
software included. 

b) 80386 Motherboard - Available in 16/20 Mhz and 20/25 Mhz versions, full AT size or XT 
size, socketed for 2 Mb or 8 Mb DRAM. 

c) VGA Card - 100% register compatible with IBM, resolutions up to 1024x768x16 colors, 
hardware zoom, pan, and scan, application driver software included. 

d) Super Multi I/O - Floppy controller for 1.44Mb thru 360k, 2 serial, 1 parallel, 
1 game port. 



Please call our toll free line for distributor pricing. All 
of Turn-Point America's products carry a one year parts 
and labor warranty. Visa, MasterCard, and COD 
accepted. 

Circle 245 on Reader Service Card 

TRADEMARKS and REGISTERED TRADEMARKS: IBM - International Business Machines 



Sales 1-800-247-6413 

Tech Support (702) 746-1818 

Turn-Point America 

eclat corporation 




3495 N. McCarran Blvd. 
Reno, NV 89503 
Telex: 650 308 4898 MCI 
Fax: (702) 746-2306 



REVIEW 
VARIATIONS ON THE 20-MHZ THEME 



the standard DRAM is fast enough to 
keep up with the processor at all times. 
The front panel features a hardware reset 
switch for desperate moments. The sys- 
tem Setup program is in ROM and can be 
accessed during boot-up. 

In the review system, the Proteus 
motherboard came with 4 megabytes of 
100-ns DRAM for the main memory and 
64K bytes of 45-ns SRAM for the cache 
memory, both in DIP chips installed in 
sockets. Additional system memory re- 
quires an AT-style expansion card. The 
motherboard has eight slots: six 16-bit 
and two 8-bit. The EGA/ VGA and paral- 
lel/serial cards take both 8-bit slots, and 
the floppy/hard disk drive controller 
card takes a 16-bit slot. This leaves five 
16-bit slots free. As configured, the re- 
view system lists for $8522. 

The computer has space for five half- 
height disk drives. The review unit in- 
cluded a standard 1 .2-megabyte 5 W-inch 
floppy disk drive and an optional 720K- 
byte 3'/2-inch floppy disk drive. The 
hard disk drive was a full-height Maxtor 
XT-4380E 320-megabyte ESDI (en- 
hanced small device interface) drive. 
The Coretest rated this drive as having a 
data transfer rate of 212.5K bytes per 
second, an average seek rate of 13 ms, 
and a track-to-track rate of 3.7 ms. 

Although the Proteus 386A uses a 
hardware cache memory system, its per- 
formance on memory-intensive bench- 
marks is not appreciably different from 
the Tatung system, which does not have a 
cache. Disk-intensive tests, however, 
show excellent performance due to the 
high-performance ESDI hard disk drive. 
This disk comes with SpeedStor disk 
management and caching software, 
which allows the entire disk to be split up 
into only three DOS partitions, two of 
which are larger than 32 megabytes. 

With the SpeedStor software cache in- 
stalled in extended memory, the disk 
benchmark times dropped dramatically, 
some running as much as 25 times faster; 
but even without the cache, the disk's 13- 
ms average access time greatly boosted 
system performance. For someone in- 
vesting in a 20-MHz 80386 system, a 
high-speed hard disk drive is an essen- 
tial, and the disk drives that Proteus sup- 
plies are more than worth the money. 

The Proteus 386A uses an Everex 
EVGA card that can generate either TTL 
(EGA-style) or analog (VGA-style) out- 
put signals and is an extremely flexible 
display device. In addition to the stan- 
dard device drivers, the EVGA software 
utilities include a wide selection of in- 
stallable font files that replace the EGA's 
standard fonts with either more attrac- 



tive, more decorative, or more compact 
fonts, including one suitable for 132-col- 
umn text displays. The card comes with 
device drivers to support a variety of 
high-resolution display modes for Auto- 
CAD and Microsoft Windows. Proteus 
supplied a very nice NEC MultiSync II 
monitor with the review unit. 

The Proteus User's Guide comes in a 
small three-ring binder and is well orga- 
nized and easy to read. It includes a 
"New Users" section for beginners and a 
"For Advanced Users" section for more 
experienced owners. 

The Proteus keyboard is another 
"clone keyboard." Its layout resembles 
the IBM Enhanced keyboard, except that 
the Backspace and backslash/vertical 
bar keys assume their older AT positions. 
The keyboard offers no tactile feedback 
at all, and the keys offer so little resis- 
tance to pressure that it's a wonder they 
spring back again. A better keyboard de- 
sign would help this system a lot. 

If it's used with a replacement key- 
board or as a file server on which the 
keyboard gets little use, the Proteus 
386A is a reasonable performer with a 
solid backing of warranty support and 
repair service. It is worthy of serious 
consideration in disk-intensive opera- 
tions, provided you can tolerate the 
minor annoyances in the system. 

Everex Step 386/20 

In several respects, the Everex Step 
386/20 is the outstanding member of this 
group of machines. Its appearance sets it 
apart right from the start, with a flashy 
front-panel LED text display, speed and 
control switches, and a collection of indi- 
cator LEDs all protected by a sliding 
transparent cover. The text display 
tracks the progress of the system's 
power-on self-test and boot procedure, 
and from then on it continuously displays 
the disk drive, cylinder, and head most 
recently accessed by the disk drive con- 
troller system. 

The front panel provides three control 
switches for selecting the system's oper- 
ating speed at power-up, turning the sys- 
tem speaker on or off, or causing a hard- 
ware reset to occur. The system can 
operate at either 20, 10, or 7 MHz, and 
the Ctrl- Alt-Plus and -Minus key combi- 
nations allow you to speed up or slow 
down the processor. The system includes 
an optional 20-MHz 80387 math copro- 
cessor whose speed matches the CPU 
and which is synchronized with it at all 
times. 

The review system has a list price of 
$6362; it came equipped with 2 mega- 

continued 



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INTERFACE 
TECHNOLOGIES 



3336 Richmond, Suite 323 

Houston, TX 77098-9990 (713) 523 8422 

Dealer inquiries welcome 



International 
Austria: 0222/4545010 
Belgium: 071/366133 
.France: 20822662 
Italy: 02/405174 
Scandinavia: +45/3/512014 
Switzerland: 01/9455432 



United Kingdom: 01/6567333 
Germany: 02983/8337; 

0731/26932; 

0821/85737; 

04106/3998; 

0531/347121 



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Im Spaten 23 

CH-8906 Bonstetten/ZH 

Switzerland 

Tel. (41)(1)70030 37 



AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 169 



The Official Endorsed Books On 




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REVIEW 
VARIATIONS ON THE 20-MHZ THEME 



bytes of 120-ns DRAM on SIMMs and 
64K bytes of 25-ns SRAM in socketed 
DIP chips for the cache memory. You 
can add additional memory via a propri- 
etary 32-bit expansion slot; up to 16 
megabytes of memory can be added at 
exactly the same performance level as 
the original system-board RAM. The 
motherboard has eight slots— six 16-bit 
and two 8-bit. The floppy/hard disk 
drive controller uses a 16-bit slot, and the 
Everex EGA and parallel/serial cards 
both use 8-bit slots. One 8-bit slot shares 
space with the 32-bit memory-expansion 
connector. 

The system uses a very fast SRAM 
cache, and the resulting performance 
shows a noticeable improvement over the 
other two systems (which were quite 
close to each other in system speed). The 
benchmark results show clearly superior 
performance across the board. The 
Everex memory system definitely makes 
a difference. 

The Step 386/20 has room for five 
half-height devices. Data storage in the 
review system consisted of a standard 
1 .2-megabyte 5 U-inch floppy disk drive 
and a Toshiba MK-56FB 72-megabyte 
hard disk drive with an RLL (run-length- 
limited) controller. The Coretest indi- 
cated that the Toshiba drive had a data 
transfer rate of 490K bytes per second, 
an average seek time of 27.5 ms, and a 
track-to-track time of 5.6 ms. 

Video display was handled by an 
Everex EV-659 EGA/parallel card. I 
used an NEC MultiSync II monitor with 
the review system. 

The system came with a number of 
utilities, but without an operating sys- 
tem; I used the MS-DOS 3.3 shipped 
with the Proteus system. The company 
says that it is now snipping DOS 3.3 with 
the system. The utility software includes 
test and diagnostic programs and a RAM 
disk and disk-cache utility. The system 
Setup program is in ROM and is accessed 
during boot-up. 

The keyboard itself appears to be iden- 
tical to the one used by Proteus, with the 
same soft feel and poor tactile feedback. 

The Everex Step 386/20 comes with a 
1-year on-site warranty for parts and 
labor. Service is handled by National 
Computer Service and covers the U.S. 
and Canada. 

The manual for the system was avail- 
able only in a prerelease photocopy form, 
but it was a well-organized document. A 
printed version is now available. The 
manual contains little extraneous mate- 
rial and gets to the point clearly and 
quickly. Additional documentation sup- 
plied for the monitor (from NEC) and the 



I/O adapter card was also up to the same 
standard. 

On the Bench 

I tested all three computers with a variety 
of software: Microsoft Windows 1.03, 
SideKick 1.56, Turbo C 1.0, Quick C 
1 .0, and BRIEF 2.0. For hardware tests, 
I used my Everex Evercom 1200-bit-per- 
second modem and the Microsoft Bus 
Mouse. Everything worked fine with 
each computer. 

The Small-C and Application bench- 
marks tell the whole story. The Everex 
Step 386/20 took the honors in the CPU 
test. This speed difference can be attrib- 
uted to the SRAM cache combined with 
the fast 100-ns main memory. The Pro- 
teus 386A put in a good second-place 
performance, with the Tatung TCS-8000 
showing a respectable third. 

The FPU tests went hands down to the 
Everex Step 386/20— not surprisingly, 
since it was equipped with a 20-MHz 
80387 while the other machines were 
running 10-MHz 80287 coprocessors. 
The File I/O test went to the Proteus 
386A. It was running a 320-megabyte 
Maxtor with a very fast (13-ms) access 
time. The Video test gives the relative 
speed of the video cards; in this case, the 
Everex Step 386/20 (running— what 
else— an Everex card) was the leader. 

The Application tests ranked the three 
in this order: Everex Step 386/20, Pro- 
teus 386A, and Tatung TCS-8000. The 
Everex Step 386/20 pulled ahead with 
the combination of its SRAM cache, fast 
math coprocessor, and efficient hard 
disk drive. The Proteus 386A placed a 
close second, with the Tatung TCS-8000 
trailing the pack. 

Everex Step 386/20 Pulls Ahead 

If you're comparing machines by price, 
the Proteus 386A and Tatung TCS-8000 
offer good value. The Proteus 386A has 
the advantage of a superior warranty, 
and you can order the computer with the 
options you want. But if you're betting on 
a performance and value horse race, the 
Everex Step 386/20 wins by several 
lengths. It features good performance 
and a convenient front panel, and it is 
manufactured and supported in the U.S. 
As these early entries into this high- 
speed market show, a careful selection of 
well-coordinated components can pro- 
duce a true high-speed powerhouse 
system. ■ 

Ed McNierney is a principal engineer at 
Lotus Development Corp. and lives in 
Groton, Massachusetts. He can be 
reached on BIX as "meed. " 



Circle 4 on Reader Service Card 



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Modula-2 

Applications Generator 

Amadeus $ 395 

Generate Modula-2 programs directly from your own input, 
and save yourself hours of coding! 

Graphics 

M2Graph* $ 65 

Controls Hercules cards in Modula-2. 

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Controls EGA cards in Modula-2. 

Modula Graphics Toolbox I* $ 112 

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Modula Graphics Toolbox II* $ 188 

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INTERFACE 
TECHNOLOGIES 



3336 Richmond, Suite 323 

Houston, TX 77098-9990 (713) 523 8422 

Dealer inquiries welcome 



International 
Austria: 0222/4545010 
Belgium: 071/366133 
France: 20822662 
Italy: 02/405174 
Scandinavia: +45/3/512014 
Switzerland: 01/9455432 



United Kingdom: 01/6567333 
Germany: 02983/8337; 

0731/26932; 

0821/85737; 

04106/3998; 

0531/347121 



A. + L. Meier-Vogt 

Im Spaten 23 

CH-8906 Bonstetten/ZH 

Switzerland 

Tel. (41|(1)700 30 37 



« — Circle 165 on Reader Service Card 



AUGUST 1988 • B Y T E 171 



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Hardware Review 




Four 
Surrogate Mice 




Trackballs 
and trackwheels 
are becoming common 
for manipulating text 
and data 



Jeff Holtzman 



Clockwise from top left: the MicroSpeed PC Trac, 
MicroSpeed FastTRAP, Fulcrum Trackball Plus, and 
Lightgate Felix. 



ntrigued by graphic interfaces but 
hate mice? Then you might try one of 
the following four pointing devices 
to get the functionality of a mouse 
without the hassle. PC-Trac, FastTRAP, 
and Trackball Plus utilize optomechani- 
cal trackball technology; the fourth, Fe- 
lix, employs a new optical data-tablet 
technology. I tested serial versions of 
these four devices on IBM and compat- 
ible equipment; PC-Trac and FastTRAP 
also come in bus versions, and a Macin- 
tosh version of Felix is available. 

Generally speaking, mice have some 
advantages over trackballs, including 
smaller size and, often, better bundled 
software. Trackballs, however, are usu- 
ally easier to control, so you may like 
them better than mice for more detailed 
operations. If you're used to a mouse, it 
may take a while for you to get used to a 
trackball. But after overcoming your ini- 



tial resistance, chances are you'll enjoy 
using it. 

MicroSpeed, the company that got its 
start in the DOS world with a clock- 
speed-enhancement accelerator, de- 
signed and manufactures both PC-Trac 
and FastTRAP (which stands for fast tri- 
axis pointer). These two devices are sim- 
ilar internally and externally— and they 
even use the same CMOS microcon- 
troller. PC-Trac combines an opto- 
mechanical trackball with three buttons; 
to that configuration, FastTRAP adds an 
additional vertically oriented wheel, 
called a trackwheel, that also drives an 
optomechanical system. PC-Trac and 
FastTRAP sell for $119 to $169, de- 
pending on the version you choose. 

The Fulcrum Trackball Plus, put out 
by Fulcrum Computer Products, is the 
Volkswagen of trackballs for personal 
computers. It combines low price ($95) 
with many mouse and digitizing pad em- 
ulations, and less-than-perfect support 
for text modes. Budget-conscious buyers 
and those who require multiple emula- 
tions will find this a satisfactory, if unin- 
spiring, product. 

Cats hate mice, and Lightgate 's elec- 
tronic Felix is supposed to be a mouse 
killer. The documentation is full of near- 
religious fervor about Felix's merits. 
Hype aside, it turns out that Felix works 
acceptably for navigating text and graph- 
ics screens. Its software is a little rough, 
however: Depending on the application 
you're running, you must load various 
RAM-hungry drivers via a large batch 
file. And the documentation does little to 
help you figure out how to streamline the 
process of loading the drivers. But you 
will like the fact that Felix comes with a 
special Lotus 1-2-3 driver that makes it 
practical to use a pointing device with 
that program. 

PC-Trac and FastTRAP 

The serial version of PC-Trac is available 
for $119, the bus version for $139. Fast- 

continued 

AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 173 



REVIEW 
FOUR SURROGATE MICE 



Name 


PC-Trac 


FastTRAP 


Trackball Plus 


Felix 


Type 


Trackball 


Tri-axis pointer 


Trackball 


Pointing device 


Company 


MicroSpeed, Inc. 


MicroSpeed, Inc. 


Fulcrum Computer 


Lightgate 




5307 Randall Place 


5307 Randall Place 


Products 


6202 Christie Ave. 




Fremont, CA 94538 


Fremont, CA 94538 


459 Allan Court 


Emeryville, CA 94608 




(415)490-1403 


(415)490-1403 


Healdsburg, CA 95448 
(707) 433-0202 


(415)596-2350 


Features 


Microsoft Mouse 


Microsoft Mouse 


10 mouse and digi- 


Two emulations, 




emulation in hard- 


emulation in hard- 


tizing tablet emu- 


one button, 1-to-1 




ware, three buttons, 


ware, 2- and 3-axis 


lations, six buttons, 


pointer-to-screen 




ballistic-gain-con- 


operation, three 


power pack, 100-dpi 


mapping, 1-2-3 and 




trol software, 200- 


buttons, ballistic- 


resolution; 8K bytes 


AutoCAD support, 




dot-per-inch 


gain-control soft- 


of memory used 


power pack, 320- 




resolution; 


ware, 200-dpi reso- 




dpi resolution; 




1 0K bytes of 


lution; 1 0K bytes of 




40K bytes of 




memory used 


memory used 




memory used 


Size 


71/2 X 4V4 X 2V2 


7V2 X 41/4 X 21/2 


4V2 X 53/4 X 1 3/4 


6x6x1 




inches; 


inches; 


inches; 


inches; 




12 ounces; 


12 ounces; 


4V2 ounces; 


12 ounces; 




6-foot cord 


6-foot cord 


4-foot cord 


7-foot cord 


Hardware Needed 


IBM PC, XT, AT, 


IBM PC, XT, AT, 


IBM PC, XT, AT, 


IBM PC, XT, AT, 




PS/2, or compatible 


PS/2, or compatible 


PS/2, or compatible 


PS/2, or compatible 




with one floppy 


with one floppy 


with one floppy 


with one floppy 




disk drive 


disk drive 


disk drive and 
a serial port 


disk drive 


Software Needed 


MS-DOS 2.0 or 


MS-DOS 2.0 or 


MS-DOS 2.0 or 


MS-DOS 3.1 or 




higher 


higher 


higher 


higher 


Documentation 


PC-Trac User's 


FastTRAP User's 


3-page installation 


1 5-page installation 




Guide; KeyMap 


Guide; KeyMap 


instructions; 30- 


guide; 1 7-page 




User's Guide; 


User's Guide; 


page technical 


Lotus 1-2-3 




"50 Things to Do 


"50 Things to Do 


manual 


guide 




with a Used Mouse" 


with a Used Mouse" 






Price 


Serial version: $119 


Serial version: $149 


$95 


IBM version: $199 




Bus version: $139 


Bus version: $169 




Macintosh version: $149 




inquiry 889. 


Inquiry 890. 


Inquiry 891. 


Inquiry 892. 


Note: The Macintosh version of Felix does not include Hot Spots. 


Versions for the Mac II and SE were due in July. 





TRAP costs $149 for the serial version; 
the bus version is $169. Both devices use 
the same case, which is about 2 x h inches 
high at the highest point. The feel of the 
trackball in both PC-Trac and FastTRAP 
is smooth and solid. I wish, though, that 
the FastTRAP trackwheel had more re- 
sistance and its switches required less 
pressure; these alterations would give it a 
more consistent overall tactile sense. 

Because of their overall similarity, I'll 
discuss the two devices as one, distin- 
guishing between them only when 
necessary. 

When you rotate the trackball, in 
either the text or graphics mode, the po- 
sition of a special on-screen cursor varies 
accordingly. When the cursor moves to a 
menu title bar or icon, you press a button 
to make the functions represented by that 



menu or icon available for use. Further 
trackball movement lets you traverse the 
list of menu items; pushing a button then 
executes the currently selected function. 
Text-mode programs seldom include 
drivers for pointing devices, so many 
pointer vendors include programs that 
enable their devices to at least emulate 
cursor-key motion. MicroSpeed, for ex- 
ample, includes a utility called KEY- 
MAP. COM that allows trackball motion to 
send the cursor up, down, left, and right. 
This utility also lets you program each of 
the device's three push buttons to deliver 
a single keystroke. Each button can also 
be used alone or in combination with the 
Shift, Alt, or Control keys, giving you a 
total of 12 programmable button combi- 
nations to provide functions such as tra- 
versing the menu system of your spread- 



sheet. However, there aren't enough 
button combinations to map every func- 
tion of your word processor or spread- 
sheet. KEYMAP.COM would be much more 
useful if you could program multiple 
keystrokes for each button-key 
combination. 

An editor also lets you define as many 
as 32 named sets of programmed key 
substitutions, which are maintained in 
KEYMAP.COM. To define more than 32 
templates, you can create and save pro- 
grams under different names, such as 
KEYMAP1.C0M, KEYMAP2.COM, and SO 
forth. MicroSpeed supplies key sets for 
WordStar, Lotus 1-2-3, Turbo Pascal, 
and several others. 

You can operate both PC-Trac and 
FastTRAP either in a Microsoft Mouse- 

continued 



174 BYTE • AUGUST 1988 



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REVIEW 
FOUR SURROGATE MICE 



emulation mode or in native mode. With 
native mode, you can utilize Fast- 
TRAP's tri-axis capabilities. Microsoft 
mode is the default, but you can alter a 
DIP-switch setting to force booting in na- 
tive mode. In Microsoft mode, you can 
program the middle button to emulate si- 
multaneous depression of the two outer 
buttons. 

Both devices provide an emulated drag 
mode. Without this feature, you might 
find it hard to drag a trackball, pressing 
the button with one finger while you rotate 
the ball with others. For example, to 
choose a block of numbers for formatting 
in Excel, you position the cursor at one 
corner of the desired range, initiate drag 
mode by pressing the middle button, move 
the trackball to select the desired spread- 
sheet cells, and terminate drag mode by 
pressing the middle button again. 

The trackball is handy for navigating 
even a standard text-mode spreadsheet, 
such as VP-Planner. You can move by 
row or column much faster with the 
trackball than even by holding a cursor 
key down. And with FastTRAP, you can 
use the track wheel to page up, down, 
left, or right, very quickly. 

If you use WordStar 4.0, the trackball 
cursor movement is somewhat jerky . You 
will have better luck with other editors, 
such as the one in Turbo Pascal that 
allows the cursor to roam freely about 
the screen. 

You can use FastTRAP's trackwheel 
in several ways. You can traverse menus 
without moving the cursor from the cur- 
rent position, traverse the third (z) axis in 
a CAD program, or, in conjunction with 
a utility supplied by MicroSpeed, page 
up and down in a spreadsheet or word 
processor. 

Even if you're not doing three-dimen- 
sional CAD work, the trackwheel can 
come in handy. In AutoCAD, for exam- 
ple, to get at the command menus, nor- 
mally you must move the drawing cursor 
(cross hairs) from wherever you are to 
the far right edge of the screen, make 
your selections, and then move the cross 
hairs again to wherever you need the cur- 
sor. With FastTRAP, simply rotating the 
trackwheel activates the menu; you can 
traverse it by using more rotation, select- 
ing items as usual with the left button. 
When you move the trackball again, you 
pick up where you left off with the cross 
hairs. You must load a separate driver, 
however, to use AutoCAD and Windows 
in this mode. 

Software Drivers 

You can install either device easily since 
they both emulate the Microsoft Mouse 



Test Setup 

I tested each device in this review 
on two machines: an AST Pre- 
mium/286 (10 MHz, zero wait 
states) with 1.5 megabytes of Ex- 
panded Memory Specification 
(EMS) 3.2 memory, a 40-megabyte 
hard disk drive (ST-251), an Orchid 
Designer VGA card, and an NEC 
MultiSync monitor; and an IBM PC 
XT with 1.5 megabytes of EMS 4.0 
memory, a 20-megabyte hard disk 
drive (ST-225), a Hercules mono- 
chrome graphics card, and a Micro- 
soft Mach 20 accelerator board. 

On the AST, I used the following 
software to test each device: Auto- 
CAD 9.0 (VGA mode), Windows 
2.0 (in Orchid's proprietary 800- by 
600-pixel, 16-color mode), and 
AutoSketch (EGA mode); under 
Windows, I tested several of the 
desktop accessories, as well as Page- 
Maker 1 .0a and Excel. On the IBM, 
I tested each device with VP-Plan- 
ner, AutoSketch, and WordStar 4.0, 
all running under DESQview 2.01. 
I also tested compatibility with 
DESQview itself. 



in hardware. If you have a Microsoft or 
compatible mouse, you just unplug the 
mouse and plug in FastTRAP or PC- 
Trac; the existing mouse driver will 
allow you to use it just as you would your 
mouse. 

For best performance, you should take 
advantage of MicroSpeed' s software 
drivers. You can load the drivers via CON- 
FIG.SYS using MAP. SYS, or via AUTO- 
EXEC.BAT using MAP.C0M. With either 
driver, you can specify which serial port 
the device is connected to, among other 
parameters. 

Driver versions 2.0 and higher allow 
ballistic gain control, a feature that pro- 
vides dynamic speed and distance man- 
agement. For example, when you rotate 
the trackball slowly, the pointer tra- 
verses only half the screen. But if you ro- 
tate the ball quickly over the same dis- 
tance, the pointer traverses the whole 
screen. 

FastTRAP's documentation consists 
of a well-written, well-organized 40- 
page manual that contains both an index 
and a table of contents. Beginners will 
find the information presented clearly 
and logically; advanced users will not 
find it insulting. Approximately half the 
book contains technical information on 



how FastTRAP works, software proto- 
cols and functions, and even a wiring di- 
agram for 9-pin and 25-pin serial ports. 
(Microsoft charges $25 for this type of 
optional technical information.) A sepa- 
rate manual discusses how to use 
KEYMAP.C0M. 

Documentation for PC-Trac was not 
complete when I wrote this review. The 
review device came with the FastTRAP 
manual and semifinal PC-Trac-specific 
documentation. MultiSpeed says the fin- 
ished version will be shipping by the time 
you read this review, and it will not in- 
clude the FastTRAP manual. 

A booklet of cartoons called "50 
Things to Do with a Used Mouse" is sent 
free to PC-Trac and FastTRAP owners 
when they send in their warranty regis- 
tration card. 

Trackball Plus 

Although Trackball Plus is about the 
same height as the MicroSpeed devices, 
it has only about half the footprint. The 
device has a grand total of six push but- 
tons, only some of which are available in 
any given emulation mode. You change 
modes by pressing various combinations 
of buttons, or by using STB.C0M from the 
DOS command line. 

Emulations include: mice from Micro- 
soft and Mouse Systems; graphics tablets 
from Houston Instruments, Renograph- 
ies, Tektronix, Hitachi, and Summa- 
graphics (ASCII and binary); and the 
USI Optomouse. Separate software 
drivers provide the proper program in- 
terface for the Microsoft and Mouse Sys- 
tems emulations; for the others, the tar- 
get application must have a built-in 
driver. 

The Trackball Plus plugs into an RS- 
232 serial port; versions are available 
with both 9-pin and 25-pin connectors. A 
separate cable runs from the serial port 
connector to a wall-mount transformer 
that supplies the unit with power. After 
plugging in the hardware, you set the de- 
sired mode and then (if necessary) in- 
stall the Microsoft or Mouse Systems 
driver. Both .COM and .SYS drivers are 
supplied for these two emulations. Ful- 
crum's drivers are unlike most mouse 
drivers that load at the DOS command 
line: You cannot remove them from 
memory without rebooting. When you 
try to install a different driver, you re- 
ceive a Driver already installed 
message. 

The trackball itself functions fairly 
well in graphics applications. It has a 
good feel, and on-screen motions are 
smooth. However, there is no way you 

continued 



176 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 



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Circle 169 on Reader Service Card 



AUGUST 1988 'BYTE 177 



REVIEW 
FOUR SURROGATE MICE 



Inside the Trackballs 



Both PC-Trac and FastTRAP use 
24-pin CMOS microcontrollers 
from National Semiconductor's COPS 
(Controller Oriented Processor System) 
family. They contain the program, 
data, and temporary storage, as well as 
system timing and I/O control. Inputs to 
PC-Trac include three push buttons and 
two slotted optical encoders; FastTRAP 
is similar but has a third encoder plus a 
trackwheel and a shaft-mounted encod- 
er wheel. The devices have identical 
cases, but a panel covers the unused 
trackwheel slot in PC-Trac. 

Four transistors on a printed circuit 
board interface the input devices to the 
microcontroller; except for the push 
buttons, all the electronics are mounted 
on one other small printed circuit 
board. The two boards are interconnect- 
ed by a four-conductor flex circuit. All 
subassemblies— the PC boards, encoder 
shafts, switch caps, and cable— are 
press-fit into the base of the case. 
Everything is nicely arranged, and the 
overall impression is one of quality de- 
sign and manufacture. 

Because of the devices' low power re- 



quirements (a few milliamperes), they 
do not need a separate power trans- 
former; as with most mice, they draw 
the power they require directly from the 
control lines of the port to which they 
are connected. 

The COPS microcontroller is not in- 
terrupt-driven; rather, it continuously 
scans the six input ports. When it de- 
tects a switch opening or closure, or a 
trackball or trackwheel motion, it for- 
mats a message that it sends to the host 
computer via the serial port. In mouse 
mode, it sends a standard 3-byte mes- 
sage that contains button status and an 
8-bit relative x,y displacement. In native 
mode, it adds a fourth byte that allows 
the transmission of third-button status 
and z-axis information from the 
trackwheel. 

At the programming level, interface 
with the mouse driver is accomplished 
via the standard interrupt 33 hexadeci- 
mal. MicroSpeed's driver recognizes 
the standard Microsoft function calls (0 
to 19), and it adds 11 extended func- 
tions of its own (64 to 74). 

A look at the inside of Trackball Plus 



showed that it was built with less ele- 
gance and economy than the Micro- 
Speed devices. The PC board is hand- 
soldered, and traces of flux were 
evident all over the board. An Intel 
8051 running at slightly over 7 MHz 
provides the unit's intelligence. A sepa- 
rate 2764 (8K-byte) EPROM contains 
the control program and data. Like the 
MicroSpeed devices, the 8051 works on 
a polled (not an interrupt-driven) basis. 

Lightgate was notably tight-lipped 
about Felix's internal operation. How- 
ever, by both inspecting the device and 
talking with technical-support person- 
nel, I was able to gather some informa- 
tion. Two orthogonal plastic slides with 
precision-etched slots serve to interrupt 
the beams between a pair of orthogonal 
optical encoders. A proprietary micro- 
processor then processes that informa- 
tion, formats it, and sends it to the host 
computer. The microprocessor senses 
changes in the pointer's velocity and 
alters the outgoing message rate, there- 
by varying on-screen response. 

Layout, materials, and construction 
in Felix are all first-rate. 



can adjust sensitivity, nor can you use 
ballistic gain control. 

In the Microsoft mode, I found the 
sensitivity satisfactory under Windows 
and AutoCAD, but unsatisfactory under 
AutoSketch. In addition, in the Summa- 
graphics Bit Pad One mode under the 
version of AutoCAD (9.0) used for test- 
ing, I got no results from operating the 
alternate cursor button, which should 
allow you to move the cursor between 
two locations. According to the manufac- 
turer, this version of AutoCAD precludes 
the efficient use of the alternate cursor 
button. Like the MicroSpeed devices, the 
Fulcrum Trackball Plus supports a drag- 
emulation mode. 

A separate program, SETCUR.COM, is 
supposed to allow the trackball to emu- 
late cursor keys in text applications, but I 
found this emulation erratic when used 
under WordStar. It did work with Xy- 
Write, however. The installation docu- 
ment states, "Use of this function with 
word-processing programs, where pre- 
cise horizontal control is needed, may be 
unsatisfactory." It is. On the other hand, 
when I used just the supplied Microsoft- 
emulation driver, I had no trouble navi- 
gating DESQview's menus with Track- 
ball Plus. 



Economically, the buttons aren't up 
to today's standards. They are awkward- 
ly located and definitely biased toward 
right-handed users. In fact, I can't see 
how a left-handed person would be able 
to use them at all. You also have to use 
too much pressure to activate them. 

A 30-page technical manual and a 3- 
page installation guide are included. 
Neither is written or produced in the 
style of most of today's manuals, and 
nontechnical users may have trouble 
finding the necessary installation infor- 
mation. However, the company says the 
documentation and the packaging are be- 
ing redone, and by the time you read this, 
the updated documentation and packag- 
ing should be available. 

Felix 

Protruding through the Felix low-profile 
hardware case is a single button mounted 
on a moving shaft. This button normally 
functions as the left mouse button; the 
right button is simulated by moving the 
shaft to the upper-left or upper-right 
corner and double-clicking. Right-hand- 
ed and left-handed users will find it easy 
to use Felix since both corners are pro- 
vided. When you double-click in the 
lower-right corner, Felix enters a "preci- 



sion" mode in which cursor movement is 
restricted to just a portion of the screen. 
However, you have to press the button 
farther down compared to similar de- 
vices, and there is no tactile feedback to 
inform you when contact has been made. 
Thus, I found double-clicking under 
Windows to be slightly tiring. 

Felix's software lets you change the 
button assignments and even move the 
buttons to the keyboard (i.e. , using Felix 
just for positioning, and using keyboard 
keys to perform button functions). The 
software is supplied in both 5 '/4 -inch 
(360K-byte) and 3 '/2-inch (720K-byte) 
formats. 

Felix's chief claim to fame is a 1-to-l 
mapping with the screen (in nonprecision 
mode). When you move the pointer shaft 
to the upper-left corner of the 1.1- by 
1 . 1-inch active portion of the device, the 
cursor will be in the upper-left corner of 
the screen. When you move the pointer to 
the lower-right corner, the cursor follows 
suit. In precision mode, a smaller por- 
tion of the screen is mapped to Felix, 
thereby allowing more accurate position- 
ing in that portion of the screen. 

Felix's secondary claim to fame is a 
feature called "Hot Spots." Hot Spots 

continued 



178 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 



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BABY/36 is a trademark of California Software Products, Inc. 



Circle 203 on Reader Service Card (DEALERS: 204) 



AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 179 



REVIEW 
FOUR SURROGATE MICE 



are locations at the perimeter of the 
pointing area that provide keyboard 
macro functions. By moving the pointer 
to a Hot Spot and clicking, you can insert 
a number of keystrokes into the currently 
running application. 

There are 12 Hot Spots. You can acti- 
vate each alone or in combination with 
the Control, Alt, or left or right Shift 
key, for a total of 60 Hot Spots. Felix 
comes with a number of predefined sets 
of Hot Spot macros, an editor for creat- 
ing your own, and a print utility for dis- 
playing and printing them. The Lotus 
and AutoCAD Hot Spot macros are ex- 
tremely useful for getting at often-used 
functions quickly. 

You can utilize Lotus macros remark- 
ably well, so it is practical, and even de- 
sirable, to use Felix with the spread- 
sheet. For example, moving the pointer 
into the upper-right corner sends a slash 
(/) keystroke, activating 1-2-3's familiar 
horizontal menu. 

Other Hot Spots let you move to the be- 
ginning or end of the spreadsheet, scroll 
by row or column, or make large jumps 
to distant areas of the spreadsheet. Hot 
Spots that you activate in conjunction 
with the Alt key let you execute common 
Lotus functions (e.g., learn and recall 
modes, and paging up, down, left, and 
right). You can add 36 custom macros to 
the other Hot Spot layers. 

According to the manufacturer, cursor 
positioning is erratic under DESQview 
and programs running under it, so I ran 
my test software directly from DOS. 
Lightgate is presently working on drivers 
for Microsoft Windows/386. 

Except for the less-than-desirable tac- 
tile feedback for the push button, Felix's 
overall feel is quite nice. The pointer 
slides easily, and I had no trouble posi- 
tioning it accurately on the 800- by 600- 
pixel enhanced VGA screen. Lightgate is 
correct when it says that the 1-to-l 
pointer/cursor mapping can aid 
productivity. 

Running an Application 

To run an application with Felix, you 
move to the application's subdirectory 
and load Felix drivers, followed by the 
application itself. For example, to load 
AutoCAD, you would move to its sub- 
directory and type C> FELIX ACAD. This 
Felix command actually invokes a fairly 
lengthy batch file— more than 100 lines 
in the version tested— that does condi- 
tional testing to determine which appli- 
cation you're loading, and then loads the 
appropriate drivers. 

M0USE.EXE is used for most applica- 
tions, but FLXACAD.EXE loads drivers for 



AutoCAD and AutoSketch, and FLX- 
123- EXE loads the Lotus (or 1-2-3) 
driver. Another program loads the Hot 
Spot macro file for the selected applica- 
tion. Then the application itself is run. 

Processing a long batch file is ineffi- 
cient; a shorter batch file for each appli- 
cation would be an improvement. To 
speed things up, you can move the appro- 
priate lines for your application to a sepa- 
rate batch file. To avoid unnecessary 
waiting, Lightgate should have either 
supplied separate batch files to load each 
application or written a single software 
driver that supports all— or at least 
most— applications. The supplied drivers 
generally occupy about 40K bytes of 
memory, about 3 to 5 times as much as 
most mouse and trackball drivers use. 

You install Felix by plugging the cable 
into your 25-pin serial port (or into the 
supplied 9-pin-to-25-pin adapter, which 
is then inserted into the port), plugging a 
small power transformer into an AC out- 
let, and then inserting the coaxial power 
plug into the rear of the 25-pin 
connector. 

An installation program copies files to 
a subdirectory called \ FELIX on the 
user's disk. The program also adds that 
directory to the path statement in your 
AUTOEXEC.BAT file. The old version is 
saved as AUTOEXEC. OLD. 

According to the manufacturer, a new 
version (1 .05) is due out by the time that 
this article is in print. Lightgate says the 
new version will feature support for rela- 
tive mode, for programs such as Dr. 
HALO. 

The quality of the documentation is 
not as good as the quality of the device 
itself. Here's an example of the gibberish 
that permeates the main manual: "Felix 
buttons use an innovative technology 
which is about to change your pointing 
life. Their operation is based on the 
kinesthetic space created by the little 
square which is Felix's travel area. The 
implementation is our ergonomically in- 
formed solution to the challenges and 
hazards of input device use. " 

Even the sections in which the com- 
pany really is trying to present useful in- 
formation are difficult because of the 
verbose, self-conscious writing style. To 
get the device working, I found the 
READ.ME file and the FELIX.BAT file to be 
more useful. All in all, the manual needs 
to be thoroughly reworked to make it eas- 
ier to understand how to set up and use 
Felix. 

A separate manual covers using the 
special 1-2-3 driver software. You will 
find it more informative and less filled 
with rhetoric than the main manual. 



Trackball versus Mouse 

If you need a pointing device, first you 
must choose between a mouse and some 
other device. The main disadvantage of a 
mouse is that you must have some clear 
space on your desk on which to operate it. 
All the devices discussed here overcome 
that problem. A trackball can also be ad- 
vantageous for fine, detailed work, be- 
cause it's easy to control the ball with 
your fingertips. Some mice, however— 
the new Microsoft Mouse in particular- 
are light enough to make fingertip con- 
trol possible. Overall, I prefer a mouse 
because it's smaller and easier to handle. 

If you decide against a mouse, Ful- 
crum's Trackball Plus is easy to set up 
and use, and it is the least expensive de- 
vice of its type. A developer desiring in- 
formation on the software protocols of 
the emulated devices might buy one for 
the documentation alone, because soft- 
ware protocol data regarding the various 
devices is all conveniently collected in 
this one manual. However, Trackball 
Plus suffers from its lack of support for 
text modes, its nonergonomic buttons, 
and its right-handed bias. 

Despite its problems, Felix is an in- 
triguing device. Its positioning system 
and Hot Spot macro system are top- 
notch. You will find the push button less 
than perfect, however, as is the collec- 
tion of software drivers. With more com- 
pact and elegant drivers, rewritten docu- 
mentation, and some form of tactile 
feedback on the button, Felix will be a 
product to contend with. 

Currently, however, the MicroSpeed 
devices are my favorites. Both are well 
designed, engineered, and manufac- 
tured, and neither requires a bulky and 
inconvenient external power transform- 
er. The documentation is excellent, the 
plug-in-and-go Microsoft emulation 
makes it easy to get started, and the bal- 
listic-gain-control drivers provide a long- 
missing capability for MS-DOS 
machines. 

FastTRAP costs $30 more than PC- 
Trac. Viewed simply as a mouse replace- 
ment, it may not be worth the extra ex- 
pense. But if you are working with 
AutoCAD or want a fast way of paging 
through your word processor or spread- 
sheet, it is worthwhile. Other developers 
are working on FastTRAP drivers that 
may also justify the extra expense. ■ 

Jeff Holtzman owns Publishing Con- 
cepts, a firm that specializes in evalua- 
tion, verification, and documentation of 
high-technology products. He lives in 
Ann Arbor, Michigan, and can be 
reached on BIX as "editors. " 



180 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 




Unretouched Screen Images 



Buy The One On The Left And You'll Have 
To Put It Where The Sun Don't Shine. 




The monitor on the right, 
however, can be placed anywhere 
you like. Even in direct sunlight. It's 
the new Flat Technology Monitor from 
Zenith Data Systems-winner of PC 

Magazine's coveted "Technical Excellence Award" in the 

hardware category for 1987. 

You Have To See Zenith To Believe It 

So clear. So precise. So lifelike. It's the only monitor 
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The Flat Technology Monitor is virtually glare-free. 
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Backward And Forward Compatibility 

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THE QUALITY GOES IN BEFORE THE NAME GOES ON' 



© 1988, Zenith Data Systems 
Circle 255 on Reader Service Card 



Personal System/2 and PS/2 are registered trademarks of IBM Corp. 

AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 181 



PICK BIX 
BRAINS 






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184 BYTE* AUGUST 1988 



Circle 219 on Reader Service Card 



Software Review 



o 



Unix 
forthe Mac 




With A/UX, 

the Mac II becomes a 

low-end workstation 



David Betz and Eva M. White 



Sure, the Macintosh II's hard- 
ware is as powerful as some 
workstations, and it even uses a 
16-MHz 68020 like the Sun and 
Apollo workstations. But before you call 
the Mac II a real workstation, you need 
to add a powerful operating system that 
supports multitasking, virtual memory, 
and networking to a variety of machines: 
one like Unix, for instance. 

That's exactly what Apple's A/UX 1 .0 
is all about. It's a port of AT&T Unix 



System V Release 2 for the Mac II. How- 
ever, A/UX differs from most other 
workstation versions because it is based 
on AT&T System V instead of Berkeley 
4. To maintain compatibility with other 
workstations, A/UX includes important 
Berkeley Standard Distribution (BSD) 
4.2 and 4.3 extensions, such as signals 
and sockets. 

A/UX supports up to two additional 
users (using the Mac II's serial ports) 
and the ability to network across an 
Ethernet using NFS (Network File Sys- 
tem) and TCP/IP (Transmission Control 
Protocol/Internet Protocol). 

What really makes A/UX different 
from most other versions of Unix is that it 
gives you the ability to run Mac applica- 
tions and to access the Mac's user inter- 
face Toolbox ROM routines. With these 
routines, you can write a Unix applica- 
tion with a Mac windowing interface. 
Unfortunately, this initial release does 
not provide a point-and-click windowing 
interface to Unix similar to that of the 



Mac operating system. In A/UX 1 .0, you 
can run only one Mac application at a 
time, and the Toolbox routines don't yet 
support the Finder, desk accessories, or 
the printing manager (see "Unix and the 
Mac Interface" by Rick Daley on page 
89 of the Macintosh Special Edition. ) 

To run A/UX, you need a Mac II with 
a minimum of 2 megabytes of memory 
and a paged memory management unit 
(PMMU). A/UX comes installed on an 
Apple 80SC 80-megabyte hard disk 
drive. You can get it on either an internal 
($4879) or external ($4979) drive. If you 
buy it on an external drive, you'll also 
need an Apple small-computer-system- 
interface cable system to attach it to the 
Mac. Also, if you plan to use A/UX as a 
multiuser system, Apple recommends 
adding 2 megabytes of memory for each 
additional simultaneous user. You will 
also need an EtherTalk card. 

The 80-megabyte hard disk drive 
comes preformatted into five partitions: 
a small Mac Hierarchical File System 
(HFS) start-up partition (2 megabytes), a 
large (56-megabyte) partition that com- 
prises the root (/) and user (/usr) Unix 
file systems, and a 14-megabyte partition 
that Unix uses as swap space. The re- 
maining two 3-megabyte partitions hold 
duplicate copies of the eschatology file 
system, which are used by the auto-re- 
covery utility. 

Using A/UX 

Starting A/UX involves booting the Mac 
operating system from the start-up parti- 
tion and then launching the sash stand- 
alone shell application. You can choose 
to either make sash the start-up applica- 
tion or just double-click on the sash icon. 
Sash opens a window and starts a count- 
down timer that, if allowed to complete 
the 10-second count, will then start the 
Unix boot sequence. Interrupting the 
counter will drop you into the stand- 
alone shell. 
While the main function of sash is to 

continued 

AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 185 



REVIEW 
UNIX FOR THE MAC II 



A/UX1.0 



Type 

Multitasking operating system 

Company 

Apple Computer, Inc. 
20525 Mariani Ave. 
Cupertino, CA 95014 
(408)996-1010 

Format 

Apple 80SC 80-megabyte hard disk 

Language 

C and assembly 

Hardware Needed 

Mac II with a minimum of 2 megabytes 
of memory and a 68851 PMMU 

Documentation 

Getting Started with A/UX 
A/UX System Overview 
A/UX Installation Guide 
A/UX Command Reference (A-L) 
A/UX Command Reference 

(M-Z and Games) 
A/UX Programming Languages 

and Tools, Volumes 1 & 2 
A/UX Programmer's Reference 
A/UX Local System Administration 
A/UX System Administrator's 

Reference 
A/UX Text Editing Tools 
A/UX Text Processing Tools 
A/UX Communications User's Guide 
A/UX User Interface 
A/UX Toolbox: Macintosh ROM 

Interface 

Price 

Monochrome system: $9297 
Color system: $9897 
Internal upgrade: $4879 
External upgrade: $4979 

Inquiry 904. 



load Unix, you can also use it to manipu- 
late the files in the A/UX file systems, or 
the files in either of the two eschatology 
file systems. Sash provides a subset of the 
standard Unix file manipulation tools, 
including mv, cp, and ed, as well as the 
file system checker f sck and the file sys- 
tem debugger f sdb. Other uses for sash 
are to partition hard disks, to build 
A/UX file systems, and to change ker- 
nel-tuning parameters. 

Standard Unix 

A/UX comes with all the standard Unix 
tools for software development, text 



processing, and communications. The 
software development tools include com- 
pilers for C and FORTRAN, an assem- 
bler and linker, a source code control 
system (sees), a program maintenance 
utility (make), a parser generator (yacc), 
and a lexical analyzer generator (lex). 

The text-processing tools include the vi 
text editor and the nrof f and trof f text 
formatting utilities. Apple also includes 
a utility license from Adobe to convert 
the output of trof f to PostScript. 

For communications, A/UX provides 
uucp, the Unix-to-Unix copy program, 
and its associated utilities, which allow 
multiple Unix systems to communicate 
through ordinary dial-up connections as 
well as by hard-wired serial links. The 
uucp software is the basis of the world- 
wide Usenet network. However, the Use- 
net software itself is not included with 
A/UX. 

The system comes with public domain 
software source code for GNU EM ACS, 
Kermit, and Unix compression utilities. 
This software takes up 9 megabytes of 
disk space, and you can delete it if you 
need the space. 

A couple of features unique to A/UX 
are the auto-configuration and auto-re- 
covery utilities. The auto-configuration 
utility simplifies the normal Unix proce- 
dure for installing new devices. Under 
Unix, installing a new device requires 
editing make files, copying the required 
drivers, and rebuilding and installing the 
kernel. To install an A/UX-supported 
device, you need to shut down A/UX, 
power off the Mac, install the hardware, 
bring the system back up using the de- 
vice's installation disk, and run the 
installation program on the disk. This in- 
stalls the driver software and reboots 
A/UX. When A/UX comes back up, the 
auto-configuration utility rebuilds the 
Unix kernel to add the new device driver 
software and then reboots again with the 
newly created kernel. 

The auto-recovery mechanism is in- 
tended to guarantee that you can boot 
Unix into multiuser mode even after 
fairly severe file system damage has oc- 
curred. This mechanism uses the escha- 
tology file systems to maintain backup 
copies of all critical Unix files. If, during 
the boot process, the recovery program 
detects that any of these files are missing 
from the main Unix file systems, it re- 
places them with copies from the recov- 
ery file systems. The auto-recovery pro- 
gram also checks for bad blocks on the 
disk and fixes file protection and owner- 
ship on critical files. 

The sash utility handles the auto- 
recovery features of A/UX. If sash has 



trouble performing the Unix boot se- 
quence, it invokes an auto-recovery pro- 
cedure. The full auto-recovery takes 
about 45 minutes, but you can reduce this 
time significantly by disabling the block 
check portion of the auto-recovery pro- 
cess. Even in the case of an abnormal 
shutdown, like a power failure, the Unix 
fsck utility that runs as part of the start- 
up sequence can usually fix most prob- 
lems without having to resort to the 
lengthy auto-recovery process. 

To test the auto-recovery utility, we 
renamed the kernel (/unix) to /unix- 
.save and attempted to reboot the sys- 
tem. When the reboot failed, we invoked 
the auto-recovery program, which re- 
stored the kernel from one of the recov- 
ery file systems. We found out the hard 
way that any time you rebuild the kernel, 
you should be sure to run the two pro- 
grams /etc/eu and /etc/eupdate to up- 
date the files on the recovery file sys- 
tems. This procedure is only mentioned 
in the ReadMe file on the hard disk. We 
missed this step the first time, and the 
auto-recovery utility was unable to re- 
store the kernel. Also, somehow in the 
process, we managed to delete the back- 
up copy. Fortunately, we were able to 
use the sash copy utility to move the ker- 
nel manually from one of the recovery 
file systems. 

Backup strategies 

The auto-recovery mechanism is not a 
substitute for making regular backups, 
since it can restore only critical system 
files. It makes no attempt to restore user 
data files or programs. Auto-recovery is 
intended only to get the system back up 
and running after serious failures so that 
you can use normal backups to recon- 
struct the complete system. 

Another good reason for making a 
backup is that when A/UX boots for the 
first time, it starts out in what is known 
as single-user mode. In this mode, all the 
Unix file protection is disabled, and it is 
very easy for an inexperienced user to do 
significant damage to crucial files. The 
safest approach would be to make a back- 
up copy of the 50-megabyte Unix file sys- 
tem using one of the several Unix backup 
utilities supplied, such as CPI0. 

Unfortunately, performing a backup 
isn't easy. The only backup medium 
A/UX 1.0 supports is the 800K-byte 
floppy disk drive (version 1 .0 does not 
support the cartridge tape drive). Since 
there are about 45 megabytes of files on 
the system as distributed by Apple, a full 
backup requires approximately 56 800K- 
byte floppy disks. 

continued 



186 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 



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Prices quoted are US Domestic suggested retail prices. Macintosh is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, inc. Circle 244 OH Render Service Card 



memamm 



REVIEW 
UNIX FOR THE MAC II 



Macintosh Toolbox Support 

Apple supplies several tools with A/UX 
to support developing applications that 
use the Mac interface. You use a utility 
called mf s to move files between the Mac 
operating-system environment and 



A/UX. This utility is not capable of han- 
dling HFS floppy disks, so you must for- 
mat 800K-byte floppy disks as Macin- 
tosh File System (MFS) volumes. The 
launch utility runs applications that were 
built in the Mac operating system and 



appname. c- 



C source code 

#include<types.h> 
InitGraf (&qd.thePort) 



/* Include header files */ 
/* Calls to toolbox */ 



cc- 



A/UXC 
compiler 



,— Id- 



i- /usr/include/mac/* ■ 



Header files declare functions and data types 



A/UXC 

link editor 



appname 



/usr/lib/libmac.a 



Library contains entry points for all functions 
and variables 



/usr/lib/low.ld 



Script reserves space for global variables 



/usr/lib/low.o ■ 



File contains symbols for global variables 



/use/lib/maccrtO.o 

Initialization routine communicates with kernel 



Executable 
code file 



Figure 1: The steps involved in creating an Al UX application that uses the Mac 
ROM. 



. — appname. r . 



rez source code 



Resource 
compiler 



appname. res 



/usr/lib/mac/rincludes/* 



Resource library defines resource tools 



Resource file 



Figure 2: The steps involved in creating a resource file. 



moved over with mfs. You can debug 
Mac applications using the standard 
Unix debuggers adb ( 1) and sdb ( 1) . 

The launch utility successfully ran 
MacPaint 2.0 and MacDraw 1.9.5, but 
Mac Write 5.0 bombed, giving a mem- 
ory-fault error. However, the error 
didn't disable the machine in any way. 

A/UX comes with a resource compiler 
(rez) and decompiler (derez) whose 
source files are compatible with their 
counterparts in the Mac Programmers' 
Workshop (MPW). The rez utility trans- 
lates resource description files to binary 
files that resource-manager functions in 
the Toolbox ROM can use. These re- 
sources describe the windows, menus, 
and dialog boxes that are familiar parts 
of all Mac applications. The decompiler 
translates binary resource files back to 
source form. It is useful for making al- 
terations in existing resource files 
without having to reconstruct the entire 
file from scratch if no source is available 
for it. 

There are two approaches to develop- 
ing A/UX applications that use the Tool- 
box. You can develop them under the 
Mac operating system using the tools 
there, transfer them to A/UX using mfs, 
and run them using the launch. Or, you 
can develop, debug, and run them using 
A/UX tools. Figure 1 shows the library 
and header files that make up the Tool- 
box and, graphically, how you construct 
the code portion of an application under 
A/UX. Figure 2 shows how you con- 
struct the resource file. (Under the Mac 
operating system, the code portion and 
resource portion are stored together; 
under A/UX, these two pieces are in sep- 
arate files.) 

To build an A/UX application, you 
must include the appropriate header files 
in your program source and then link 
with the Toolbox files libmac.a, low. Id, 
low.o, and maccrtO.o. The library lib- 
mac.a contains the entry points for the 
Toolbox functions and variables; low. Id 
and low.o arrange access to the Mac low- 
memory globals; and maccrtO.o initial- 
izes the Toolbox interface and the trap 
dispatch tables and then invokes the main 
routine of the application. 

The initialization code also opens a 
special device driver, called /dev/ 
uinterO, that sets up access to the screen 
buffer, handles events in a manner simi- 
lar to the event manager in the Toolbox 
ROM, tracks the cursor, and sets up the 
A-line trap handler. 

Applications access the Mac Toolbox 
ROM by issuing A-line trap instructions. 
A/UX handles these trap instructions by 

continued 



188 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 











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Systat Because other statistics and 

graphics packages are not enough. 

Systat now offers more statistical graphics than any other PC or 
mainframe package. And we still give you less bulk with more statistics. 

Statistics Basic statistics, frequencies, t-tests, post-hoc tests 
Multiway crosstabs with log-linear modeling, association 
coefficients, PRE statistics, Mantel-Haenszel, asymptotic standard 
errors Nonparametric statistics [sign. Runs, Wilcoxon, Kruskal- 
Wallis, Friedman two-way ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U, Kolmogorov- 
Smirnov, Lilliefors, Kendall coefficient of concordance) Pairwise/ 
listwise missing value correlation, SSCP, covariance. Spearman, 
Gamma, Kendall Tau, Euclidean distances, binary similarities Linear, 
polynomial, multiple, stepwise, weighted regression with extended 
diagnostics Multivariate general linear model includes multi-way 
ANOVA, ANOCOVA, MANOVA, repeated measures, canonical 
correlation Principal components, factor analysis, rotations, 
components scores Multidimensional scaling Multiple and 
canonical discriminant analysis, Bayesian classification Cluster 
analysis (hierarchical, single, average, complete, median, centroid 
linkage, k-means, cases, variables Time series (smoothers, 
exponential smoothing, seasonal and nonseasonal ARIMA, ACF, 
PACF, CCF, transformations, Fourier analysis Nonlinear estimation 
(nonlinear regression, maximum likelihood estimation, and more). 



Graphics Overlay plots Drivers for most graphics devices 
Two dimensional: Error Bars Scatterplots Line and Vector Graphs 
Vector, Dot, Bubble and Quantile Plots Bar Graphs (single, multiple, 
stacked, range) Box plots (single and grouped) Stem-and-leaf 
diagrams Linear, quadratic, step, spline, polynomial, LOWESS, 
exponential smoothing Confidence Intervals and ellipsoids (any 
alpha value) Smooth mathematical functions Rectangular or polar 
coordinates Log and power scales ANOVA interaction plots 
Histograms (regular, cumulative, fuzzy) Stripe and jitter plots 
Gaussian histogram smoothing Scatterplot matrices Voronoi 
Tesselations Minimum spanning tree Maps with geographic 
projections (U.S. state boundary file included) Chernoff faces Star 
plots Fourier plots Pie charts Contour plots on regularly and 
irregularly spaced points Control charts and limits Three 
dimensional: Data plots Smooth function plots Vector plots 
Linear, quadratic, spline, least squares surface smoothing Three- 
dimensional type fonts. 

Data Management Import/export Lotus, dBase, and DIF 
files Full screen data editor Full screen text editor Unlimited 
cases Missing data, arrays, character variables Process 
hierarchical, rectangular or triangular files, irregular length records 
Character, numeric, and nested sorts Merge and append large files 
Unlimited numeric and character variable transformations 
Subgroup processing with SELECT and BY Value labels and RECODE 
Statements Macro processor with programming language, screen 
control, file manipulation, applications generation, and report writing. 








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£". 





Systat operates on IBM PCs and compatibles, MS-DOS and CP/M 
machines, several UNIX minicomputers, and the VAX/Microvax. 
Menu/windowed Macintosh version also available. Single copy price 
$795 USA and Canada, $895 Foreign. Site licenses, quantity prices 
and training seminars available. No fees for technical support. 
Statistics and graphics available separately. 

For more information, call 312 864.5670 or write Systat Inc., 
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The following are registered trademarks: CP/M of Digital Research. Inc., IBM PC of IBM, 
Inc., MS-DOS of Microsoft. Inc.. Macintosh of Apple Computer Inc., UNIX of AT&T and 
VAX of Digital Equipment Corporation. 



Circle 230 on Reader Service Card (DEALERS: 231) 



Systat. Intelligent software. 



AUGUST 1988 'BYTE 189 



REVIEW 
UNIX FOR THE MAC II 



Table 1: While the Sun 386U250 
is significantly faster than the Mac 
II running At UX, in this 
configuration, the Sun costs about 
twice as much. 

Number of Tasks 
12 4 8 

Mac II 

withA/UX 2.9 4.9 8.2 15.7 

SUN 

386i/250 2.0 3.0 6.0 12.0 

Note: In both cases, the real execution time is 
reported. The SUN 386i uses a 25-MHz 80386. and 
the Mac II uses a 1 6-MHz 68020. 



switching to supervisor mode and dis- 
patching to code within the A/UX ker- 
nel. Once this code determines that the 
trap was a Toolbox ROM call, it invokes 
the trap handler and switches back to 
user mode. The user-mode trap handler 
then uses the dispatch tables to call either 
a ROM-based routine or a RAM-based 
patch. RAM-based patches update ROM 
code, as in the standard Mac operating 
system, and redirect Mac operating-sys- 



tem calls to routines that translate them 
to equivalent Unix calls. 

You must then create the resource file 
containing definition objects such as 
windows, menus, and dialogs, and com- 
pile it with the rez resource compiler. 

Finally, to run any programs under 
A/UX that use the Mac interface, you 
must have the program toolboxdaemon 
running as a background process. This 
program is responsible for setting up the 
shared memory structures that all Tool- 
box applications use. It is also responsi- 
ble for cleaning up after a Toolbox pro- 
cess when it exits. This includes 
removing shared memory structures and 
windows from the screen. In version 1 .0, 
the shared memory contains mostly cur- 
sor data. 

Missing Mac User Interface 

In A/UX, there is no facility like the Mac 
Finder to launch applications and man- 
age files. A/UX provides three different 
shells (command interpreters)— the tra- 
ditional Bourne shell (sh), the Berkeley 
C shell (csh), and the Korn shell (ksh). 
Each of these shells uses a command-line 
interface. 



The closest A/UX comes to having a 
windowing interface is a sample pro- 
gram, called Term, that lets you open 
multiple windows, each running the 
Unix command-line interface. Since this 
is a sample program, full source code is 
provided so that you can modify it to suit 
your own needs. 

As you would expect with a Mac appli- 
cation, Term lets you move or resize each 
window. One nice feature is a history 
mechanism that makes it possible to 
scroll back through a session to review 
output that has already scrolled out of the 
window. Unfortunately, you cannot cut 
and paste in these windows. 

Each window acts as a terminal emu- 
lator implementing a subset of the DEC 
VT-100 control codes. You can also 
select the font and size of the text in each 
window. 

Since A/UX allows only one Toolbox 
application to run at a time, it isn't possi- 
ble to run any other program that uses the 
Toolbox from within the Term program. 
This means that to run another Toolbox 
program, you need to close down what- 
ever is going on in each of the windows 
and exit from the Term program. This 



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190 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 



Circle 77 on Reader Service Card (DEALERS: 78) 



REVIEW 
UNIX FOR THE MAC II 



limits the usefulness of the program as a 
standard interface to A/UX. 

Expanded Networking 

If you want to go beyond the three users 
that can be accommodated by the console 
and the two serial ports, you can buy an 
Ethernet card and use the networking 
software that comes with A/UX. 

A/UX supports Sun Microsystems' 
NFS, which allows a Mac II running 
A/UX to participate in a network of 
workstations and hosts and to share files. 
NFS makes it possible to treat files on 
other systems as if they were resident on 
your local machine. 

There is also support in A/UX for the 
TCP/IP network protocol. This protocol 
and a number of utilities included with 
A/UX let you copy files between nodes 
on a network and establish remote log-in 
sessions with other nodes. 

AU/X doesn't support AppleTalk, so 
if you want to connect a LaserWriter 
printer, you have to use an asynchronous 
link to one of the serial ports. 

Even though the system comes with 
networking software, the documentation 
does not include the A/UX Network Ad- 



ministration manual that you need to set 
up a network. This manual is available 
for $18.50 to APDA (Apple Program- 
mer's and Developer's Association) 
members. 

To measure the multitasking perfor- 
mance of A/UX, we ran the multitask- 
ing-shell benchmark published in the 
August 1984 BYTE on page 406. For 
comparison, we ran the same benchmark 
tests on a Mac II with 5 megabytes of 
memory and A/UX on an external 80- 
megabyte hard disk drive, and on a Sun 
386i/250 with 8 megabytes of memory 
and a 327-megabyte hard disk drive run- 
ning Berkeley Unix 4.3. In the bench- 
mark results, A/UX on the Mac II ran 
notably slower than the Unix implemen- 
tation on the Sun system (see table 1). 
However, performance may be accep- 
table when you consider that the Sun sys- 
tem costs about twice as much. 

Close, But No Cigar 

Apple's A/UX is a good first step toward 
transforming the Mac II into a Unix 
workstation. It's good because it gives 
you multitasking, virtual memory, and 
access to a network. But it is not yet well 



integrated with the Mac user interface. 
Also, the limitation of running only a 
single Toolbox application at a time 
makes it difficult to use even the Term 
program as a standard interface. 

You might expect A/UX to make the 
Mac II into a true workstation, but it 
doesn't quite measure up. Although it 
does provide the ability to connect to a 
network, it does not provide the kind of 
interactive interface that is familiar to 
users of other workstation products. 
While the Mac interface is available from 
within A/UX, the primary interface is 
the Unix command-line shell. 

However, A/UX is a good implemen- 
tation of Unix System V and should be 
useful where there is a need for a system 
that allows Unix applications to run in a 
network environment and where the abil- 
ity to run Mac applications is required. 
A/UX will be easier to use when and if 
Apple provides a Finder-like interface 
that will truly transform the Mac into a 
point-and-click Unix machine. ■ 

David Betz is a Unix consultant and a 
former senior editor for BIX. Eva M. 
White is a BYTE technical editor. 




-.-■ 



#S| 



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m 



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IBM is a registered trademark of International Business Machines Corporation. 
Arts & Letters is a trademark of Computer Support Corporation. Ventura 
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a registered trademark of Adobe Systems, Inc. 



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The Graphics Editor allows you to adjust the 
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All these features which have made PSpice so 
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• Standard parts libraries for diodes, bipolar 
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• Non-linear transformer devices modeling 
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• Ideal switches for use with, for example, power 
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• The Parts parameter extraction program, allow- 
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194 BYTE* AUGUST 1988 



Circle 149 on Reader Service Card (DEALERS: 150) 



Application Review 



o 



VersaCAD 
on a Mac 




A CAD package for PCs 
finds its way to the 
Macintosh 



Paul Tuten 



Born with an established name 
in the MS-DOS world, Versa- 
CAD Macintosh Edition is a 
comprehensive two-dimen- 
sional drafting and design system for 
creating accurate working drawings for a 
variety of disciplines. The VersaCAD 
package comes with a 247-page user's 
manual that includes a tutorial section, a 
"tour" disk that contains a demonstra- 
tion program, and a disk with a Hyper- 
Card Help stack. These also serve as 
valuable training aids. 



VersaCAD Macintosh Edition retails 
for $1995. It requires a Mac Plus or SE 
with 1 megabyte of RAM or a Mac II 
with a minimum of 2 megabytes of 
RAM, an Apple monochrome or color 
monitor, and Finder 5.5 or higher. 
You'll need extra memory to use large 
monitors and to make use of Multi- 
Finder. If you have a Mac Plus or SE, you 
should equip it with an accelerator board 
with a 68881 math coprocessor to take 
full advantage of VersaCAD's speed. Fi- 
nally, you'll need a minimum of 4 mega- 
bytes of hard disk space for programs, 
temporary workfiles, and drawings. 

VersaCAD 1.1, the version I tested, 
supports a comprehensive list of output 
devices, including the Apple Image- 
writer and LaserWriter for nonscale hard 
copies. For accurate drawings, it sup- 
ports plotters from Bruning, Calcomp, 
Data Products, Enter Computer, Hew- 
lett-Packard, Houston Instrument, 
United Innovations, Mutoh, Numonics, 
Roland, and Western Graphtec. 



A VersaLINK application converts 
VersaCAD drawings to and from ASCII 
text, Initial Graphics Exchange Specifi- 
cation (IGES), and .DXF files. In these 
formats, you can exchange drawing in- 
formation not only between different 
CAD applications but even between dif- 
ferent computer systems. 

The Working Area 

The main display consists of a drawing 
window bordered by the familiar Macin- 
tosh title bar, close, resize, and scrolling 
buttons. In addition, five window-option 
icons are embedded along the bottom left 
scroll bar. Clicking on these window 
icons lets you magnify any area of the 
drawing for detail work, or back away for 
a bird's-eye view of the entire drawing, 
regardless of its size. 

Beneath the menu bar is a Message 
window that prompts you for input dur- 
ing object construction and editing. At 
the screen's bottom is a Coordinates win- 
dow that shows the location of the draw- 
ing cursor in absolute, relative, or polar 
coordinates. To the left is a Tools win- 
dow—a palette of icons for object cre- 
ation and manipulation tools. You can 
toggle all these windows (plus two hid- 
den Constraints and Construct palettes) 
open and closed from the Settings menu 
bar selection. 

I found that I was using the Constraints 
and Construct palettes more than the 
Message and Coordinates windows, so I 
closed the latter two to save room on my 
SE's screen. For SE users, a more pro- 
ductive, but also more expensive, solu- 
tion would be to add an external monitor 
to display the drawing window. Then you 
could display the support functions win- 
dows on a second screen while using a 
multimonitor program, such as E-Ma- 
chines' Double Feature. 

A Pick of Tools 

The two choices on the top of the Tools 
palette are Selection and Group. The Se- 

continued 

AUGUST 1988 -BYTE 195 



REVIEW 
VERSACAD ON A MAC 



VersaCAD1.1 



Type 

Two-dimensional CAD package 

Company 

Versacad Corp. 

2124 Main St. 

Huntington Beach, CA 92648 

(714)960-7720 

Format 

Six 3 1 /2-inch floppy disks 

Hardware Needed 

Macintosh Pius or SE with 1 megabyte 
of RAM, or Macintosh II with 2 megabytes 
of RAM, and a hard disk drive 

Software Needed 

Finder 5.5 or higher 

Language 

C 

Documentation 

247-page user's manual 

Price 

$1995 

Inquiry 907. 



lection tool lets you pick individual ob- 
jects for editing and manipulation. Each 
object that Selection calls up displays its 
associated, movable, pivot-and-handle 
point. The Group tools let you build ag- 
gregates of objects. 

The palette has 12 more tools, which 
you use to add objects to your drawing. 
The Line tool lets you create a single or 
continuous line, and Multiline draws two 
or more parallel lines simultaneously. 
Rectangle lets you draw squares and rect- 
angles by designating opposite corners or 
three points. Polygon draws regular 
polygons with 3 to 180 sides. 

To draw a circle, you choose a center 
and a radius or designate a diameter and 
its two endpoints. You can make an el- 
lipse by picking the axes or a center and 
the axes. You create an arc from two end- 
points and an arbitrary point on the arc, 
or from a center point and two endpoints. 
With Bezier, you can create three-point 
Bezier curves and multipoint spline 
curves. You handle point entry by screen 
position, grid snap, object snap, or coor- 
dinate entry (this is also the case with all 
the tools mentioned previously). 

You can write on the drawing, either in 



individual lines or in blocks, using the 
Text tool. Character height and width, as 
well as line spacing, may be varied. You 
can assign font numbers to your built-in 
LaserWriter fonts for PostScript output. 
VersaCAD can automatically apply lin- 
ear and angular dimensions, either sin- 
gly or as baseline or chain dimensions. 

The last six tools on the palette are for 
object manipulation. You can move and 
stretch objects and groups of objects. You 
can copy in one or two directions, or cir- 
cularly, leaving one or more copies. Ro- 
tate lets you move objects about their as- 
sociated pivot points. Scale shrinks or 
expands objects or groups of objects, 
either proportionally or unproportion- 
ally. Mirror flips objects or copies of ob- 
jects about an axis. The Explode com- 
mand breaks objects and symbols into 
their component parts. 

The Construct palette contains impor- 
tant tools for precise geometric construc- 
tions. Extend/Trim lets you trim ele- 
ments to other elements and objects. 
With Break, you can split a line and trim 
it to two different objects or two different 
portions of the same object. Fillet lets 
you draw a specified radius between two 
self-trimming lines, as does Chamfer. 
Perpendicular lets you create right-angle 
lines at any distance from the endpoint of 
a normal line. With Parallel, you can 
draw lines at a specified distance from 
each other. The Tangent function makes 
lines at a specified angle to circles, arcs, 
and ellipses, or tangent to arcs and per- 
pendicular to lines. You can use Isomet- 
ric to create an isometric view from three 
orthographic views. 

The tools in the Constraints palette are 
used in conjunction with those in the 
Tools and Construct palettes. Con- 
straints tools help you make your draw- 
ings more precise. Besides Free (or un- 
constrained) input, there is Rotation, X 
Lock, and Y Lock, which let you fix in- 
put to a specified angle, or to an x or y 
axis. 

The Grid and Increment snap tools set 
up a grid with incremental points. These 
points then attract the cursor to the near- 
est specified location for geometric 
input. This is nice in some ways, but 
it often dramatically slows repainting 
when the grid is displayed. The No Snap 
function switches this option off. The In- 
tersection, Object, and Equation tools 
are excellent for accurate placement of 
objects in relation to each other, during 
both construction and later manipula- 
tion. 

In most cases, the tools have additional 
options that you can obtain by double- 
clicking on each tool's icon. 



Picks from the Menu 

The menu bar displays the Apple symbol 
with whatever desk accessories you have 
installed, along with About VersaCAD 
and Help. The Help item contains a 
drawing of the three palette windows 
mentioned previously, with labels that 
describe each tool function. 

The Files menu contains New Draw- 
ing, which is for creating an empty draw- 
ing that retains the current settings of the 
properties, units, and window. Open 
Drawing retrieves drawings and also 
allows them to merge with the current 
drawing (at the same drawing units). 
Close stores the drawing window. Save 
Drawing and Save Drawing As put the 
current work on disk arranged by objects 
or by current group. Crunch compresses 
the workfile by permanently removing 
all deleted objects. 

New Library lets you create special 
files of symbols. Symbols are collections 
of objects that are used repeatedly, such 
as windows and doors, or bolts and nuts. 
Obviously, having them predrawn as part 
of a library can save you a good deal of 
drawing time. Open Library gives you 
access to your symbols files. 

Page Setup and Print give you a non- 
scale hard copy of displayed drawings on 
a printer. Besides a long list of plotters to 
select from, Plot Select contains an en- 
capsulated PostScript selection; this op- 
tion lets you use VersaCAD drawings 
with page layout programs. Plot Setup 
and Plot produce accurate output of the 
entire drawing, to any scale, on laser 
printers and plotters. Quit closes the 
VersaCAD program. 

The Edit menu selection has the usual 
Macintosh Undo, Cut, Copy, and Paste 
options, plus Clear Last Entry, Restore 
Last Entry, Select All Objects, and Show 
Clipboard Contents. It also has addi- 
tional items to aid you in editing objects. 
A Properties item lets you edit the level 
number, pen number, color, line density 
and width, line style, and top and bottom 
z-coordinate values of objects. A power- 
ful Geometry item lets you look at and 
edit almost every geometric attribute of 
an object on the drawing; you can also in- 
voke Geometry by double-clicking on the 
object. Handle moves the handle point of 
the selected object to alternate locations 
or back to the object's default location. 

The Group menu contains options that 
you use in conjunction with the Group se- 
lection from the Tools palette. Clear 
Current Group removes all objects from 
the current group. Build by Inverse 
creates a group by replacing all objects in 
the current group with all other objects. 

continued 



196 BYTE- AUGUST 1988 



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Cocoon and Silk are trademarks of Daybreak lechnologies, Inc. IBM and Pl r ,-li are registered trademarks of International Basfness Machines Corporation Lotus. 1-2-3 and Symphony are registered trademarks of Lotus Development Corporation. Microsoft 

and MS-DOS are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. WordPerfect is a registered trademark of WordPerfect Corporation. WordStar 2000 and Wordstar Professional are registered trademarks of MicroPro International Corporation. Enable 

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Circle 70 on Reader Service Card (DEALERS: 71) 



REVIEW 
VERSACAD ON A MAC 



Build by Properties lets you create or edit 
groups by all objects that do or do not 
have specified properties in common. 
Build by Fence creates groups by speci- 
fying objects either inside or outside a 
rectangular area, and Build by Objects 
lets you add or subtract specific object 
types to the current or new group. 

The Settings menu contains valuable 
features, such as Input, which lets you di- 
rectly input absolute, relative, or polar 
coordinates for geometric creation and 
manipulation. Besides the usual decimal 
degree and degrees-minutes-seconds op- 
tions in the polar mode, bearing is also 
available. Properties lets you set such ob- 
ject attributes as level number, pen num- 
ber, color, line density and width, up to 
eight line styles, and top and bottom z co- 
ordinate values. VersaCAD is sometimes 
referred to as a two-and-one-half-dimen- 
sional system because it can record 
^-coordinate values but not display them. 
This ability to record z coordinates can 
be useful if you are using drawing-coor- 
dinate data in CAM. 

You can add arrows or center markers 
to objects, and you can set template prop- 
erty to objects being added. These ob- 
jects could serve as construction lines for 
layout development, and they can be 
turned off for displaying or plotting. 

With the Units item, you set the draw- 
ing's unit of measure when you begin. 
There can be only one unit of measure 
per drawing. VersaCAD works on the 
concept of real- world modeling. That is, 
if you are going to lay out a schematic of a 
new interstate highway, for example, you 
might make miles the unit of measure 
and choose polar coordinates in bearing 
format. On the other hand, if you were 
designing an assembly jig for an airplane 
wing, you would make inches your unit 
of measure and choose absolute coordi- 
nates in decimals of an inch. For an E- 
size plot of both drawings, you can set the 
plot scale so that 1 unit equals 0.125 
inch. 

All the necessary units are available, 
including decimals and fractions of 
inches and feet, and fractions of miles, 
millimeters, centimeters, meters, and 
kilometers. If you want, you can also de- 
fine your own units of measure. 

Levels lets you specify up to 250 levels 
to display and plot. Levels are not self- 
protecting; for example, you can trim 
lines to each other even if they are in dif- 
ferent levels. You protect levels by turn- 
ing them off, thus making them 
invisible. 

Configuration sets the size of tempo- 
rary Hatch files needed to calculate 
hatch boundaries. Preferences lets you 



set a drawing's background, grid, se- 
lected object, and cursor color (if avail- 
able). Show Marker, Template, and 
Symbol turn the display of these items on 
and off. The workfile has a running 
clock of usage time that can be stopped 
with a Pause option. 

Also under the Settings menu are Con- 
straints, Coordinates, Message, Tools, 
and Construct items, all of which I've 
previously discussed. Symbols opens the 
symbols library from which the currently 
selected symbol was placed. Hatch lets 
you add hatching lines to any enclosed 
boundary; it also calculates areas and 
cross sections. Many of Settings' option 
windows can be left open for more conve- 
nient access. 

The Inquire menu contains Drawing, 
which shows all the level numbers and 
pen numbers used on a drawing, along 
with the total number of objects, sym- 
bols, and time used. Workfile displays 
the storage that all the objects and sym- 
bols use, the total number of different 
symbols, and the corresponding storage 
you have left; it also indicates total draw- 
ing time and the elapsed time since your 
last file operation. 

VersaCAD's workfile can contain 
6000 objects, 2000 symbol components, 
and 200 unique symbols. This should be 
adequate storage for most drawings, but 
if it isn't, the workfile storage space can 
be expanded by an experienced program- 
mer. Keyboard equivalents for almost all 
icons and menu options are present. 

Stackware Utilities 

Bill of Material is a HyperCard stack that 
counts all symbols used on a drawing. 
Descriptive data such as name, size, unit 
cost, unit weight, labor, and grade for 
each symbol in your library is entered in 
the Bill of Material stack. A Count func- 
tion automatically counts the symbols, 
and Create Report prepares a materials- 
list type of report that shows the totals of 
each symbol and all the descriptive 
information. 

You can edit any part of the report and 
save it as a text file for use in a word pro- 
cessor or spreadsheet, or you can convert 
it to VersaCAD format for use on the face 
of the drawing. 

Bill of Material also contains a utility 
for calculating the total length of lines 
and rectangles on the drawing. For ex- 
ample, in a plumbing drawing, if all 
drain pipes are represented by lines of 
the same color, or on a certain level or 
pen number, Bill of Material can auto- 
matically add the total length of these 
lines. 

The FileDump stack provides a conve- 



nient way to examine and edit the con- 
tents of drawing and library files. The 
source code for getVcad and putVcad 
are provided. These script functions ex- 
tend HyperCard and let it read/write 
VersaCAD files; they also let you create 
customized VersaCAD HyperCard util- 
ities. Sample drawings and libraries are 
included in the VersaCAD and Bill of 
Materials tutorials. 

Drawing Conclusions 

The most serious of VersaCAD's few 
limitations is the lack of an auxiliary 
view system for creating drawings with 
views of different scales. For example, if 
you want a drawing with a quarter-scale 
main view and a half-scale section view, 
you have to either draw both views at 
their respective scales and plot full-size, 
or draw the main view at half size and the 
section view at full size and plot at half- 
scale, or draw the main view full-size 
and the section view twice-size and plot 
at quarter-scale. In any case, you have a 
model with one or more views that are 
not real-world size. Perhaps a better al- 
ternative in this example would be to 
keep the views in two different models 
and overplot them on the same paper at 
the different scales— but VersaCAD has 
no built-in provisions to do this. 

A vital feature of VersaCAD is its 
workfile. When you are working on a 
drawing, all work is done in a temporary 
workfile that VersaCAD automatically 
saves on disk. Thus, even if you are 
working on a new drawing that you have 
not saved, you will probably not lose all 
your work if a system error occurs, 
which I did occasionally experience. 

VersaCAD seems to have all the nec- 
essary tools and options that a draftsper- 
son needs to get the job done. However, I 
would not buy VersaCAD for an out-of- 
the-box Mac Plus or SE. Without a co- 
processor accelerator board in the sys- 
tem, VersaCAD's slowness is a limiting 
factor. For example, I constructed a 
model with about 100 objects. On a va- 
nilla Mac SE, a repaint of the model took 
well over a minute. On a Mac II, the 
same drawing took less than 3 seconds. 

VersaCAD Macintosh Edition is a 
full-featured drafting tool that is well 
suited for a broad range of applications. 
But if you're going to spend almost 
$2000 for the program, do yourself a 
favor and run it on a machine that won't 
make you long for your drafting board. ■ 

Paul Tuten of Wichita, Kansas, is a tool 
engineering contractor for the aircraft in- 
dustry and uses a CAD system daily. He 
can be reached on BIX as "editors. " 



198 BYTE* AUGUST 1988 



Can Your 
Spreadsheet 
Do Any 
Of This For 

$69.95? 



MAGAZNE 



EDITOR'S 
CHOICE 



"Silk's improved graphics, fine 
use of Junction keys, interactive 
help, global search and replace, 
and easy-to -rearrange worksheet 
are reason enough to buy. . . 
At some point, you have to think 
about moving onward and upward 
(from Lotus). Silk gives you rea- 
son enough" - PC Magazine 



in 



• TWice as fast as Lotus® with 8087/80287 
coprocessor installed 

• Keystroke logging prevents the loss of your 
worksheet sessions 

• Fast, productive forms processing — just fil 
the blanks 

• Allocation models — cut the pie any way you want 

• Excellent use of function keys 

• Global search and replace 

• Enhanced graphics 

• Easy-to-rearrange worksheets 

• Goal seeking, i.e. what price to charge to make 
X% profit? 

• Two foreign exchange formats 

r 



Javelin" -type time series model 
in your conventional spreadsheet 



Live help 



83/12/87 83:89 PK 



HELP Messages 



filise Control Direct on Keys to Scroll 



The nessage line escribes the nature 
1986 Gross Margin Analysis of the problen in the cell at which 
==r- ======z===z==r======= the cell pointer s currently located; 

when you noue the cell pointer, the 
nessage will be updated to reflect the 
current pointer position. 
DataSTixe Jan/86 Feb/86 

Data does not pass validation criteria 

US $8,312.34 $11,816.88 

SI $7,369.34 $741.38 The entry at the current cell pointer 

==2======= ==r===-=z=: position does not pass the validation 

JSJIABGIN $943. B8 aiilfcWSWil fonwla that Has defined in the schena 
definition font for this data field. 

I Validation criteria for this field is: 
GR0SS_HARGIN>8 AND GR0SS_(ttRGIN<8.45 
•SALES 



C12: (GROSS J1ARGIIMet>/B6,$2) [Ull] SALES-CMS! 



End of HELP Message *** 

3 Warnings 2 Errors 



English language 
formulas 



User-defined 
validation criteria 



Spreadsheet 
validation 



And That's JustThe Start Of Silk's * Exciting Features . . 

With all this — and more — going for Silk, Jim Gultinan of 
Cordata concludes "On a scale of 1 to 10 with Lotus being a 10, 
Silk is a 12." Soft Sector sums it up by saying "Silk is one of 
the most complete spreadsheet packages on the market today 

Yes, here's your spreadsheet wish list come true. At a price 
you dreamed of! 

Special Introductory Offer — New Version 1.1 
Is Just $69.95! 

In reviewing the original Silk spreadsheet, Seybold Outlook 
said "this is a lot of software for the money" Aid we say 
"with this special introductory offer, it's a lot less!" Enhanced 
Silk 1.1 is just $69.95 when you order directly from the pub- 
lisher, now through September 30, 1988. After that, it's still an 
exceptional value at $298.00 retail. 

Why not order right now? Aid see for your- 
self why Orange Bytes Magazine says "Try 
Silk, but be careful, you may find your copy 
of 1-2-3 collecting dust." 



m 



Spas?*. 



I 



Rush My Silk 1.1 Today! 



Name- 



Organization. 



Address. 



City- 



_State_ 



.Zip. 



copies of Silk 1.1 @ $69.95 _ 

Add S10 per copy for 3.5" diskettes 

Add shipping & handling ($6.50 each 
for US. & Canada. $40.00 each all other 

countries) 

Calif, residents add 6.5% sales tax 

Ibtal $ 

Payment Method 

□ Check or money order enclosed, made payable 

to Daybreak Technologies. ( Sorry; no CODs!) 
Charge my □ Visa □ M;ister Card 



H 




Phone L 



) 



MAIL TO: Silk 1.1 Introductory Offer, Dent. 36IE 
Daybreak Teehnologes, Inc.. BO. Box 5629. 
212151) Hawthorne Blvd. . Torrance, CA 90509 



Accl. 



„Expir. Date. 



Signature. 



Do not enclose cash. Offer valid through September 30. 1988. Please allow 4-6 weeks for delivery 



.J 



DAYBREAK 

TECHNOLOGIES, INC. 
Charge to your credit card 
and call toll-free: 1-800-443-0100, ext. 361E 
Toll-free number is for credit card orders only For 
product information, call Customer Sendee at 
(213) 542-5888. 

System Requirements: IBM* PC or compatible with 
PC-DOS® or MS-DOS® 2.0 or higher, with 512KB mem- 
ory; hard disk recommended. 

Silk is a registered trademark of Daybreak Technologies, Inc. IBM and PC-DOS 
are registered trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation. Lotus 
and Lotus 1-2-3 are registered trademarks of Lotus Development Corporation. 
Microsoft and MS-DOS are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. 
Javelin is a registered trademark of lavelin Software Company 

Circle 72 on Reader Service Card (DEALERS: 73) 



Review Update 



Fine-Tuning the Benchmarks 



The June issue saw the introduction of 
BYTE's new system benchmarks. The 
August issue marks the first, and prob- 
ably not the last, revision. Version 1 . 1 of 
the low-level Small-C benchmarks in- 
corporates several changes, all in the 
Disk I/O tests. 

A bug fix for the DOS Seek 1- and 8- 
sector test came first. In the original test, 
checks for the end of disk failed because 
the test stored the sector variables in inte- 
ger format. We quickly ran into sector 
sizes too large for Small-C to deal with 
as integers. We fixed the problem by 
changing the integer format to character 
pointers. 

This fix uncovered an additional prob- 
lem with the 8-sector part of the test. Ba- 
sically, the 8-sector read was too sensi- 
tive to the effects of disk buffering. In 
version 1.1, we've enlarged the 8-sector 
read test to 32 sectors. 

Finally, we changed the method of re- 
cording the results for the File I/O test. 
We've switched from seconds per K byte 
to seconds per 64K bytes for reporting 
the disk throughput times. 

Apart from these changes, we've also 
made a couple of additional revisions. 
For the application-level benchmarks, 
we've dropped the Cursor Move test 
from the word-processing suite because 
of unreliable results. Second, we've 
switched from using an arithmetic mean 
to a geometric mean for calculating both 
the application-level and low-level 
indexes. 

In light of these changes, we've rerun 
all the benchmarks for Advanced Logic 
Research's FlexCache 20386, which we 
reviewed in June, as well as for our base- 
line systems. The revised disk results are 
shown in the table above. The changes in 
the application benchmarks give the 
FlexCache a cumulative application in- 
dex of 18.0. Application indexes for 
comparative systems are as follows: 18.0 
for the Compaq Deskpro 386/20, 11 for 
the IBM PS/2 Model 80, and 5 for the 8- 
MHz IBM PC AT. The review of three 
20-MHz 80386 systems on page 162 this 
month also reflects all these changes. 

In upcoming reviews of 80386 sys- 
tems, we'll be using a newly ported 32- 
bit version of the BYTE Small-C com- 



The results for the revised Disk I/O benchmarks still show that ALR 's 
FlexCache 20386 comes in slightly ahead of the Compaq Deskpro 386/20 
in disk performance. 




FlexCache 
20386 


Compaq 
386/20 


IBM PS/2 
Model 80 


IBM PC AT 
(8 MHz) 


DOS Seek 

1 -sector read 
32-sector read 


8.48 
17.00 


10.68 
19.08 


14.98 
32.79 


14.95 
65.18 


File I/O 

Seek 

Read (sec/64 K bytes) 

Write (sec/64K bytes) 


0.11 
0.42 
0.79 


0.13 
0.45 
0.78 


0.12 
1.11 
1.07 


0.29 
1.33 
1.23 


Disk I/O Index 

(relative to PC AT) 


2.50 


2.23 


1.46 


1.0 


Note: All times are in seconds, except as noted 









piler for low-level benchmarks. For 
details on the 80386 version of the bench- 
marks, see the text box "80386 Bench- 
marks" by Rick Grehan on page 142 of 
this issue. 

One last note: The graphs for the sys- 
tem reviews in June— ALR' s FlexCache 
20386, NEC's MultiSpeed HD, and 



Deviance with Concurrent DOS 386 



Sometimes benchmark tests give you 
alarming results, and it's difficult to pin 
down the problem. That's just what hap- 
pened with my review of Digital Re- 
search's Concurrent DOS 386 in the July 
issue. 

The BYTE Lab ran the single-task 
benchmark for Concurrent DOS 386 on 
several different systems and obtained 
essentially the same results (which were 
printed with the review)— that it per- 
formed about as well as MS-DOS. But 
the test results obtained using my own 
ARC 386i were quite different, at least at 
first. In fact, my preliminary findings 
showed a single task under Concurrent 
DOS 386 to be about 3 times slower than 
the same task running under MS-DOS. 

I initially ran the benchmark tests on 
my ARC 386i with 3 megabytes of 16-bit 
120-nanosecond memory on an Everex 
159 memory card installed "above" the 
512K bytes of 32-bit memory on the 



Hewlett-Packard's Vectra CS Model 
20— were labeled incorrectly. The appli- 
cation indexes, cumulative application 
indexes, and low-level indexes were cor- 
rect, but the keys for the graphs were 
labeled in reverse order. We apologize 
for the error. 

—Cathryn Baskin 



ARC's motherboard. With the 16-bit 
memory installed, Concurrent DOS 386 
barely puttered along, taking 40 seconds 
to perform one iteration of the bench- 
mark in one window, while the same task 
ran in only about 13.5 seconds under 
MS-DOS. 

Because the test program was only 
about 5K bytes, I decided to try the test 
without the 16-bit memory board in- 
stalled. Admittedly, running even a 5K- 
byte program in only the 512K bytes of 
32-bit base memory makes for a tight 
squeeze since Concurrent DOS 386 is so 
large. And certainly, most real applica- 
tions cannot fit in so little memory. 
Nonetheless, without the 16-bit memory, 
performance improved noticeably. A 
single task actually ran faster than under 
DOS, taking 12.5 seconds to complete 
an iteration. 

The explanation for the anomaly is 
painfully obvious: Running tasks in 16- 
bit memory on an ARC 386i slows per- 
formance down dramatically. 

— Alex Lane 



200 BYTE • AUGUST 15 




acintosh Special Edition 




Inside MultiFinder 
Mac Networks Color QuickDraw 
HyperCard A/UX Short Takes 



dBASE Users— Attack 
the Mac with FoxBASE+/Mac 



New Frontiers, No Fears. 

FoxBASE + /Mac gives you the unprece- 
dented ability to run your dBASE pro- 
grams on the Macintosh immediately— 
without changing a single line of 
code! But there's much more. With 
FoxBASE+/Mac you can create 
beautiful, robust applications that 
are truly Mac- like— using the 
familiar dBASE language! 

Speed and Power. 

FoxBASE + /Mac gives you speed to 
burn — plus the power and performance 
you've come to expect from Fox. In fact, 
FoxBASE +/Mac is by far the fastest 
database system available on the Mac 
today— up to 200 times faster! 

View Window. 

The View Window is the master control 
panel for FoxBASE+ /Mac's graphical, 
non-programming interface. Use it to 
open and close files, set up indexes, 
establish relations, access BROWSE, and 
even to modify database structures! 

BROWSE. 

FoxBASE+ /Mac's BROWSE feature 
brings new convenience and power to 
database display and editing! You're in 
complete control — BROWSE lets you 
dynamically adjust the size and order of 
fields displayed, add or delete records, 
and split the window to show different 
database sections side-by-side. Together, 
BROWSE and View Windows eliminate 
the need to write programs for common 
database operations! 

Integrated Graphics. 

Copy and paste graphs, charts, diagrams 
and even pictures into your database — 
instantly! FoxBASE+/Mac gives you the 
power to display these graphics, or 
merge them into reports and documents! 



FoxBASE anil FoxBASE + are trademarks or Fox Software. 
dBASE and dBASE III PLCS are trademarks of Asliton-Tate. 
Macintosh is a trademark uf Mcintosh Laboratory, Inc, 
licensed to Apple Computer, Inc. 




You can create stunning screens like this with FoxBASE + /Mac —immediately! 

This actual FoxBASE + /Mac screen photo illustrates the View Window, 

Command Window, Integrated Graphics, Memo field editing, 

Trace and Debugging Facilities, and the BROWSE feature. 



Command Window. 

FoxBASE + /Mac's Command Window 
gives both experienced developers and 
novice user ultra-convenient access to 
the dBASE command language— just 
type a command into the Command 
Window, and it's executed! 

Get The FoxBASE +/Mac 
Facts Now! 

Call (419) 874-0162 Ext. 320 for more 
information about FoxBASE -fVMac. Or 
visit your local software retailer. 




Circle M26 on Reader Service Card 



FoxBASE+/Mac is part of the award-win- 
ning family of products from Fox Software. 
For two years in a row, FoxBASE + has been 
given the prestigious Editor's Choice award 
by PC Magazine, and scored an impressive 
9.2 out of a possible 10 when tested by 
InfoWorld's Review Board! 

Fox Software l 

Nothing Runs Like a Fox. 

Fox Software, Inc. (419) 874-0162 Ext. 320 

118 W. South Boundary FAX: (419) 874-8G78 
Perrysburg, OH 43551 Telex: 6503040827 



AUGUST 1988 VOLUME 13 NUMBER 8 

EVTE 

Macintosh Special Edition 



Editorial: Microcomputing's Vanguard by Fred Langa 

4 

Short Takes 

7 

Twelve Ail-Time Favorites by Ezra Shapiro 

21 

Macintosh Redux by Bruce Webster 

29 

Take a Walk on the Mac Side by Jerry Pournelle 

35 

MultiFinder Revealed by Phil Goldman 

46 

The Weil-Connected Mac by Janet J. Barron and Robert L. Mitchell 

57 

HyperCard: What Is It? by Brian L. Dear 

71 

HyperCard: How Does It Work? by Laurence H. Loeb 

75 

Using Color QuickDraw on the Mac II by Jan Eugenides 

83 

Unix and the Mac Interface by Rick Daley 

89 

Editorial Index by Company 

95 



BYTE (ISSN 0360-5280) is published momhly wiili an additional issue in Oc- 
tober by McGraw-Hill Inc. Founder: James H. McGraw(l860-l948). Execu- 
tive, editorial, circulation, and advertising offices: One Phoenix Mill Lane. 
Peterborough. NH 03458, phone (603) 924-9281. Office hours: Monday 
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$39.95 for two years, and S55.95 for three years in the U.S. and its posses- 
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$64.95 for three years. $75 for one-year air delivery to Europe. Y28.800 for 
one-year air delivery to Japan, Y 14,400 for one-year surface delivery to Ja- 
pan, $40 surface delivery elsewhere. Air delivery to selected areas at addition- 
al rates upon request. Single copy price is $3.50 in the U.S. and its posses- 
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subscriptions and sales should be remitted in U.S. funds drawn on a U.S. 
bank. Please allow six to eight weeks for delivery of first issue. Printed in the 
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Address editorial correspondence to: Editor. BYTE, One Phoenix Mill 
Lane, Peterborough. NH 03458. Unacceptable manuscripts will be returned if 
accompanied by sufficient postage. Not responsible for lost manuscripts or 
photos. Opinions expressed by the authors are not necessarily those of BYTE. 

Copyright © 1988 by McGraw-Hill Inc. All rights reserved. Trademark 
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sary, permission is granted by the copyright owner for libraries and others 
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cle herein for the flat fee of $1.50 per copy of the article or any part thereof. 
Correspondence and payment should be sent directly to the CCC, 29 Congress 
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Subscription questions or problems should be addressed to: 
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KB 

linn 

COVER PHOTOGRAPHY: PAUL AVIS © 1988 1988 Mac Special Edition 'BYTE 1 



HowMacintash 

of the safest deci 



The business computing world 
has recently undergone some fairly 
radical changes. 

Consequently, so has the entire 
concept of "safety." 

Because, at present, only one 
computer offers all the promise for 
the future, and delivers on it today: 
the Macintosh* II personal computer. 

First,we met 
your standards. 

Serious business has some seri- 
ous standards, and Macintosh n is 
prepared to meet every one. 

Like breakneck speed. Full ex- 
pandability. Vast memory A choice 
of monitors. A wide range of sophis- 
ticated programs for every business 
use. And the capacity to store even 
the most intimidating mountain of 
information. 

Its own power aside, Macintosh 
n is also more than prepared to meet 
the standards of other machines. 
Whether they speak MS-DOS, UNIX* 
or assorted dialects of mainframese, 
from IBM to DEC. 

So it can work with files from 
—and run— MS-DOS programs like 
Lotus 1-2-3 and WordPerfect. 



Connections are perfecdy pain- 
less via the AppleTalk® network sys- 
tem, using a wide variety of cabling, 
including Ethernet? 

Then,we raised them. 

Of course, there's more to busi- 
ness than simply meeting standards. 
Which is why we've put such effort 
into exceeding them. 

Macintosh n is an entirely new 
generation of computer, building 
on the graphical interface pioneered 
by Macintosh. Its working at full 
strength today, with an operating 
system that exploits every bit of its 
astonishing power. 

The latest part of that system, 
MultiFinder™ adds multitasking cap- 
abilities. The result being, you can 
switch effortlessly between applica- 
tions or do a number of different 
things at the same time. 

This higher standard leads to 
a new world of possibilities. 

For example,you can now use 
advanced programs for Apple* Desk- 
top Publishing — the standard we 
created over two years back— right 
alongside your business programs. 
So it's much easier to integrate differ- 



ent efforts into a single document. 

In the Macintosh tradition, 
what you see on screen is exacdy 
what you can expect on paper. And 
every program worksvery much the 
same way, helping to cut training 
costs drastically 

It's a technology that can actu- 
ally raise the standard of how you 
get all your information. Because 
with Macintosh, all your computers 
(including mainframes) can be ac- 
cessed in the same intuitive way 

Butwhy read about itwhen you 
can be an eyewitness. See the whole 
family of Macintosh computers and 
LaserWriter "II printers at an author- 
ized Apple dealer. Call 800-446-3000, 
est 300, for a location nearby 

Then you'll understand why so 
many business people feel the same 
way about getting a Macintosh II: 

Better safe than sorry 




The power to be your best: 




© 1988 Apple Computer, Inc. Apple, the Apple logo, Macintosh, AppleTalk and LaserWriter are 
registered trademark of Microsoft Corp. UNIX is a registered trademark oj AT&T IBM is a 
2 BYTE • 1988 Mac Special Edition 



of, and MultiFinder and HyperCard are trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. MS-DOS is a 
of IBM Corp. DEC is a registered trademark of Digital Equipment Corp. WordPerfect is a trademark 



Hcametobeone 

sions in business 




• fectaioabB 



Multitasking. It's a fact, not a promise. Our 
MultiFinder lets you run multiple programs 
simultaneously. 



Compatibility. Digests data from — and 
even runs— MS-DOS programs. Works with 
minis and mainframes, too. 

Applications. New-generation programs 
for every business use. Not next year. Today. 

Display. Choose any size or shape, includ- 
ing color and large-screen. 

Graphical Interface. We pioneered the 
intuitive graphics-based operating system 
others are only now beginning to imitate. 

HyperCard." A revolutionary way to 
customize your office's information— using 
associations instead of commands. 

Expandability. With six slots, Macintosh II 
is open to just about anything. 




oj WordPerfect Corp. Lotus and 1-2-3 are trademarks of Lotus Development Corp. Ethernet is a registered trademark of Xerox Corp. NuBus is a trademark of Texas Instruments. Macintosh 11 comes with a CPU 
■'■-bisnt shown here) and a mouse •(which is). For the sake oj "custom wnfgurrtion,monitorandkeyboardarepurcbasedseparalefy.Asareyourdesk,d>air, trashy 

1988 Mac Special Edition • BYTE 3 



EDITORIAL 



Fred Langa 



Microcomputing's 
Vanguard 



More and more, it's a 
Blue and Red world out 
there. BYTE readers 
have seen it coming for 
years. 



nuick! Name the only maga- 
zine whose coverage of the 
Macintosh II won an award 
for editorial excellence in an 
international competition that was spon- 
sored by the Society for Technical 
Communication. 

Need a hint? It's a large publication, 
routinely reaching over 147,000 Macin- 
tosh users, far more than publications 
like MacWeek, Macazine, Macintosh To- 
day, and the like. 

Another hint: In addition to being one 
of the world's largest magazines for Mac 
users, it's one of the very few that has 
been there from day one back in 1984; it 
has covered every Mac in detail, from the 
first fledgling machine through the 
world-class power of today's Mac II. 

Still stumped? Well, it's about the 
only magazine for Mac users that doesn't 
have a "Mac" in its title. 

You're holding it in your hands: 
BYTE. 

BYTE's readers were among the earli- 
est and most enthusiastic adopters of the 
Macintosh. Year by year, as the Mac's 
power and expandability have grown— as 
it has finally delivered on that early 
bright promise— the installed base of 
Mac users among BYTE readers has 
climbed steadily. Today, over 35 percent 
of BYTE's 420,000 readers use Macs, 
and that number is still growing fast. 

What amazes me is that almost all 
BYTE's Mac users are also IBM PC 
users. These readers are truly the van- 




guard of microcomputing— prof icient on 
more than one type of machine and com- 
pletely comfortable in the increasingly 
common office environment where Macs 
and PCs sit cheek by jowl . Like all BYTE 
readers, these folks are a versatile, prag- 
matic group, not at all locked into a sin- 
gle mold, or constrained by arbitrary 
philosophical blinders. Faced with a 
given task, they'll use whatever hardware 
and software will get the job done well, 
religious debates about microcomputing 
purity be damned. They're the corporate 
gurus who can assist any user on any ma- 
chine anywhere in their organization. 

But you already know this: It's you 
I'm talking about. 

For some 4 years now, BYTE has 
covered the Mac as part of our "regular" 
coverage. No, that won't change. For ex- 
ample, the August issue of BYTE carries 
a full review of A/UX— Apple's interest- 
ing implementation of a "semigraphical" 
Unix for the Mac II. 

But from time to time we want to do 
more, to concatenate our coverage and 
focus attention on the Mac in a major 
way. 

The result is the Mac supplement 
you're now reading. If you use a Mac, 
you'll find plenty of useful information 
on Mac technology and applications in 
BYTE's best tradition— information that 
no Mac-specific magazine gives you. 

If you're not currently a Mac user, 
you'll find a rich vein of interesting, 
perspective-building information that 



can broaden your microcomputing hori- 
zons and help prepare for the day when— 
count on it — you're called upon for ad- 
vice in a Macintosh matter. 

For example, "MultiFinder Re- 
vealed" isn't just a glossy list of features 
or a simplistic user's guide to Multi- 
Finder. Instead, Apple's Phil Gold- 
man—one of MultiFinder's creators- 
provides a true insider's look at how the 
Mac's multitasker works. 

Another Apple employee, Rick Daley, 
explains some of the design decisions un- 
derlying A/UX, and he offers insights 
that can help make your use of or pro- 
gramming for A/UX more effective. 

A very meaty piece on networking the 
Mac will fill you in on Mac-to-Mac, 
Mac-to-PC, Mac-to-VAX, and other 
connectivity options to allow the Mac to 
peacefully coexist with other hardware 
in almost any setting. 

Two articles on HyperCard explain its 
strengths and weaknesses (as one author 
points out, there are times, after all, 
when a word is worth a thousand pic- 
tures). They go on to show you how to 
build practical, workable stacks, and 
point to some of the best sources for ob- 
taining user-written stackware. 

Jerry Pournelle, Ezra Shapiro, and 
Bruce Webster all offer their own unique 
perspectives on how far the Mac has 
come, where it's going, and what it's like 
to make the switch from the DOS world 
to that of the Mac. 

A hands-on article on Color Quick- 
Draw shows you how to make use of the 
Mac II's color capabilities. 

And (of course) lots more. 

We're pleased to bring you this high- 
quality bonus reading, and we welcome 
your feedback by mail (Write to: Editor, 
One Phoenix Mill Lane, Peterborough, 
NH 03458), by BIX, by MCI Mail, or by 
telephone. 

Enjoy. 

—Fred Langa 

Editor in Chief 

(BIX name "f langa") 



4 BYTE • 1988 Mac Special Edition 



Borland's new 
Turbo Pascal Family 
makes programming 
fast and easy 




Turbo Pascal 8 code com- 
piles and runs at better 
than a sizzling 12,000 
lines per minute. Its clear, 
logical design makes, it easy 
to learn and use. 

Turbo Pascal is truly 
compatible with Inside 
Macintosh, which means 
that you're on familiar 
ground— that's why so many 
Mac users have made it 
their standard. Best of all, 
it's only $99.95! 

The Turbo Pascal Tutor 
is just for you! 

A companion to Turbo 
Pascal, Turbo Pascal Tutor 
quickly teaches you how to 
program your Mac in Pas- 
cal! This interactive tutorial 
on disk and 700-page man- 
ual really show you how— 
from the basics to advanced 
programming on the Mac— 
in Turbo Pascal, MPW Pas- 
cal or any version of the lan- 
guage you're using. 



You get . . . 

o A concise history of Pascal 
and step-by-step concepts for 
the beginning programmer. 

□ A Programmer's Guide taking 
you through all the specifics 
you'll need from Pascal pro- 
gram structure to data types, 
records and files. 

o An advanced programming 
section covering linked lists, 
stacks, sorting and searching 
algorithms and more. 

d A full guide to using the 
power of the Macintosh in 
Pascal, from use of the visual 
interface to memory manage- 
ment and debugging. 

□ Source code on disk you can 
use in your own programs 
without paying royalties. 

Only $69.95! 



NEW! 

Turbo Pascal Numerical 
Methods Tbolbox" 

Numerical analysis at 
your fingertips! This complete 
collection of state-of-the-art 
routines and programs solves 
all the most common prob- 
lems in science and engineer- 
ing. And you're free to 
include the source code in 
your own programs. Includes: 

□ Solutions to equations 
a Interpolations 

□ Matrix operations: inversions, 
determinants and eigenvalues 

a Differential equations 

□ Least squares approximations 

□ Fourier transforms 

Only $99.95! 

NEW- 

Turbo Pascal Database 
Tbolbox® 

Provides you with the 
search and sort routines you 
need for your Pascal data- 
base applications. 

o Turbo Access locates, inserts 
or deletes records using B+ 
trees, and does it fast. 

□ Turbo Sort uses the Quick- 
sort method to sort data on 
single items or multiple 
keys. 

Q You get source code on disk 
and a free sample database 
using the Mac interface that 
you can tailor to your spe- 
cific needs. 

Only $99.95! 



it Turbo Pascal is fast: 
12,000 lines of good, 
compiled Pascal code in 
60 seconds. 

Howard Kali, MACUSER 33 



All producls require a Macintosh with al leasl 51 2K. 

All Borland producls are trademarks or registered tradmarks of Borland 
Inlemalional, Inc. or Borland/Anaiytica, Inc. Other brand and producl 
names are trademarks or registered trademarks ol their respeclive 
holders Copyright ©1987 Borland International BI-1127B 







BORLAND 

INTERNATIONAL 



For the dealer nearest you 
or to order by phone 

Call (800) 543-7543 



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When The Price Counts 
As Much As The Performance 



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VisionScan does not require an additional investment in 
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the other lower priced scanner. In fact, VisionScan software 
operates as a desk accessory and will allow you to continue 
using the computer while scanning. VisionScan is shipped 
complete with all of the hardware, software and connecting 
cables needed to allow your Macintosh to begin scanning 
immediately. And it works in the ambient light found in 
most office environments. 

GREAT WITH GRAPHICS 

VisionScan is the perfect companion to your desktop 
publishing program. Included with every VisionScan is 
DeskPaint™, the graphics editor desk accessory. DeskPaint 
will allow you to edit the captured image by cropping, re- 
sizing, redetailing, lightening, darkening or otherwise 
embellishing it to suit the design of the page. And all of 
this can be done without exiting from your desktop pub- 
lishing programs like PageMaker™, Quark XPress™ and 
Ready.Set.Go!™, to name just a few. VisionScan with 



DeskPaint is also compatible with other popular paint pro- 
grams like Illustrator™ and Freehand™. 

WE ALSO HAVE A WAY WITH WORDS 

For an additional $200.00 a specially developed version of 
Read-It!™ O.C.R. by Olduvai Corporation is also available. 
Read-It! is a trainable software program that will allow your 
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VisionScan is a trademark of Warp Nine Engineering, Inc. Macintosh and ImageWriter are trademarks of Apple Computer Company. 

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Quark XPress is a trademark of Quark, Incorporated. Ready.Set.Go! is a trademark of Letraset USA. 

Read-It! is a trademark of OLDUVAI Corporation. Illustrator is a trademark of Adobe. 



SHORT TAKES 



BYTE editors offer hands-on views of new products 



Spectrum/24 



MacRecorder 



PageMaker 3.0 



scriptExpert 



Gofer for the Mac 




The SuperMac Spectrum/24 Video Board 

I f you try to use a Macintosh 



II with a standard video 
board to do image processing, 
you'll soon discover that hav- 
ing only 256 colors available 
for a digitized picture is pretty 
limiting. No longer: Not only 
does SuperMac Technology's 
Spectrum/24 video board 
provide you with a 1024- by 
768-pixel display on a 19-inch 
monitor, but each pixel can 
have 24 bits of color informa- 
tion. Put another way, while 
standard video boards use 1 
byte per pixel for color infor- 
mation and give you a choice of 
only 256 colors out of a palette 
of 16,777,216 colors, the 
Spectrum/24 uses 3 bytes per 
pixel in a "chunky-planar" 
color format that lets you use 
the entire color palette. The 
Spectrum/24 also supports 
Apple's 13-inch AppleColor 
RGB monitor. Because Apple 
has recently announced 32-bit 
indexed and "chunky" direct 
color formats that are incompat- 
ible with the Spectrum/24 's 
color format, it's sold only to 
developers. When Apple issues 
its system using the new color 
formats, SuperMac plans to re- 
lease an INIT that will patch 
QuickDraw to properly drive 
the Spectrum/24. 

The Spectrum/24 comes 
with an adapter cable and a 
3^-inch floppy disk. The 
adapter cable matches the 
video board's DB-25 connec- 



tor to the DB-15 connector of 
either a 19-inch SuperMac 
Color Trinitron monitor cable 
or an AppleColor RGB moni- 
tor cable. On the disk, a Moni- 
tors CDEV file lets you set 
the display's depth (1, 2, 4, 8, 
or 24 bits) and size (640 by 480 
pixels, 1024 by 768 pixels, or 
in the 1-bit mode [4096 by 
1536 pixels]) from the Control 
Panel. The SMT- Images appli- 
cation displays 24-bit color 
images. Several digitized 
images are on the disk for use 
with SMT-Iraages and show off 
the board's capabilities. The 
source code for SMT is in- 
cluded, so a developer can 
write applications to use the 
board's color capabilities. 

Board installation is quick 
and easy: You simply turn off 
the Mac II, pop the hood, and 
plug the Spectrum/24 into a 
NuBus slot. Then close the 
hood, connect the cables, 
switch on the power, and drag 
the software files from the 
floppy disk to the hard disk, 



THE FACTS 



Spectrum/24 video board 
$2000 

Requirements: 
Macintosh II with 2 
megabytes of RAM and 
color monitor 



making sure to place Super- 
Mac's Monitors CDEV into 
the System Folder to replace 
Apple's Monitors file. 

In the 1-bit color (black- 
and-white) mode, you can 
configure the Spectrum/24 
for a 4096- by 1536-pixel 
display, which comfortably 
holds a MacDraw document 
that's two pages tall and seven 
pages wide. Hardware pan- 
ning, where the image auto- 
matically scrolls vertically or 
horizontally when the mouse 
pointer reaches the screen 
edge, is supported for this ex- 
tended display. This panning 
feature worked smoothly. 

If you find 8-bit color 
images breathtaking, 24-bit 
color images will knock you 
out. In this mode, digitized 
pictures retain their photo- 
graphic quality. There is no 
granularity to the image: You 
cannot see any fringing or 
"boundaries" in areas of 
subtle color changes at all. On 
the down side, you'll need 



SuperMac Technology 
295 North Bernardo Ave. 
Mountain View, CA 94043 
(415) 962-2900 
Inquiry M141. 



more memory: a minimum of 
2 megabytes of RAM is re- 
quired, and you'll do lots bet- 
ter with 5 megabytes or more. 
Screen updates are noticeably 
slower, if not downright se- 
date, but that's because there 
is 3 times as much color infor- 
mation to manage. However, 
you can set the display to the 
usual 8-bit color mode and 
work as before and use the 24- 
bit color mode only when your 
work requires it. Finally, 24- 
bit color image files are a lot 
larger than their 8-bit color 
counterparts: A typical 24-bit 
color file often fills an entire 
800K-byte floppy disk. Plan 
to budget for a large hard disk 
along with the extra memory . 
Although the Spectrum/24 
demands more memory and 
limits display performance, 
the results are well worth it. 
The ability to use a virtually 
unlimited choice of colors 
with this board makes the Mac 
II a serious image-processing 
engine. 

—Tom Thompson 



Digitize 

Sound, Put It in 
HyperCard 

MacRecorder is one of 
those great products that 
lets you be constructive and 
also have some fun. It's a 
hardware/software combina- 
tion for inputting sounds into a 
Macintosh and then manipu- 
lating them with a sound-edit- 
ing program. The package 
comes with a small recording 
device, the MacRecorder it- 
self, and the editing/enhanc- 
ing software, called Sound- 
Edit. And if that's not enough 
to justify paying out $199, 
Farallon has tossed in the 
neatest HyperCard applica- 
continued 



1988 Mac Special Edition -BYTE 7 



Circle M29 on Reader Service Card 



Save Big Bucks On 
Mac Hardware 



SHORT TAKES 



■■MEMORY UPGRADES ■■ 

1 Megabyte CMOS SIMMs . Cull.' 
68020 Accelerator Boards . Call! 
WMHARD DRIVES ■§■■ 
Hardware House 

Internal 3 1/2" Drives for SE/I1: 
MAX 30 (30mb Seagate, 33ms) ...$477 
MAX 40 CiOmh Quantum. 12ms) ..647 
MAX 80 (80mb Quantum, 12ms) ..977 

CMS 

30 MB "MacStack" $589 

60 MB "MacStack" 777 

60 MB Tape Backup 697 

Call for other CMS products: 
Prices too low to print! 

Microtech Inl'l (5-Year Warranty) 

Nova 20 MB External S597 

Nova 30 MB External 697 

Nova 50 MB External 997 

Nova 80 MB External 1397 

PCPC 

Mac-Bottom 21 MB SCSI ....$747 

MacBottom 32 MB SCSI 847 

Mac-Bottom 45 MB SCSI .... 1147 
Internal 1200 baud modems available 



SuperMac 

Dataframe XP30 (w/Cabld ...S849 
Datai'rame XP60 (w/Cabte) ... 1197 
Dataframe XP150 Internal . 2097 
HHHI MONITORS H^HM 

Classic II 

13" Mac II Color Monitor ..$399 

Moniterm 

Viking 1 <i9"sr./ii> $1549 

Radius 

Full Page Display CMacPlus) $1449 

Full Page Display (SE/TO 1549 

Sony 

13" Multiscan color $677 

Sigma Designs 

Laserview 19" CSBTO $1695 

^■1 APPLE HARDWARE MM 

Mac SE 30mb System: 

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Mac II w/keyboarcl 3099 

LaserWriter II SC 2249 

LaserWriter II NT 3699 

LaserWriter II NTX SI 99 



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MC/VISA, You will not be charged until shipped. Prices subject to change without notice. 



FORTRAN PROGRAMMERS 

If you are serious about your FORTRAN on the 
Macintosh, you should be using DCM's 
MACTRAN PLUS. 

MACTRAN PLUS is a fully integrated 
development system comprising of: 

an Editor with multiple files capability 

a native code optimising Compiler with the option 

to generate in-line 68020/68881 code 

■ an on-line Symbolic, Source Level Debugger 

■ a Linker with Library facilities 



Featuring: 

simplified interface and full access to Mac Toolbox 
* full ANSI 77 standard with extensions from VAX and 

ANSI 8X for easy porting of mini and mainframe 

applications: including Namelist, DOWHILE, IMPLICIT 

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generate clickable, stand alone applications 

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Macintosh is a trademark of Apple Computer. Inc. MACTRAN PLUS is a 
trademark of DCM Ltd. Other brand and product names are trademarks of theii 
respective holders. 




THE FACTS 



MacRecorder 
$199 

Requirements: 
Any Mac with at least 
512K bytes of memory; 
Farallon recommmends 
at least 1 megabyte and two 
800K-byte floppy disk 
drives for working with 
SoundEdit; HyperSound 
requires at least 1 
megabyte of memory, at 



tion yet— a program for put- 
ting recorded sounds into 
HyperCard stacks. 

The MacRecorder digi- 
tizer, about the size of a big 
mouse, has a built-in micro- 
phone, microphone-in and 
line-in jacks, and a volume 
knob. It plugs into either the 
modem or the printer port. If 
you've got an older Mac with 
DB-9 ports , you'll first have to 
find an adapter cable; the digi- 
tizer connector has an 8-pin 
male plug. You can record 
sound live or from an audio 
system. With two MacRe- 
corders, you can record two 
channels simultaneously. The 
built-in microphone isn't bad; 
I recorded live sounds and 
taped music with it, and the re- 
sults were free of distortion. 

The device samples sound 
at 22 kHz, but if you want to 
save space, you can set it as low 
as 5 kHz (where you can store 
as much as 3 minutes in a 
megabyte of RAM or disk 



least 128K bytes of ROM, a 
hard disk drive, and 
HyperCard; users of older 
Macs will need a cable 
with male DB-9 and female 
DIN-8 connectors. 



Farallon Computing 
2150KittredgeSt. 
Berkeley, CA 94704 
(415) 849-2331 
Inquiry M142. 



space; at 22 kHz, the maxi- 
mum is 45 seconds). When 
each second at 22 kHz takes up 
22K bytes of memory, you 
have to decide between sound 
quality and storage. Farallon 
says MacRecorder will "accu- 
rately" record frequencies of 
up to 10 kHz. 

After you've gotten the 
sounds into the Mac, you can 
work with them using Sound- 
Edit. The program displays a 
window of waveforms; below 
it are the function icons (e.g. , 
record, playback, and input 
level) and indicators (e.g., a 
box that shows the length of a 
waveform). You work with the 
waveform as you would a piece 
of text: selecting, editing, cut- 
ting and pasting, and changing 
characteristics. Sound strings 
can be stored in formats for 
other applications, such as 
Studio/Jam Session, Sound- 
Cap, and VideoWorks. 

The powerful editor has a 
continued 



8 BYTE • 1988 Mac Special Edition Circle M20 on Reader Service Card 




Affordable CADD. And it's 
only the beginning. 

The CADD stands for Com- 
puter Aided Design and Draft- 
ing. With a suggested retail 
price of just $99.95, Generic 
CADD Level 1 makes the power 
of real CADD affordable. And 
it's just part of a family of 
Generic CADD products that 
will make you more productive 
than ever before. 




Standard Mat interface for 
ease of use. 

Now you can produce accu- 
rate drawings with real world 
scale on the Mac Plus, Mac SE, 
or Mac II. You can edit multiple 
drawings in separate windows 
and cut and paste between 
them. CADD Level 1 is also 
multifinder compatible. 

Symbol Libraries boost 
productivity. 

From office furniture to spe- 
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our Symbol Libraries save you 
the time of redrawing repeti- 
tive elements every time you 
need them. 

Add the power of real CADD 
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Move your Macintosh draw- 
ings into the real world. Call us 
at 1-800-228-3601 for your free 
CADDalog or the name of your 
Generic dealer. And find out 
why we say the only thing 
generic about us is the price. 



© 1988 Generic Software, Inc. Generic CADD Level 1 
is not copy protected and comes with a 60-day money 
back guarantee. Registered users get free technical 
support from Generic. 

Level l,and Generic CADD ure trademarks of Generic 
Software, Inc. Macintosh is a trademark of the Apple 
Computer Corp. 

1 191 1 North Creek Parkway South, Bolhell, WA 9801 1 



Circle M27 on Reader Service Card 
(DEALERS: M28) 



Gene 



ric 











Circle M53 on Reader Service Card 



«< 



• * 



VAXtotheMacs 
Specialists ~With A 
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SHORT TAKES 



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good box of special effects 
that let you do all kinds of 
things to the sounds you've re- 
corded, including adding re- 
verb, changing pitch and vol- 
ume, filtering, and flanging. 
The program can also gener- 
ate frequency-modulated sig- 
nals and tones. 

One of my favorite effects 
turns recordings backward; 
we could have used something 
like this 20 years ago to run 
Beatles songs backward and 
find out if Paul was really 
dead, without ruining our 
record players. 

SoundEdit also has a mixer 
that lets you work with input 
from four different channels. I 
don't know if professional stu- 
dio engineers would use this 
program (and I'm sure Faral- 
lon doesn't expect them to), 
but you could use it at home to 
do some interesting things 
with music tracks. 

HyperSound is where you 
can get really constructive 
with this package. It' s an inno- 
vative program for recording 
mono sounds and then pain- 
lessly copying them into 
HyperCard stacks, from 
which you can play them back. 
The possibilities for develop- 
ers working on music instruc- 
tion or history stacks, for just 
one sample application, are in- 
triguing. And it really works. 

Getting graphics into Hyper- 



Card is simple; Farallon has 
made getting sound into it just 
as easy. You just record the 
sound or music or voice using 
MacRecorder and then copy it 
to the stack that you want it in; 
you don't have to do any 
HyperTalking. Due to Hyper- 
Card limitations, output has to 
be in mono. 

HyperSound' s interface 
looks like a cassette tape deck; 
you don't have to be a record- 
ing engineer to figure this 
thing out. The accompanying 
manual has a good section on 
sound and recording, explain- 
ing things like waveforms and 
frequencies, samples and 
cycles, and envelopes and 
mixers. 

This is one of the best Mac 
packages out there because 
it's innovative and inexpen- 
sive; it lets you work with 
sound and play with sound. 
For people developing stack- 
ware, it's a low-cost way to 
add sounds to stacks, which 
is no little feat. My one com- 
plaint is that I wish Farallon 
would sell a version that 
comes with the adapter (male 
DB-9 and female DIN-8 con- 
nectors) needed to hook 
MacRecorder to older Macs. 
Finding such a cable is not 
easy in some parts of the 
world, like New Hampshire, 
for example. 

— D. Barker 



Aldus Makes a Fine Program 
Even Finer: PageMaker 3.0 



**318-865-6743** 



Having done time in a 
newspaper production 
room, I'm partial to the paste- 
up approach to page makeup. 
You know: Take the typeset 
galley, run it through the hot 
wax, slap it down on the 
gridded layout sheet, and hack 
at it with an X-acto knife until 
it fits the design (or at least 
seems to fit). I took an instant 
liking to Aldus 's PageMaker 
because it uses the paste-up 
metaphor, an intuitive ap- 
proach that makes sense to 
me, and it means no more 
cranky typesetters, hot wax- 



ers, and deadly knives. 

But I had enough problems 
with the first version of the 
program to make me start 
shopping around for another 
desktop publishing package. 
The 1985 edition of Page- 
Maker sometimes just did 
weird things. Text wouldn't 
flow properly into the col- 
umns, chunks of type would 
disappear, and sometimes the 
program just wouldn't do what 
it was supposed to do. These 
inexplicable problems didn't 
occur consistently, which 
continued 



10 BYTE • 1988 Mac Special Edition Circle M45 on Reader Service Card 



Mac II/PC Workstation 



Recapture Valuable 
Desk Space! 

Everyone who needs the power of a 
Personal Computer or Mainframe also 
needs the space that the Monitor and 
Processor occupy. With no desk space 
to organize work and lay out projects, 
the computer's effectiveness is limited. 
The Mac II/PC Workstation by Ergotron 
takes a totally new approach to work- 
station ergonomics. It provides a unique 
arm suspension system and shelf area 
giving the operator the ultimate in ad- 
justability and space savings. 

The Radial Arm raises the monitor off 
the desk and an adjustable Shelf takes 
the Processor out of the way, but still 
within reach of the operator. 

The list of features includes: 

• A sturdy tubular frame that is 
positioned on the side of or 
behind your desk or work area. 

• 6" vertical Monitor adjustment 
with the simple touch of a hand. 

• 20" horizontal Radial Arm 
adjustment - the monitor can be 
pushed into a "park" position. 

• The Mechanism on the end of 
the Radial Arm provides 
unequalled 360° rotational and 
20° tilt adjustment for the CRT. 

• Adjustable Processor shelf. 

• Compatible with Macintosh, PC's 
& compatibles, Mainframes, and 
other CRT's and graphics systems 
that have monitors weighing up to 
65 lbs. 

• Ideal for Businessmen, Engineers, 
Graphics Designers, & Desktop 
Publishers. 

For more information, contact Ergotron 
or your local Computer Dealer. 




e=R<3o i Hon 

3450 Yankee Drive, Suite 100 
Eagan, MN 55121 
612/452-8135 • 800/888-8458 



® 



Circle M25 on Reader Service Card 



1988 Mac Special Edition 'BYTE 11 



Circle M50 on Reader Service Card 



Make Your Mac Into a 
Forecasting Wizard! 



RATS 

Time Series/Econometrics 

RATS is your key to an integrated environment for analy- 
sis, forecasting and graphics with time series data. Gen- 
erate forecasts using Box -Jenkins (ARIMA), exponential 
smoothing, large model simulations, and others. Use the 
wide variety of regression procedures to analyze your 
data. Almost unlimited power is yours for only $300!! 
Call or write for more information today! 

EZ-X11 

Seasonal Adjustment 

With EZ-X11 and your Mac, seasonal adjustment has 
never been easier. It handles both quarterly and monthly 
adjustments, and includes trading day and holiday op- 
tions. You can adjust series singly or set up EZ-X11 to 
adjust hundreds at a time. The full Mac interface makes 
XI 1 comprehensible. At $150.00, it's a program you 
must have. (Works with or without RATS). 



SHORT TAKES 



VAR Econometrics 

P.O.Box 1818 
Evanston, IL 60204-1818 



(800) 822-8038 

(312)864-8772 




Pack your Mac in seconds 

Padded Cordura case holds either Macintosh Plus or 
SE. Padded interior compartments protect and 
organize your Mac's keyboard, mouse and external 
drive. It's easy to carry with leather handle grip and 
adjustable non-slip shoulder strap. 
Six colors: Black, Burgundy, Charcoal, Navy, 

Royal and Platinum 
New version also holds extended keyboard. 

For a dealer near you call toll free 

1-800-548-0053 

West Ridge Designs 

1236 N.W. Flanders • Portland, OR 97209 





THE FACTS 



PageMaker 3.0 
$595 ($75 upgrade for 
registered owners of 2.0) 

Requirements: 
Macintosh Plus, SE, or II 
with a hard disk drive; 
System 4. 1 and Finder 
5.5 or higher 



made them even more f rustrat- 
ing. But the fact that they 
weren't consistent makes me 
wonder if some Mac weird- 
ness was to blame. (I've seen 
Mac users with EE degrees 
shrug and say, "Well, the Mac 
just does screwy things some- 
times. ") I came close to being 
unemployed once when a long 
document was delayed be- 
cause of my problems with 
PageMaker. 

Aldus fixed all that with 
version 2.0. I've pushed that 
program hard and not run into 
any snags. With PageMaker 
3.0 for the Mac, PageMaker 
got even better. 

The biggest change to 3 .0 is 
a feature Aldus calls "auto- 
flow." In the older editions, 
you have to place text on the 
page column by column. You 
click the mouse, and the text 
pours onto the page, stopping 
when it gets to the bottom of 
the first column. You then 
click on a little thing that looks 
like a window-shade handle to 
get the rest of the text, move to 
the next column, and pour in 
some more text. You keep 
doing this clicking and load- 



Aldus Corp. 
411 First Ave. S 
Seattle, WA 98104 
(206) 622-5500 
Inquiry M143. 



ing/clicking and pouring, col- 
umn after column, until the 
whole story is on the page. 

Well, with autoflow, you 
have to click only to get the text 
pouring out; the program will 
then snake it into subsequent 
columns and not stop until the 
whole threaded file is down on 
the page. This automatic flow- 
ing of text doesn't work with 
complicated or fancy lay- 
outs—for that, you have to use 
the old manual approach or the 
new semiautomatic ap- 
proach—but it works swell 
with basic pages. This might 
not sound like a big deal, but if 
you're working on a long 
document that involves laying 
down lots of files on multi- 
column pages, autoflow can 
save you hours. 

If you need to wrap text 
around graphics, the semi- 
automatic text-flow mode is 
adequately fast and easy to 
use. In general, PageMaker is 
now considerably better at 
placing text in unusual ways 
and gives a designer more 
flexibility in laying out a page. 

Aldus has also added publi- 
continued 



12 BYTE • 1988 Mac Special Edition Circle M52 on Reader Service Card 




YOU CAN 
WRESTLE WITH 

A FEW 
THOUSAND LINES 

OF CODE TO 

PROGRAM YOUR 

EXPERIMENTS. 

Developing scientific experiments takes creativity. 
Writing code to run them takes sweat. At least it used to. 
But no longer. Because we've just solved the scientific 
and engineering programming problem. 




FRiEQUEKCT SWFtP CONTROLS 

| haxg ; j I }m cq" i , yj Transfer Function H<l) 



htlHHll Ws.} 

Amplitude 

- 2 00— 



# 





. • '- " ■. 






j 








™l 




- J 




1 2 3 f 


-«ri»o» "i>i> S ' 



OR YOU CAN USE 
LabVffiW. 

Picture the perfect programming language. 

Imagine software where diagrams are really executable 
programs. 

Imagine running experiments and simulations through 
front panels that look and act just like instruments. On 
screen! 

Imagine reusable software modules that can control 
your instruments, in any application. Programs for data 
acquisition, data reduction, signal processing, analysis, 
conversion, and display. 

Imagine a programming environment so powerful that 
productivity is measured in hours instead of days. 

The Macintosh made it possible . Lab VIEW made it 
happen. Automated testing, measurement, and simula- 
tion has never been easier or faster. 

Call for details. 800/531-4742. 



DESKTOP ENGINEERING HAS ARRIVED. 

igT NATIONAL 

kin 




f 



Circle M38 on Reader Service Card 



INSTRUMENTS 

12109TechnologyBlvd. 
Austin. TX 78727 
800/531-4742 512/250-9119 



1988 Mac Special Edition • BYTE 13 



Computers For 
The Blind 

Talking computers give blind and visually 
impaired people access to electronic infor- 
mation. The question is how and how 
much? 

The answers can be found in "The Second 
Beginner's Guide to Personal Computers for 
the Blind and Visually Impaired" published 
by the National Braille Press. This compre- 
hensive book contains a Buyer's Guide to 
talking microcomputers and large print dis- 
play processors. More importantly it in- 
cludes reviews, written by blind users, of 
software that works with speech. 

Send orders to: 

National Braille Press Inc., 

88 St. Stephen Street, Boston, MA 02115 

(617) 266-6160 

NBP is a nonprofit braille printing and publishing house. 



Equations Made Easy 



Expressionist™ 2.0 

-*■ Thp Pprcnn^l Mat hcma. iral Knnallnn Editor 



SHORT TAKES 



The Personal Mathematical EquaLion Editor 



2 -Way TeX 
Interface 



enample doc I 



— s r iw i na TTT LE g ansmis si fl i i eng m aen TB t a t ngn r wara- — 
propogatiitg" waves, 7^ . has the following asymptotic 
form for long wavelengths: 



^77) 



g B 






no transmission 1 
in limit ^r-»0;i 



T-<2rW (2M *>"' 



r analysis for waves that impinge on 
black hole from outside ("leftward- 



IQtPaqe 1 



Paste into any Word Processor 
or Page Layout document as 
PICT or text format. 



All mathematical symbols available from an 
editable palette. 

Expressionist 2.0 is a powerful application and desk ac- 
cessory that enables mathematical equations to be quickly 
and easily placed into your word processor or page layout 
documents. If you use equations, and you have a Macin- 
tosh, you will find Expressionist very useful. All you do is 
create, copy, paste, and get results like this: 

, a,...afl,...fl 



sin (x) - 



dt 



p! 



1-r 



IK. 



-A 



..aB...fi 



-»y. 



Send SI 29.95 to: 

allan bonadio associates 

814 Castro Street #54 

San Francisco, CA 941 14-2809 

(415)282-5864 



=A i 



,«,-«A-a 



. I r, r„ 

"An excellent toolkit that all 
technical people should have...' 

- Jean Louis Gassee, Apple Computer Inc. 



cation templates to Page- 
Maker. These are predefined 
layouts for different kinds of 
documents, such as a newslet- 
ter, a brochure, a business re- 
port, or a product spec sheet. 
Chic designers wouldn't dare 
use such things, but if you're 
in a hurry to produce a docu- 
ment that looks clean and 
readable, these templates are 
useful . You just delete the text 
that's on the prefashioned 
pages and dump in your own 
from your word-processing 
package. Minor adjustments 
depend on how fussy you are, 
and you can make major ad- 
justments to these templates if 
you're so inclined. 

I can't do justice to Page- 
Maker's capabilities and fea- 
tures in this space. I've got 
enough room to say that 3 . is a 



better package and is worth 
every penny of the $75 up- 
grade from2.0. I've yet to find 
a bug. The manuals are some 
of the best I've read; Aldus 
does a fine job explaining how 
to use what could be a very 
complicated program. If you 
don't like reading manuals, 
you can work your way 
through this program just by 
jumping into it. But I wouldn't 
recommend that. 

Although I've got a list of 
things I'd love to see incorpo- 
rated in the next version, my 
only complaint with 3 . is that 
it requires a hard disk drive, 
which means another expense 
for some users and (here 
comes the bottom line) means 
I can't run it on my Mac at 
home. 

— D. Barker 



Push-Button Programming 
for HyperCard 



While you can use Hyper- 
Card without doing any 
programming, the HyperTalk 
scripting language allows you 
to customize HyperCard but- 
tons, cards, and fields. Unfor- 
tunately, Apple's HyperCard 
user manual provides little in- 
formation on how to use Hy- 
perTalk. So, to learn it, you 
must turn to other sources. 
One is scriptExpert, written 
by Dan Shafer and distributed 
by Hyperpress Publishing. 

The scriptExpert program 
is a push-button code genera- 
tor for HyperTalk. You can 



THE FACTS 



scriptExpert 
$79.95 

Requirements: Macintosh 
Plus, SE, or II with 1 
megabyte of memory and 
HyperCard 

Hyperpress Publishing 
P.O. Box 8243 
Foster City, CA 94404 
(415) 345-4620 
Inquiry M144. 



write HyperTalk scripts by 
simply selecting commands 
and messages that are dis- 
played on the screen in the 
form of buttons. As you select 
commands, scriptExpert 
prompts you for appropriate 
messages, arguments, and 
loop constructs. For example, 
say you want to add a button to 
a card that beeps and displays a 
message. From the script- 
Expert command screen, you 
select the Beep command and 
enter the number of beeps you 
want. Then you select the 
Answer command and enter 
the message and user re- 
sponses desired. As you enter 
correct HyperTalk com- 
mands, the resulting script ap- 
pears in a window in the right 
corner of the screen. An on- 
line help library is included 
that provides help and exam- 
ples for any HyperTalk com- 
mand. You can also zoom into 
the script window for full- 
screen editing of your script. 
After saving your script, you 
can return to the appropriate 
stack and paste the script into a 
button. 

continued 



14 BYTE • 1988 Mac Special Edition Circle M3 on Reader Service Card 




ew 




§€ 



&? 



It's about time. 



New features 
make Tempo II 
smarter, easier, 
faster! 



Smart controls. Menu, dialog 
box, check box and window actions re- 
play as intended, even when conditions 
change. 

Play macros by name. It's your 
choice-play a macro by its key code or 
by typing its name in a popup dialog 
box. And, specify how many times to 
repeat the macro when you play it! 

Autopaste. Turn any selected text 
or graphics into a macro, to insert para- 
graphs, artwork, etc., with a keystroke. 

Universal macros. Macros you 
record in one program can play in all 
programs. 

Popup menu. The Tempo II menu 
is always available, even when other 
menus cannot be selected. 

Plus features from 
Tempo 1.2... 

Pause for a given time, until a preset 
time, or for user entry. Include your 
own dialog box to guide a new user. 

Link macros together, either directly 
or conditionally, based on any text that 
may be copied via the Clipboard. Nest 
macros, too, virtually without limits. 

Repeat for any number of times, or 
repeat if or until a condition is met. 

Real Time— replay cursor move- 
ments and delays exactly as you record- 
ed them. 

Tempo 1.2 owners-Upgrade to Tempo II 
for only $49! Call us, or send check or 
credit card order today! 

For Macintosh Plus, SE and Mac II. Great 
with MultiFinder, works wonders with win- 
dows on large or multiple screens, ideal for 
hard-driven Macs (and their masters). 

©I988 Affinity Microsyslems, Lid. All rights reserved. 




Save time... 

"I couldn't use my 
Macintosh with- 
out Tempo." 

— V.P., Food Processing Industry 
Commerce, California 

Save effort. .. 

"Has made my 
medical reports a 
joy to compile!" 

—Consultant Obstetrician 
London 

Save money... 

"Tempo saves us 
30 payroll hours 
a week." . - CPA 

San Francisco 



The next step in Macintosh automation. 



Simply record your actions for instant replay 



Tempo II watches and records while 
you work, then goes to work for you. 
In any program. Instantly. 

From a repetitive font and size 
change, to a series of complex data 
base entries, record them once, replay 
with a single command. Tempo II 
saves you time, which makes your 
work faster, easier, fun even. 

One click starts recording. Even mac- 
ros that automatically repeat and 
branch to others are recorded with 
point-and-click simplicity. 

New features make your work easier. 
Transfer instantly between programs 



and files. Autopaste text or graphics. 
Perform hundreds of search and move 
operations. All with a keystroke. 

See for yourself. Let Tempo II put all of 
your manual labors on automatic. 

$149.95 with a 90-day money-back guar- 
antee. Buy Tempo II today-you'll start sav- 
ing time and effort immediately, every time 
you use your Macintosh. Call us for the name 
of a Tempo II dealer nearest you. 

Call 800-367-6771 today 



i 



Affinity 



Affinity Microsystems, Ltd. 

1050 Walnut Street, Suite 425 
Boulder, CO 80302 
303-442-4840 
800-367-6771 



Circle M2 on Reader Service Card 



1988 Mac Special Edition • BYTE 15 



Circle M43 on Reader Service Card 



EXPANSION CHASSIS 
for the Macintosh 



SHORT TAKES 



Accelerators 
Large Screen Monitors 
Communications 
Data Acquisition 
Transputers 
MS-DOS 




Second Wave expansion 
chassis come complete 
with an interface card, 
cables, and the chassis 
with SE or NuBus slots, 
a power supply and fan. 



ExpanSE, ExpanSE Plus, & 
Expanse II, expansion 
chassis from Second Wave, 
Inc., enable your Macintosh 
SE, Plus, & II to work with a 
full array of option boards. 

Users: Make your Macintosh a 
powerful personal workstation 
with a Second Wave expansion 
chassis full of option boards. 
Dealers: Increase add-on sales 
with option boards and a 
chassis. Demonstrate option 
boards in your store by using a 
chassis in your showroom. 
Developers: Use the chassis as 
a research & development tool 
for hardware design & debug. 
Manufacturers: Use the chassis 
as a burn-in rack or test bed. 

To order a 
chassis, contact: 
Second Wave, Inc. 
9430 Research Blvd. 
Echelon II, Suite 260 
Austin, TX 78759 
(512) 343-9661 




SECOUD 

WAVE 



Protect Your Copies of BYTE 



NOW AVAILABLE: Custom-designed library files or 
binders in elegant blue simulated leather stamped in 
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Binders — Holds 
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four for $27.95. 





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BYTE m 



At first glance, scriptEx- 
pert seems very inflexible. 
When you start a script, you 
have to either finish it or start 
over. The scriptExpert pro- 
gram insists on correct syntax 
and won't let you add invalid 
commands to your script. You 
can't save partially completed 
scripts and then come back 
later and edit them. But the 
purpose of scriptExpert is to 
help you generate working 
scripts, and the inflexibility 
actually helps novice Hyper- 
Talk programmers avoid 
bugs. Experienced program- 
mers will find scriptExpert 
useful because it reduces the 
amount of typing you have to 
do. For example, say you want 
to create an IF . . . THEN . . . 
ELSE loop. The scriptExpert 
program sets up the If loop, 
and you just fill in the condi- 
tional statements and variable 
values. The program automat- 
ically indents the appropriate 
code within the loop to make 
your script easy to follow . 



If your script does have logi- 
cal bugs, you can edit the 
script using HyperCard's 
built-in editor. 

My only complaint is that 
scriptExpert does not recover 
well from user errors. I lost a 
couple of scripts by making 
mistakes when editing the 
script window on my own. 

The 50-page scriptExpert 
user manual is primarily a tu- 
torial that takes you step-by- 
step through the process of de- 
veloping a HyperCard stack 
application. Knowing virtu- 
ally nothing about HyperTalk 
programming, I found the tu- 
torial extremely helpful in un- 
derstanding the basic concepts 
of developing a HyperCard 
application on my own. Al- 
though experienced program- 
mers may find scriptExpert 
useful, it is really aimed at be- 
ginners learning HyperTalk. 
A good complement to the pro- 
gram is Dan Shafer's book, 
HyperTalk Programming . 

—Nick Baran 



Text Retriever Pops Up 
on the Mac 



Gofer, that handy little 
pop-up program for 
finding text buried in a file 
somewhere, has helped me out 
countless times on my MS- 
DOS machine. Because I also 
use a Macintosh, I was inter- 
ested when Microlytics 
brought out a Mac version of 
the search-and-retrieve pro- 
gram. We've got a densely 
populated 80-megabyte hard 
disk in the BYTE Lab Mac II; 
there are so many files and 
folders on it that it's tough to 
quickly find whatever it is 
you're looking for. 

The program works as a 
desk accessory. After you call 
it up, you tell Gofer what you 
want it (Microlytics insists on 
calling it "him") to find, 
where you want it to look, and 
how you want it to look. The 
program will search for any 
combination of characters or 
numbers, which you specify 
in a text-entry box. You then 



tell Gofer where to go, and it 
will look in any or every file or 
folder on any floppy or hard 
disk. The program goes on its 
search and keeps you posted in 
a window, in which you can 
see where Gofer is looking and 
how many finds it's hitting. 
The program will flash the 
finds on the screen as it flies 
through files or will stop at 
each find, depending on how 
you've set up the search. 

You can get very specific 
about what you send Gofer 
after; you can instruct it to 
find exact matches or "close" 
matches. Asking for close 
matches can be risky, though. 
On a search of document files 
for anything close to OS/2, for 
example, Gofer turned up 
hundreds of finds, including 
just about every word that be- 
gan with O. Microlytics says 
this approach will be fine- 
tuned for the next version. 

If you want to be really pre- 



16 BYTE • 1988 Mac Special Edition 



SHORT TAKES 




THE FACTS 



Gofer 

$79.95 


Microlytics, Inc. 
300 Main St. 




East Rochester, NY 14445 


Requirements: 

Mac 512Ke with System 

4. 1 /Finder 5.5 or higher 


(800) 828-6293 
(716) 377-0130 
Inquiry M145. 



cise and thorough, you can set 
up Boolean searches using the 
logical operators AND, OR, 
NOT, or NEARBY; for exam- 
ple, you could tell Gofer to 
look for Shapiro NEARBY 
Pournelle, and it should find 
all the places where Shapiro 
and Pournelle are mentioned 
within a certain specified dis- 
tance of each other. 

Gofer will copy files to the 
Clipboard or write them to an 
application. If you want a hard 
copy of what you find, you can 
send the retrieved text to a 
printer. This capability wasn't 
implemented in the beta ver- 
sion I used, which was called 
1 .Oa33 , but Microlytics says it 
will be ready soon. The pro- 
gram can also work as a file 
browser, letting you scan se- 
lected files without having to 
set up a search. 

I used Gofer to look through 
tons of Word and PageMaker 
documents, scattered across 
hard and floppy disks. In its 
simple search mode, it almost 
always found what I asked it to 
look for. When I polished up 
the search using the operators, 
it always found the text I asked 
it to look for. The only odd- 
ness was the scrambling of 



PageMaker files. In Gofer's 
display window, they were 
readable but filled with gib- 
berish text and hieroglyphics. 
This should be corrected when 
Microlytics (or developer Mil- 
lennium Computer Corp.) 
adds new "handlers" for dif- 
ferent storage formats. 

It's asking for trouble to 
compare the MS-DOS version 
of a program with the Mac ver- 
sion, but I'll do it anyway. 
While both programs are 
good, reliable, fast text re- 
trievers, the Mac version is 
easier to use. The whole Mac 
approach— windows, menus, 
and dialog boxes— makes it 
easier to set up a search. On 
the other hand, it took me a 
while to get comfortable with 
the MS-DOS version. 

After Microlytics imple- 
ments the features mentioned 
in the prerelease documenta- 
tion (such as letting you be 
more specific as to which files 
to look in) and makes the 
"close match" unit more dis- 
criminating as to what it turns 
up, Gofer will be a fine desk 
accessory for anyone who has 
to go through lots of crowded 
places to find something. 

— D. Barker 



A T H A N A 

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1 Macintosh Typeface/ 1 

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See what they're offering before you buy. 
The encyclopedia is FREE, but there is a 





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Circle M31 on Reader Service Card 1988 Mac Special Edition 'BYTE 17 



People who deal with'baud 
of McGraw-Hill information. 



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Everyone in the business keeps up with the 
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For MIS/EDP and communications professionals, 
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Circle M22 on Reader Service Card 

©1988 Douglas Electronics Photography: ©1987 Ted Jew 



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BYTE 

MACINTOSH SPECIAL EDITION 



Twelve 
Ail-Time Favorites 



Ezra Shapiro 



Let's say you were going to be ship- 
wrecked on a desert island for the rest of 
your life, and someone offered you a 
twist on the classic question. Instead of 
the traditional 10 favorite books or 
records, you would be allowed to bring 
your 10 most prized software packages 
for your Macintosh (yes, it's a very re- 
fined desert island, with three-pronged 
electrical outlets all over the place). 
What would you choose, and why? 

The above is a therapeutic exercise that 
was suggested to me by Bruce Webster as 
a way to help me narrow my focus when I 
was beginning to work on this article. I 
dutifully sweated over my list, cheated a 
little ("Does it have to be 10? How about 
14?"), and came up with my own per- 
sonal Mac favorites. Some of the choices 
were predictable— and some were a little 
weird— but I had concocted my list. 

I proceeded to put it away and ignore it 
for a week; when I returned to it, I no- 
ticed that it made a pretty good assess- 
ment of the state of refinement, or lack 
thereof, in the Macintosh universe. It 
also recapitulated my history with the 
Mac, a long story of alternately falling in 
and out of love with the machine. 

In the Beginning 

These days, it's not very fashionable to 
advocate a computing environment based 
on a closed system architecture. In many 
ways, however, today's open Macintosh 
owes its rich universe of software— if not 
its very existence— to the authoritarian 
nature of its initial design. Ask any mem- 
ber of the original Macintosh design 
team, from Jef Raskin on down, and 
you'll get the same answer: The Mac se- 
duced developers into using a standard- 
ized interface. 

The difficulty of writing meaningful 
code in the limited memory space of the 
first 128K-byte Mac made the interface 
routines provided in the machine's ROM 
so attractive to programmers that they 
adopted the standard Macintosh "look" 
without too much grumbling. The Tool- 



Ezra recounts the 

Mac 's history 

and names his dozen 

top programs 



box ROM turned out to be far more than a 
collection of shortcuts for programmers; 
it became the guiding force in all Mac 
software. The combination of the Tool- 
box, a modular program structure, and 
extensive use of bit-mapped graphics 
proved to be a fertile ground indeed for 
the development of new software. 

And it was new software, too, built 
around graphics rather than text. The 
Mac was the first successful personal 
computer that pumped out pixels rather 
than characters (though characters could 
be made from pixels easily enough). 
Looking back, it's not surprising that 
MacPaint was the program that propelled 
the Mac into consumers' hearts, while 
MacWrite evoked little enthusiasm, par- 
ticularly from business buyers. But as the 
Mac slowly matured, the software base 
grew with it. The gaps began to be filled 
with spreadsheets, database managers, 
and other prosaic applications. It took a 
few years, but the Mac became a "real" 
computer at last. 

But in the beginning, the Mac was 
something of a dog. Intriguing, yes. 
Easy to use, yes. But boy, was it frustrat- 
ing to do any serious computing on the 
machine. 

When I first joined the staff of BYTE 
in 1983, 1 found a Lisa on my desk. After 
playing with it for a few days, noting its 
slowness and inflexibility, I embarked 
on a serious project to unload the ma- 
chine on anyone in the office who would 



take it off my hands. I worked out a trade 
and was relieved to replace the Lisa with 
a stock IBM PC. Nothing fancy, but soft- 
ware availability alone made the ex- 
change worthwhile. 

The Lisa spawned the Macintosh, and 
in 1984 a few Macs began filtering into 
the office. What caught my fancy— and 
indeed made everyone take notice of this 
new machine— was MacPaint. On a 
character-oriented machine like the IBM 
PC, I pushed words and numbers. On the 
Mac, I could doodle or even produce le- 
gitimate artwork. I was enchanted. So 
here we have the first program category 
for one of my Mac favorites— design. 

Today, I vote for SuperPaint from Sili- 
con Beach Software. It's a direct descen- 
dant of MacPaint, but it allows for much 
greater refinement. You can create with 
all the MacPaint tools, perform distor- 
tions, swap graphics with a wide range of 
other programs, edit at laser-printer res- 
olution, magnify and shrink your work 
area with pinpoint control, and, in gen- 
eral, have a real good time. SuperPaint 
also lets you work on a second plane of 
draw-type artwork, so you also get much 
of the functionality of MacDraw. 

I have to give a nod of appreciation to 
GraphicWorks, which is equal in many 
respects to SuperPaint, though more con- 
fusing and tougher to learn. Graphic- 
Works was originally named Comic- 
Works, and it's designed to integrate text 
and graphics into the sort of panels you'd 
have in a comic strip. The airbrush tool is 
more adjustable than SuperPaint's, and 
you can work on multiple layers. Another 
nod goes to Adobe Illustrator, Aldus 
FreeHand, and Cricket Draw, all excel- 
lent programs at the higher end of profes- 
sionalism for the serious artist. But the 
all-around winner is SuperPaint. 

One aside: I have to promote one other 
art program to my list, Fontographer 
from Altsys. With it, you can create your 
own laser fonts. It predates any other 
program that manipulates the Bezier 

continued 



1988 Mac Special Edition -BYTE 21 



TWELVE ALL-TIME FAVORITES 



curves that make up PostScript outlines, 
and it contains the germ of the technol- 
ogy on which they're all based. If you're 
patient, you can do wonderful things 
with this product. 

Back to the Story 

Even though I fell in love with MacPaint, 
I did not fall in love with Mac Write, 
Apple's companion word-processing 
program. The typefaces were nice, but I 
could run rings around it with grubby old 
WordStar on the IBM PC. So I held back; 
I was not yet ready to become a Mac 
convert. 

The program that started to convince 
me that the Macintosh might be a tool for 
more than creative doodling was Think- 
Tank 128 from Living Videotext. This 
gem of an outliner ran perfectly well on 
those early memory -poor Macs. Writing 
an outline, then moving branches of it 
from place to place, made perfect sense 
as a mouse operation. It was exciting to 
realize that text manipulation could, in 
fact, be a very visual process. 

ThinkTank 128 was rudimentary 
compared to the version for MS-DOS 
machines; many of the spiffier editing 
features were nixed due to memory con- 
straints. But as soon as the Macintosh 
was fattened to 512K bytes, there was 
ThinkTank 512, which was more than 
enough to fulfill the promise of its prede- 
cessor. ThinkTank 512 had a host of new 
features, including a convenient text edi- 
tor that let you create long text sections as 
part of an outline, and the ability to im- 
port graphics. ThinkTank 512 was sud- 
denly far more than an outliner; it was a 
word processor, a database for artwork, 
and a spectacular tool for constructing 
tightly organized reports. 

The reigning heir is called More 
(though Living Videotext has become 
part of Symantec), and it defines the 
state of the art in outline processing. 
More remains true to the visual outliner 
from which it grew, but it's almost an op- 
erating system in and of itself— an oper- 
ating system within the context of in- 
dented outlines. You can use the program 
to sketch ideas, flesh them out with the 
word-processing functions in the editor, 
create databases with installable outline 
templates, dial phone numbers, convert 
your outlines to tree diagrams or bullet 
charts, and on and on and on. 

More was one of the first programs to 
launch the discipline of desktop presenta- 
tion, and it is so good a program that I 
almost forgot to include it in my list. It's 
such a natural, I assume everyone has it; 
I have to remind myself that it isn't sold 
as a part of the Mac package. 



The Next Phase 

Shortly after the arrival of the 5 12K-byte 
machine, dubbed the Fat Mac, my head 
was turned even farther by PageMaker 
from Aldus and Microsoft's Excel 
spreadsheet. PageMaker was responsible 
for that all-consuming concept of desk- 
top publishing. It lets you gather text and 
artwork created with other programs and 
pull them into finished layouts. It's 
based on the metaphor of the paste-up 
artist's drawing board, and you cut and 
paste on the screen as you would in a 
graphics studio, only you can dispense 
with the scissors and the rubber cement. 
PageMaker began as a sophisticated 
piece of program design, and Aldus has 
continued to improve it. We're now up to 
version 3.0, which finally lets you create 
humongously long publications without 
having to perform every little design op- 
eration one at a time. It fully supports 
style sheets (in fact, it can exchange 
named styles with Microsoft Word 3.01), 
and it is a pleasure to use. 

I have to nod at Quark XPress and 
Ready-Set-Go! 4.0, PageMaker's 
worthy competitors, but PageMaker was 
my first love in this category. Also, 
PageMaker was the program that con- 
vinced me that the Mac was a real ma- 
chine, one that I could both use and love. 
Excel proved that the Macintosh inter- 
face was ideal for spreadsheets. Though I 
wouldn't have thought so before, it 
turned out that zooming around on a grid 
of numbers was made easier with a 
mouse. And Excel allowed linked work- 
sheets to avoid the bloat of large work- 
sheets fenced into smaller regions for 
printing. The program also has an excep- 
tionally powerful macro language. Excel 
was the spreadsheet that finally began to 
get the Mac into business workplaces. 

However, I haven't included Excel as 
one of my top choices, but only due to my 
personal habits. Though I like spread- 
sheets, I'm not a number cruncher by 
trade. I vote for Microsoft Works, a nice 
integrated package with spreadsheet, 
word processor, database, and telecom- 
munications modules. Nothing spectacu- 
lar, but solid and reliable. With the addi- 
tion of two add-in programs from Tim 
Lundeen, WorksPlus Spell (one of the 
slickest spelling correctors I've ever 
used) and WorksPlus Command (an awe- 
inspiring macro package that completes 
the job of integration), Works handles 
just about everything I need to do. Need- 
less to say, it's also my winner in the 
word-processing category. 

If you need super power in any of 
Works' areas, I'd recommend going with 
a stand-alone program (Works is a mite 



slow), but for overall flexibility, Works 
with the Lundeen additions is my pick. 

This Year's Craze 

"Hypertext," the current buzzword in 
Macintosh application design, has come 
to be a term that's at least as ill-defined 
as desktop publishing, the former title- 
holder in the ambiguity department. As 
near as I can figure, hypertext means 
"interrelated text and graphics organized 
by the creator into a structure not neces- 
sarily bound by the limits of hard-copy 
output." In other words, hypertext is an 
attempt to exploit the abilities of the com- 
puter itself as a presentation device. 
Typically, hypertext programs let you 
link screen areas (called buttons) that 
can be clicked with a mouse to reveal 
new regions of data. 

Rather than nominating HyperCard, 
Apple's hypertext Erector-Set-in-a-box, 
or Guide, a solid implementation of the 
concept, I find myself leaning toward 
TeleRobotics' Course Builder, a pro- 
gram that lets instructors manufacture 
self-contained teaching programs that 
implement many of the core ideas of 
hypertext. Written by the prolific Bill 
Appleton, Course Builder lets you link 
artwork, sound, text, and animation into 
the framework of a teaching system. A 
student can move from item to item at his 
or her own pace, answer multiple-choice 
or specific-answer quizzes, and refer to 
related materials in a neatly structured 
environment. 

What's so beautiful about Course 
Builder is that you don't have any need to 
program; you define the course using a 
straightforward "logic editor" (that's my 
phrase, not Appleton's). You simply link 
blocks representing elements of your 
course in a kind of flowchart, and then 
Course Builder does the rest for you. 

The other prong in my mild attack on 
HyperCard is provided by 4th Dimen- 
sion, the database development system 
from Acius. If you're going to have to 
program, you might as well go for top 
power. This is a full-featured relational 
database that gives the developer abso- 
lute control of the interface. You want 
your own menus, click boxes, entry 
forms, whatever? Fine, you got 'em. You 
can program and debug in a program- 
merish way, or you can build a flowchart 
(much like Course Builder), and away 
you go. This is my choice for databases. 

My third hypertext-like favorite is a 
game, Chris Crawford's Balance of 
Power. Working with maps, menus, 
graphs, and descriptions, Balance of 
Power lets you play out a global political 

continued 



22 BYTE • 1988 Mac Special Edition 



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Here's why. 

Want to draw a picture without 
ever leaving the program? Easy. 
Want to wrap text all the way 
around it or let the text flow right 
through? Easy. 
Want to see it all 
in glorious color? 
Easy. 

Need a particular 
word or phrase by 
searching through 
all files, open or 
not? Easy. 
Need to use our 
superior diction- 
ary, thesaurus, 
hyphenation or 
outlining? 
Easy. 
Want to undo what you just did 




or any number of things you 

did before? Easy 

Want to use the fastest word 

processor on the market? Easy. 

Line numbers? Envelopes? 
Auto-save? Col- 
umn selection? 
Adjustable page 
preview? Ten clip- 
boards that can 
be edited and 
printed? Your 
favorite page lay- 
out ready when 
you open a new 
file? Easy. 
It's all easy when 
you have Nisus. 

aRSGON 
concepts, inc. 

Nisus is a trademark of Paragon Concepts. Inc. 



TWELVE ALL-TIME FAVORITES 



confrontation between the U.S. and the 
USSR. Click your mouse on Mexico on 
the map, and you get a display of the sta- 
tus of your relations with that country. 
Select menu items to adjust your policies, 
read newspaper reports, or dig for his- 
torical or quantitative analysis. Very 
hyper, and one hell of a game. 

Finally, Some Fun 

VideoWorks II from MacroMind is an- 
other impressive example of pushing the 
Mac interface to its limits. It's an anima- 
tion package that lets you mix sound and 
graphics into your own Macintosh 
movies. You have to write a script (called 
a "score"), which takes some time to 
learn, but once you get the hang of it, 
you're in the motion picture business. 
VideoWorks II even provides a nice 
shortcut if you're pressed: You can place 
an object on the screen in one position, 
place it again in a second spot, and 
VideoWorks II animates the transition. 

It could very well be next year's hyper- 
text; if not, it still represents a great area 
for creative exploitation. Even if you 
don't want to make your own cartoons, 
you can use it to animate your bar-graph 
or pie-chart presentations. Imagine an 
exploded diagram that actually explodes! 

Not All Roses 

Of course, depending on whom you talk 
to, the Macintosh interface is far from 
perfect. It lacks a number of the ameni- 
ties we've come to associate with more 
traditional computer systems. The icon- 
based environment is certainly easy to 
learn, but some users eventually resent 
the way the Mac's simplicity gets in the 
way of real operating speed. I have 
rounded out my set of favorite programs 
with three utilities that extend the power 
of the Macintosh's operating system to 
cover some of the gaps. 

One of the Mac's most lamented defi- 
ciencies is the absence of a good key- 
board macro facility. Fast touch-typists 
find the constant interruption of mouse 
movements to be both distracting and 
time-consuming, particularly during 
text entry. Though most menu functions 
can be abbreviated to a combination of 
shortcut keystrokes, mouse actions (e.g., 
scrolling and selecting) are not usually 
automated from the keyboard. Enter 
QuicKeys from CE Software, a keyboard 
enhancing utility that lets you attach any 
single Mac operation to a one-keystroke 
combination command. You can still 
mouse along if you want to, but judicious 
assignment of functions to keystrokes 
will keep your fingers on the keyboard 

continued 



(619) 481-1477 Outside CA (800) 922-2993 4954 Sun Valley Rd., Del Mar, CA 92014 
24 BYTE • 1988 Mac Special Edition Circle M40 on Reader Service Card 



V.I.E 

The First Family of Macintosh Programming 



Getting the most from your Macintosh 
means taking control — programming! 
Creating full-featured Mac programs 
used to be difficult. Not any more! 
Programming a Mac is as easy as using 
one. 

Visual Programming 

The idea is to use the visual power and 
intelligence of the Mac to make it easy to 
program. You program visually and the 
Mac interacts with you, preventing 
mistakes. Thus the name Visual Interac- 
tive Programming™ or V.I. P. for short. 

V.I. P. is a new type of language where 
a graphic interface replaces a text 
editor. Traditionally, programming is 
done by typing program statements into 
an editor following the rigid rules of a 
language's arcane syntax. 

Visual programming, on the other 
hand, is done by pointing, clicking icons 
and entering expressions and arguments 
into an on-screen diagram. 

A V.I. P. program is composed of 
graphic elements which can be cut, 
copied and pasted. The program is auto- 
matically structured with classical logic 
forms such as if. . .then. . .else or loops 
such as while. . .do and for. . .next. These 
are presented graphically. The program 
becomes visual! 

V.I. P. provides more than 220 pre- 
compiled procedures, greatly simplifying 
programming. On-line help is always 
there, keeping you on track. 




V.I. P. 's Graphic Editor 



Beginners Love It 

V.I. P. , an interpreter, provides quick 
feedback. It's ideal for learning. Create 
programs with full Mac features thirty 
minutes after opening the package. A 
separate tutorial, Macintosh Introductory 
Programming, explains the basics. 

V.I. P. is also great for experienced 
programmers who are seeking a painless 
introduction to the Mac. 

Experts Are Amazed 

V.I. P. forms the nucleus of a powerful 
development system. A family of 
products offers amazing versatility. 

Managers, sold separately, add new 
procedures facilitating spreadsheets, 
databases and vertical applications. 

Translators, also sold separately, turn 
a V.I. P. program into "C" or "Pascal" 
source code, ready for compilation. 

Imagine the benefits of developing in a 
friendly, interactive environment and 
with a few mouse clicks, having a stand- 
alone application. 

Extend HyperCard & 4D 

V.I. P. programs, translated to "C", can 
be automatically compiled to HyperCard 
XCMDs or XFCNs or Fourth Dimension 
external procedures. These can offer 
added features such as multiple windows 
or full color on a Macintosh II . 

Write Programs Faster 

V.I. P. improves productivity. In tests 
at Fortune 500 corporations, programs 
were finished ten times faster. V.I. P. 
also means linear progress; the last 10% 
of a project won't take 50% of the time. 
Other benefits are structured programs 
and automatically documented modules. 

The Press Agrees 
V.I. P. received overwhelmingly positive 
reviews. MacUser called it "the wave of 
the future", while MacWorld described 
it as a "Very Important Program". 



MacTutor characterized V.I. P. as "The 

Next Generation" . 

Features 

Icon-based programming. Simplified 
interface to Mac toolbox. Visual, source 
level debugger. Fast, interpreted with 
many pre-compiled routines. 200 page 
tutorial/reference manual. 20 example 
programs (2 disks). Run-time package. 
No license fees. Not copy-protected. 




V.I.P. only $149.95 

Managers: Speech $49.95, Grid $59.95, 
Matrix $95, Advanced I $95, Advanced 
II $125, Communications $125, Data- 
base/Form $295. Translators: to Light- 
speed C or Pascal, MPW C or Pascal, or 
to Turbo Pascal $89.95 each. Tutorial: 
Macintosh Introductory Programming 
Book (2 disks/275 pages) $49.95 
Order V.I.P. Today 

To order, see your dealer or call 
Mainstay at (818) 991-6540. Master- 
card, VISA, AMEX and COD are OK. 
Add $5 for shipping/handling. CA 
residents add 6.5% sales tax. 

For more information, write or call 
Mainstay, 531 1-B Derry Ave. Agoura 
Hills, CA 91301 (818)991-6540. 

In Europe, contact Mainstay at 
71 rue des Atrebates, Brussels, Belgium 
(02) 733 97 91, Telex 62239. 

Mainstay 



Visual Interactive Programming is a trademark of Mainstay. Uglnspced is a trademark of Symantec. MPW and 1 lyperCard are trademarks of Apple computer. Fourth Dimension is a trademark of ACIUS. 



Circle M33 on Reader Service Card 



1988 Mac Special Edition -BYTE 25 



TWELVE ALL-TIME FAVORITES 



Items Discussed 




Balance of Power 


$49.95 


Suitcase 

Software Supply 


$59.95 


Mindscape 


3444 Dundee Rd. 




599 North Mathilda Ave. 




Northbrook, IL 60062 




Sunnyvale, CA 94086 




(312)480-7667 




(408)749-9311 




Inquiry M241. 




Inquiry M248. 




Course Builder 


$395 


SuperGlue 


$89.95 


TeleRobotics International 




Solutions International 




8410 Oak Ridge Hwy. 




29 Main St. 




Knoxville.TN 37931 




P.O. Box 989 




(615) 690-5600 




Montpelier, VT 05602 




Inquiry M242. 




(802) 229-9146 
Inquiry M249. 




Fontographer 


$395 






Altsys Corp. 




SuperPaint 


$149.95 


720 Avenue F, Suite 108 




Silicon Beach Software 




Piano, TX 75074 




9770 Carroll Canyon Center, 


Suite J 


(214) 424-4888 




San Diego, CA 92126 




Inquiry M243. 




(619) 695-6956 
Inquiry M2S0. 




4th Dimension 


$695 






Acius 




VideoWorksII 


$195 


20300 Stevens Creek Blvd. , Suite 495 


MacroMind 




Cupertino, CA 95014 




1028 West Wolfram St. 




(408) 252-4444 




Chicago, IL 60657 




Inquiry M244. 




(312)871-0987 
Inquiry M251. 




More 


$295 






Living Videotext 




Works 1.1 


$295 


1 17 Easy St. 




Excel 


$395 


Mountain View, CA 94043 




Microsoft 




(800) 441-7234 




1601 1 Northeast 36th Way 




(800) 626-8847 in California 




P.O. Box 97017 




Inquiry M245. 




Redmond, WA 98073 
(206) 882-8080 




PageMaker 


$595 


Inquiry M252. 




Aldus 








411 First Ave. S 




WorksPlus Command 


$99.95 


Seattle, WA 98104 




WorksPlus Spell 


$79.95 


(206) 622-5500 




Lundeen & Associates 




Inquiry M246. 




P.O. Box 30038 
Oakland, CA 94604 




QuicKeys 


$99.95 


(800) 233-6851 




CE Software 




(800) 922-7587 in California 




801 73rd St. 




Inquiry M253. 




Des Moines, I A 50312 








(515)224-1995 








Inquiry M247. 









and your train of thought intact. You can 
even chain keyboard macros into long se- 
quences, thus automating a whole string 
of commands. 

My second utility, one that is fast be- 
coming everyone's favorite, is a little 
program from Steve Brecher of Software 
Supply called Suitcase. The original 
Mac design allows for only 16 desk ac- 
cessories and a limited number of fonts 



(the maximum varies from program to 
program). If you like to have a large col- 
lection of memory-resident desk accesso- 
ries, or if you want wider access to the 
growing panoply of Mac typefaces, you 
need Suitcase. Though there are theoreti- 
cal limits, installing Suitcase gives you 
as many accessories and typefaces as any 
mortal normally needs. You're more 
likely to run out of RAM and/or disk 



space before you make Suitcase choke. 

The third utility, Solutions' Super- 
Glue, is a print-to-disk driver that lets 
you look at formatted output on the 
screen without requiring the originating 
program. If you send a file to disk using 
SuperGlue, the saved image can then be 
manipulated by any other program as if it 
were a graphic. Thus, you can capture a 
page of a spreadsheet, drop the image 
into a layout program, shrink it, and 
make marginal notes before printing it 
out. You can build a report with a word 
processor that uses the output of any so- 
phisticated analytical tool you have. 

In many cases, the SuperGlue image is 
smaller than the original file, which is 
handy for data transfer and true elec- 
tronic publishing. The program lets you 
crop, resize, reposition, and extract text 
from images to your heart's content. 
Why Apple didn't see a need for such a 
utility built into the operating system is 
beyond me, but this little gem is an essen- 
tial addition to the Mac arsenal. 

I wish I could add one more capability 
to this list of remedial utilities— batch 
files, some sort of concise language to 
pipeline a series of operations that in- 
volves a number of programs and a num- 
ber of files. I'd settle for the ability to 
add a shell to the Mac interface that could 
give me (dare I say it) a command line 
with batch handling that is not based on 
icons. I realize that this flies in the face 
of the icon-and-mouse dogma, but the 
more you work with computers, the more 
you appreciate ways to slice off a few sec- 
onds, even if it involves procedures that 
are not quite so easy to learn. 

The Wrap-Up 

There you have it, an even dozen recom- 
mendations spanning the range of Mac- 
intosh applications: SuperPaint, Fontog- 
rapher, More, Works (with WorksPlus 
Spell and WorksPlus Command), Page- 
Maker, Course Builder, 4th Dimension, 
Balance of Power, VideoWorks II, 
QuicKeys, Suitcase, and SuperGlue. If 
you ask another Mac aficionado for his or 
her top dozen selections, you probably 
won't get the same list, but I guarantee 
you'll get several duplicates. The Mac is 
getting its share of excellent software. ■ 

Ezra Shapiro is a consulting editor for 
BYTE. You can contact him on BIX as 
"ezra. " Because of the volume of mail he 
receives, Ezra, regretfully, cannot re- 
spond to each inquiry. 

Your questions and comments are wel- 
come. Write to: Editor, BYTE, One 
Phoenix Mill Lane, Peterborough, NH 
03458. 



26 BYTE • 1988 Mac Special Edition 



Breakthrough 

UsedToBeATs 

And Macs InThe 

Same Room. 



NowTheyte 

InThe Same 

Computer. 



i(l!-_i_flil ]l|r-ll> Ml.'U.rt I ulul 




6 



Macintosh II 



I. / 



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fc . fc fc ,| /L ;\ . lit 



I*''. 




It was getting pretty crowded. As more and 
more Macintoshes started showing up at 
work, the duplication of computers, monitors, 
printers and keyboards was simply getting out 
of hand. 

And while there was still a need to use vital 
programs like Lotus® 1-2-3® anddBASE® there 
was also an ever increasing demand for the 
Macintosh. Would the two computer environ- 
ments be able to work together? 

Times have changed. Now Macintosh™ lis 
can run MS-DOS® software just as easily as 
Macintosh applications. With AST's Mac286; u 
the AT-compatible, 80286 computer-on-a- 
board that runs inside the Macintosh II. Its 
advanced hardware design actually runs 
faster than an IBM® PC AT. 

With Mac286, familiar MS-DOS programs 
take advantage of many of the elements of the 
Macintosh environment. Copy and paste text, 
print on an Apple® LaserWriter® store your 
files on the Mac hard disk and share DOS files 
with other users. It's that easy. 

Of course, the future is built in, too. By 
installing an advanced hardware solution for 
MS-DOS compatibility, you're insuring a home 
for the best of today's, and tomorrow's, soft- 
ware programs. 

Because there's one thing you can always 
count on in the world of personal computers. 
Times will change. 

If you're interested in putting an AT-com- 
patible computer inside your Mac II, call AST 
at (714) 863-0181 or fill out the coupon, and 
we'll tell you ho w you can have the best of 
both worlds. 



m ■ "Improved Video 
fortnarice. / 



D Yes, send me information on the Mac286 
□ Yes, have an AST representative call me. 

Name 

Title 



Company . 
Address 



City. 



Phone . 



. State . 



.Zip. 



Send to: AST Research, Inc. 2121 Alton Ave. 



Irvine, CA 9271 4-4992. Attn: M.C. 



BYTE ; 



L 



® 

R€S€RRCH INC. 

Times Have Changed. 

AST markets products worldwide— In Europe and the Middle 
East call: 44 1 568 4350; in the Far East call: 852 5 717223. 

AST and AST logo registered and Mac286 trademark of AST 

Research, Inc. IBM and AT registered trademarks Internationa] 

Business Machines Corp. Apple and LaserWriter registered and 

Macintosh trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. MS-DOS registered 

trademark Microsoft Corp. Lotus and 1 -2-3 registered trademarks of 

Lotus Development Corp. dBASE registered trademark Ashton-Tate. 

Copyright ? 1988 AST Research, Inc. All rights reserved. 




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# • ♦ 



BYTE 

MACINTOSH SPECIAL EDITION 



Macintosh Redux 



Bruce F. Webster 



It's mid- April as I write this, and a lot of 
water has gone under the bridge since last 
I wrote for BYTE. I've moved back to 
California, penned a number of articles 
for other publications, written some 
manuals for a certain unnamed software 
firm, and have even started work on my 
first honest-to-goodness book. So, why 
am I here? Because, in light of my exten- 
sive and consistent coverage of the Mac- 
intosh from 1984 to 1987, BYTE has gra- 
ciously invited me back for the first-ever 
BYTE Macintosh supplement. They fig- 
ured I might have a few things to say, and, 
true to form, I am not at a loss for words. 
The still- warm (but cooling) news is, 
of course, the lawsuit by Apple against 
Microsoft and Hewlett-Packard for "vio- 
lation of audiovisual display copyright," 
because Apple thought that the New 
Wave user interface from HP looked too 
much like the Mac Finder. And, of course, 
Microsoft has filed a countersuit. The 
merits and issues of this case are best dis- 
cussed elsewhere (and, in fact, I think I 
will), but it indicates the direction Apple's 
attitude has taken since the Mac burst 
upon a skeptical world 4'/2 years ago. 

Evolution in Action 

I first saw the Macintosh in Guy Kawasa- 
ki's office at Apple, in December of 
1983, a month or so before its announce- 
ment. Wayne Holder and I were there, 
representing Oasis Systems/FTL Games 
as president and vice president, respec- 
tively. Our ostensible purpose was to 
consider porting our word-processing 
utilities (spelling, punctuation, and style 
checkers) to the Mac. Our real purpose 
was to see the Mac ahead of time. I was 
initially disappointed at the lack of slots, 
but Guy assured me that schemes were 
underway to use the high-speed RS-422 
ports as "virtual slots." 

Three weeks after the Mac was an- 
nounced (February, 1984), I bought one, 
off the shelf, with money out of my own 
pocket. It had 128K bytes of RAM, 64K 
bytes of ROM, a 512- by 342-pixel mono- 



The path from 

then to now 

was anything but 

easy for the Mac 



chrome display, a single 400K-byte flop- 
py disk drive, no slots (virtual or other- 
wise), and an 8-MHz 68000 processor. It 
was slow, crashed a lot, required multi- 
ple disk swaps to copy a file, and had lit- 
tle software available. But it was mine, 
and I was thrilled to have it. 

The Macintosh I use today is a Mac II, 
with 5 megabytes of RAM, 256K bytes of 
ROM, two displays (AppleColor high- 
resolution RGB monitor with a fully ex- 
panded Mac II video card, and a Sony 
GDM-1952 19-inch Trinitron RGB 
monitor with the SuperMac Spectrum 
video card), a 40-megabyte hard disk 
drive, an 800K-byte floppy disk drive, 
six NuBus slots, a 16-MHz 68020 pro- 
cessor, and a 16-MHz 68881 math co- 
processor. It's fast, seldom crashes, has 
thousands of software titles available, 
and copies files with no extra disk swap- 
ping. Unfortunately, it's not mine, and 
I'm not sure when I'll be able to come up 
with the money to buy such a system. 

Apple has come a long, long way in the 
past 4 years, as has the Macintosh. The 
Mac was initially derided as a toy or dis- 
missed as a curiosity. And through the 
last 4 years, it's always been a major 
source of controversy and contention. 
The Mac versus IBM debates have been 
hot and heavy, reaching a level of inten- 
sity reserved for such classic issues as 
calculators (RPN vs. algebraic notation), 
languages (Pascal vs. C, BASIC vs. Pas- 
cal, and assembly vs. high-level), and 



operating systems (Unix vs. anything 
else). 

Now, the Macintosh is the system that 
everyone either wants or wants to imi- 
tate, IBM included. That's something of 
an amazing feat. 

How Apple Got There 

The path from then to now was anything 
but easy for the Mac. It's hard to remem- 
ber now, and seems incredible in retro- 
spect, but it was several months after the 
Mac's introduction before external disk 
drives (much less hard disk drives) were 
generally available. After an initial spurt 
of sales, fueled by technophiles like me, 
the Mac went into a slump for almost a 
year, a slump that many believed was not 
only the end of the Mac but the end of 
Apple as well. Some of Apple's decisions 
along the way (anyone remember the 
$1000 RAM upgrade from 128K to 5 12K 
bytes?) did little to help things. Even the 
emergence of the "Fat" Mac with 512K 
bytes didn't help that much; software and 
operating system alike were space hogs, 
and the memory and disk configurations 
of the Macintosh just weren't sufficient 
to handle their demands. 

The real breakthrough, in retrospect, 
was the Mac Plus. With 1 megabyte of 
RAM and an 800K-byte floppy disk 
drive as standard, plus a small-com- 
puter-system-interface port for hard disk 
drives and significant speed improve- 
ments in the operating system and ROM, 
it was the first Mac system that had the 
resources and horsepower to do serious 
work. Sales took off, surprising every- 
one (including, I suspect, Apple); for a 
while there, the Mac Plus was the single 
best-selling model of computer in the 
U.S. The enlarged basic configuration 
and improved sales drew in a lot of soft- 
ware development firms that had been 
watching from the sidelines. 

The final steps toward success were 
the introductions of the Mac SE and the 
Mac II. Like a lot of other folks, I fo- 

continued 



Circle Ml on Reader Service Card 



1988 Mac Special Edition -BYTE 29 



MACINTOSH REDUX 



cused mostly on the Mac II (an open 
Macintosh, at last!) and dismissed the 
Mac SE as just another "toaster," in a 
platinum case instead of beige. However, 
it was the SE that shot off in sales this 
time, displacing the Mac Plus. The key 
was the capacity for an internal hard disk 
drive. Sales reports I've seen indicate 
that about 80 percent of all Mac SEs are 
sold with a hard disk drive. 

Meanwhile, the Mac II established an 
open architecture for the Mac family. 
Hardware developers now had a standard 
upon which to base their efforts, and 
owners had a machine that could be ex- 
panded with special tools and bizarre 
cables. And, despite the hefty price tag, 
Mac II sales have been strong. 

What Apple Does Right 

Given its strong financial condition and 
growth of market share, Apple has done 
many things right. But what the company 
does best isn't something that shows up 
directly on the balance sheets, though ul- 
timately it's reflected there. Its greatest 
strength is that Apple operates from a 
place of vision. 

Before I get accused of succumbing to 
Apple evangelism, let me explain. I've 
visited a lot of computer firms, talked 
with their leaders and employees, read 
their press releases, and used their prod- 
ucts. It's obvious that a lot of them have 
an attitude of "sell the iron and move 
on. " Most of those companies just get by, 
despite (in some cases) having signifi- 
cant or innovative products. The ones 
that succeed the most are the ones with a 
vision, whatever it may be. 

Apple, from what I can see, has a very 
well defined vision of the future and its 
role in that future. Its vision is reflected 
in its internal documents, in the talks 
given by its people, and by its communi- 
cations with developers. The company is 
planning now for products that will be re- 
leased in 5 years, based on how it thinks 
things will (and should) be then. Apple 
sees its products as a force for social 
change— hence the almost religious fer- 
vor at times. But this imbues the com- 
pany with a desire for innovation not 
often found at firms concerned only with 
the bottom line. 

That innovation gives Apple an impor- 
tant place in the market; it is the leader 
and everyone else is following, even IBM 
and Microsoft. What else can you say 
after an IBM spokesman, at a press con- 
ference about the forthcoming Presenta- 
tion Manager, explains the product's 
need by pointing to the relatively brief 
time required for learning how to use the 
Macintosh? Would products like Presen- 



tation Manager, GEM Desktop, and 
Amiga's Workbench really exist if it 
weren't for the Macintosh? The fact is, 
Apple has some hot ideas and technol- 
ogy, and others want it for their systems. 
In the ancient Chinese game of Go, 
there is a term, sente, which refers to one 
player having control of how the game is 
being played. I have sente if every move I 
make forces you to respond. I may have a 



pple has 
a very well defined 

vision of the 

future and its role 

in that future. 



weaker position overall, but for now, I 
get to control how the game goes, be- 
cause you perceive each of my moves as 
being too threatening to ignore. 

Apple right now has sente in the com- 
puter market. Apple plays the user-inter- 
face move; pretty soon, everyone is try- 
ing to come up with a Mac-like user 
interface (while, of course, avoiding a 
lawsuit). Apple plays the desktop pub- 
lishing move; pretty soon, everyone says 
they're into desktop publishing. As other 
moves come into play, the rest of the 
players must react. That may be overstat- 
ing the situation, but not by much. Just 
look at all the nifty "new" concepts in 
hardware and software on MS-DOS sys- 
tems and ask yourself: How many of 
these showed up on the Mac first? Apple 
leads instead of following. 

This is not to say that Apple doesn't 
derive ideas and concepts from else- 
where; its heritage from the Xerox PARC 
and other such places is well known. But 
the Xerox PARC stuff was around for 
years; why didn't anyone else use it be- 
fore Apple? As it was, IBM (and Micro- 
soft) waited until the Mac user interface 
was well established (and well proven) 
before tentatively following suit. No pun 
intended. It's easy to see how many con- 
cepts pioneered or developed on the Mac 
have migrated to other systems; there is 
little evidence of concepts flowing the 
other way. 

One more thing that Apple does right, 
at least from the viewpoint of its employ- 
ees and stockholders: It makes money. 



Lots of it. True, that's not always popu- 
lar with consumers. I've groused for 
years about Apple's standard product 
pricing policy: Start it out high, let it 
drift down as needed to keep supply and 
demand matched, make one last official 
price cut to make room for its replace- 
ment product, then (at some point) halt 
production and let the remaining inven- 
tory sell off. And it works, especially 
with good products. The result is that 
Apple had $1 billion in sales during the 
last quarter of 1987 , with net profits dou- 
ble those of a year earlier. On top of that, 
Apple has no real debts. Adjusting for the 
2-to-l stock split that took place last 
year, Apple stock currently sells for 
about $82 a share, whereas 3 years ago it 
hit bottom at around $13 a share. And 
that cash allows Apple to continue its 
innovation. 

What Apple Does Wrong 

I was tempted to make this section 
"What Apple Did Wrong," but it's too 
easy to pick over Apple's past mistakes, 
and, besides, it's been hashed over too 
many times already. What's more, 
Apple has fixed many of those problems. 
The real question is, what is Apple doing 
wrong now? 

First, Apple is squandering its advan- 
tage. Sente works only as long as you are 
willing to avoid responding directly to 
your opponent's moves. Once you decide 
to turn and fight, there's a good chance 
of sente shifting to your opponent. And I 
think that's what may very well happen 
with the Apple lawsuit against HP and 
Microsoft. 

Let me stop here to say that I am not as 
unsympathetic to Apple's suit as others 
are. Apple has a copyright on the Mac 
user interface; to fail to defend that copy- 
right could mean losing it. And, as I've 
pointed out, it is Apple who spent the 
money and took the risk, and the com- 
pany is less than thrilled about other 
folks jumping on the bandwagon after 
the fact, especially when some of those 
folks have the initials IBM. Apple has 
fought long and hard to get into corporate 
offices; its penetration is based largely 
on the strength of its user interface and its 
desktop publishing abilities. The 
IBM/MS-DOS domination is based on a 
substantially inferior user interface; how 
much of Apple's gains will disappear if 
the Other Side comes up with something 
even half as good as the Mac? 

Having made Apple's case, I must now 
assert my feelings that the lawsuit will 
ultimately cost the company more than it 
saves. Reaction among industry, press, 
and users (including a lot of Mac users) 



30 BYTE' 1988 Mac Special Edition 



MACINTOSH REDUX 



has been overwhelmingly negative. 
Some have even pointed out how good 
IBM looks by comparison. This, of 
course, ignores IBM's litigious history, 
as well as its subtle hints about landing 
with both feet on anyone cloning PS/2s 
without a license; I'm not sure the com- 
parison is valid. 

I don't think the lawsuit is unfounded, 
but I do think that it won't slow up the 
competition as much as Apple hopes, and 
it will cost the company more in goodwill 
than it's worth. Ultimately, the only way 
for Apple to continue to succeed is to 
continue to innovate. Rightly or wrong- 
ly, many interpret the lawsuit as a tacit 
admission by Apple that it doesn't have 
much else going for it. 

The second thing that Apple is doing 
wrong is ignoring the home market. MS- 
DOS clones have gotten so inexpensive 
that they are making a substantial pene- 
tration into households, hurting sales of 
Apple lis (especially the overpriced 
IIGS), Amigas, and Atari STs. Apple has 
taken a step in that direction by dropping 
the price of the Mac Plus some, but the 
drop isn't enough; you won't see signifi- 
cant home market penetration of the Mac 
until it hits the critical $999 price point. 
Given how little it costs to make a Mac 
Plus at this point (even with the rise in 
RAM prices), Apple could afford to sell 
the Mac Plus that cheap. True, margins 
on the Mac Plus itself might be a bit thin, 
but anyone who buys a Mac is going to 
buy an Imagewriter and probably an ex- 
ternal floppy or hard disk drive. 

Besides, Apple is ignoring the influ- 
ence that the home market can have on 
business purchases. If I buy a cheap MS- 
DOS clone for home, I have a strong in- 
centive to have an MS-DOS system at 
work as well. If I have a Macintosh at 
home, chances are I'm going to want one 
at work, too, both because I can bring 
work home and because it's a heck of a 
lot easier to use all the way around. Folks 
have a way of getting hooked on the Mac; 
having an inexpensive home system 
could well be another foot in the office 
door. 

Third, Apple is getting a bit too com- 
placent, smug, and fat. Complacent, in 
that it is slow to correct design flaws and 
bugs in its products and has sometimes 
been unwilling to even acknowledge 
their existence. Smug, in that the com- 
pany goes around telling everyone its vi- 
sion and seems terribly sure that no one 
else has an equal (much less superior) vi- 
sion; that no one else might pass it up in 
the race for leadership. Apple might be 
in for a surprise. Fat, in that its current 
growth is explosive and appears to bog 



down operations somewhat. I've had 
friends interview at Apple recently who 
have commented on how nobody seems 
to know fully what's going on, that they 
aren't willing to take action or make a 
decision. A recent article in the San Jose 
Mercury News (Business Section, March 
17, 1988, by Alex Barnum) stated that 
the group within Apple that is responsi- 
ble just for finding and buying real estate 
consisted of over 100 people. The symp- 
toms of corporate obesity are starting to 
appear. 

Apple's Current Problems 

On top of what I think are its current mis- 
takes, Apple also has a number of prob- 
lems to face. The biggest problem is the 
aging of its system software. John Scul- 
ley has publicly stated that Apple is doing 
a slow rewrite of the entire operating sys- 
tem. Good. MultiFinder is, from a user's 
viewpoint, nicer than the original Find- 
er, but it's still not a true multitasking 
system. Ultimately, it's going to require 
a from-the-ground-up rewrite of the Mac 
operating system to transform it from 
what was developed for that original, 
crippled 128K Mac to something capable 
of truly supporting a multimegabyte, 
multitasking system with large mass- 
storage devices. The question is, can 
Apple do that without making all the cur- 
rent software obsolete? The answer is, 
possibly, but it ain't gonna be easy. 

Another problem is the challenge of 
developing applications for the Macin- 
tosh. Apple has done little (if anything) 
to make the Macintosh easier to pro- 
gram. In fact, with the introduction of 
color, sound, and MultiFinder, program- 
ming the Mac has become even more dif- 
ficult. Look at all the major companies 
that have had delay after delay in release 
dates for Macintosh software, in some 
cases over a year. A fair amount of criti- 
cism has been leveled at those firms (and 
sometimes justly so), but the trend has 
gotten too broad for it to be strictly a 
problem of the firms themselves. 

A case in point: the WordPerfect Cor- 
poration. I happen to be good friends 
with one of the lead programmers on the 
team that developed the Macintosh ver- 
sion of WordPerfect. Back when I was 
living near the company in Orem, Utah, 
I used to ask him regularly how things 
were going. The response I usually got 
was a rueful grin, a shake of the head, 
and a brief discussion on the newest ob- 
stacles presented by the Mac operating 
system and ROMs. These were bright, 
talented, knowledgeable programmers; 
they were just frustrated by a system that 
was difficult to code for. The common 



wisdom about programming the Mac is 
that there is a steep learning curve at 
first, then it tapers off. In truth, there are 
two steep curves, the second showing up 
as you try to get an application ready for 
market. In other words, once you get the 
knack of it, it's very easy to produce Mac 
software that's 75 percent reliable. It's 
that last 25 percent (especially the last 10 
percent) that's a killer. 

Finally, lawsuit or no lawsuit, Apple 
can't keep its competitors from being in- 
novative. Even IBM appears to have 
learned some things from Apple and 
seems to be taking steps to foster creativ- 
ity in PC development and to market its 
products more aggressively. The prob- 
lem with being the leader is that everyone 
has a clear shot at your back. If Apple 
can't respond quickly and effectively, it 
may find itself falling behind. 

Future Directions 

Ezra Shapiro made a cogent observation 
about predicting the Macintosh's future: 
Those who know what's really being de- 
veloped won't talk, and those who are 
free to speak don't really know what's 
going on. I'm in that latter group, but, 
heck, I've never let a lack of hard infor- 
mation stop me before. 

In the MS-DOS world, you have an al- 
most continuous spectrum of systems 
from under $1000 to over $7000; in 
many cases, you can use the same expan- 
sion cards (and certainly the same soft- 
ware) on both extremes of that range. In 
fact, it's easy to start out with a system in 
the sub-$2000 range and upgrade it, 
piece by piece, to the over-$6000 range, 
with commensurate improvement in 
power, speed, and flexibility. 

By contrast, you've got four basic 
Macintosh systems: Mac Plus; Mac SE 
with floppy disk drives; Mac SE with a 
hard disk drive; and Mac II with a hard 
disk drive. (Yeah, you could buy a Mac II 
with just floppies, but that's like buying 
a Ferrari with a two-gallon gas tank.) 
The Plus, SE, and II have three different 
standards for hardware expansion; the 
Plus has different ROMs than the SE and 
the II; and only the II supports color (of- 
ficially). In other words, you basically 
have three subfamilies within the Macin- 
tosh line, with little ability to recycle 
hardware as you upgrade. 

Apple needs something to bridge the 
gap (in money, size, compatibility, and 
performance) between the Mac SE and 
the Mac II. Two possibilities come to 
mind. One is an "SE-in-a-box" : a system 
that looks somewhat like a Mac II, 
though possibly smaller, with just a 16- 

continued 



1988 Mac Special Edition -BYTE 31 



1 Exxon 


25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
46 
47 
48 


Standard Oil (Ohio) 

AT&T Technologies 

Boeing 

Dow Chemical 

Allied 

Eastman Kodak 

Unocal 

Goodyear 

Dart & Kraft 

Westinghouse Elec. 

Philip Morris 

Beatrice Foods 

Union Carbide, 

Xerox 

Amerada Hess 

Union Pacific 

General Foods 

McDonnell Douglas 

Rockwell Int. 

PepsiCo 

Ashland Oil 

General Dynamics 

3M 

Coca-Cola 


49 
50 
51 
52 


Consolidated Foods 

Lockheed 

Georgia-Pacific 

Monsanto 


2 


General Motors 


3 


Mobil 


4 


Ford Motor 


5 


IBM 


53 


W.R. Grace 


6 


Texaco 


54 


Signal Companies 


7 


E.I. du Pont 


55 


Anheuser-Busch 


8 


Standard Oil (Ind.) 


56 


Nabisco Brands 


9 


Standard Oil of Cal. 


57 
58 


Johnson & Johnson 
Coastal 


10 


General Electric 


11 


Gulf Oil 


59 
60 


Raytheon 
Honeywell 


12 


Atlantic Richfield 


13 


Shell Oil 


61 
62 
63 


Charter 

General Mills 

TRW 


14 


Occidental Petroleum 


15 


U.S. Steel 


16 


Phillips Petroleum 


64 

65 Al 
66 
67 


Caterpillar Tractor 

jmmum Co. of Amer. 

Sperry 

Gulf & Western Ind. 


17 


Sun 


18 


United Technologies 


19 


Tenneco 


20 


in 


68 
69 
70 
71 


Continental Group 

Bethlehem Steel 

Weyerhaeuser 

Ralston Purina 


21 


Chrysler 


22 


Procter & Gamble 


23 


R.J. Reynolds Ind. 


24 


Getty Oil 


72 


Colgate-Palmolive 



27 million 

Americans can't read. 

And guess who pays the price. 



While American business is trying to stay competitive with foreign companies, it's paying an 
added penalty. The penalty of double-digit illiteracy. 

Believe it or not, 27 million American adults can't read and write. Another 47 million are literate 
on only the most minimal level. That adds up to almost one third of our entire population. . .and 
probably a disturbing number of your employees. 

What does illiteracy cost you? Get out your calculator. Illiterate adults make up 50%-75% of 
our unemployed. Every year they cost us an estimated $237 billion in lost earnings. They swell 
our welfare costs by $6 billion annually and diminish our tax revenues by $8 billion. 

Illiteracy costs you through your community, too. It robs the place where you work and live of 
its resources. It undermines the potential of the people who make your products and the people 
who buy them. No dollar figure can be assigned to this. But over the years, this may be the 
costliest loss of all. 

What can your company do about this? It can join in local efforts to fight illiteracy. It can 
volunteer company dollars and facilities for better school and tutorial programs. It can invest in a 
more literate community. 

The first step is to call the Coalition for Literacy at 1-800-228-8813 or fill out the coupon be- 
low. Do it today. You may find it's the greatest cost-saving measure your company has ever taken. 



A literate 
America 
is a good 

investment. 



uxncS 



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MACINTOSH REDUX 



MHz 68000 on-board and a socket for a 
68881. It would have room for two flop- 
py disk drives, or a floppy and a 3 '/2-inch 
hard disk drive. It would also have, say, 
four slots. Such a box could sell for 
around $2000, the current street price for 
an SE with two floppies. Yet it would 
allow users to make use of multiple video 
cards, color displays, and other Mac II 
expansion cards. And it would be a great 
add-in box, encouraging owners to ex- 
pand in a way the Mac SE doesn't. 

The second possibility is a mini-Mac 
II, essentially a Mac II in the box de- 
scribed for the Mac SE above. It would 
create a Mac II that didn't take up quite 
so much space or cost quite so much. It 
would have fewer slots, but the smaller 
box would be more popular in corporate 
desktop settings. A motherboard up- 
grade from the SE-in-a-box to the mini- 
Mac II would be yet another source of 
revenues for dealers and Apple alike. It 
would be priced to sell for about $1000 
less than a equivalent Mac II system. 

Finally, there's probably a Mac III in 
the future— essentially a Mac II with a 
68030 processor, an 80-megabyte inter- 
nal hard disk drive, and lots of memory. 
It might even have some direct memory 
access support and a graphics copro- 
cessor, though Apple has shown a sad re- 
luctance to unburden the CPU from 
doing just about everything. The Mac III 
will be a good $1500 to $2000 more than 
an equivalent Mac II system and will be 
aimed at the workstation market. 

From Scorn to Success 

Apple has done a great job of taking a 
system that so many scorned and making 
it a rousing success. However, success 
can lead to complacency, complacency to 
caution, and caution to stagnation. The 
Macintosh has replaced the Apple II as 
Apple's breadwinner. Is Apple working 
on the Macintosh's replacement? 

As for me, the ride's been fun. The 
Macintosh has long been my system of 
choice, and the shots I've taken at Apple 
over the years have been out of a desire to 
see things improve, not out of any intent 
to harm or tear down. I hope that things 
do continue to improve at Apple; I'll be 
interested to see what steps the company 
takes over the next year or so. In the 
meantime, I've got work to do, so I'll get 
off my soapbox and get to it. ■ 

Bruce F. Webster is a freelance writer liv- 
ing in Soquel, California. You can reach 
him on BIX as "bwebster. " 

Your comments are welcome. Write to: 
Editor, BYTE, One Phoenix Mill Lane, 
Peterborough, NH 03458. 



32 BYTE ■ 1988 Mac Special Edition 




WINGZ 




Dallas Sept. 14-15 
Boston Sept. 21-22 
Palo Alto Oct. 5-6 



© Informix Software, Inc. 
"Wln)(Z," "HyperScript" ti ml 
"Informix" ;ire trademarks oi 
Informix Software, Inc. "Macin- 
tosh" isa trademark of Apple 
Computer, Inc. 



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If the card is missing, 
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Wingz from 
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Software, Inc. 




High-Performance Electronic Design Software 



It's a whole new ballgame for electronic CAE/CAD. 

MAC II has given the EE powerful new tools to work with. 
And McCAD — the world's leading desktop engineering 
software for the Macintosh — gives you the way to press 
those advantages when designing PCB's. Put it all 
together, and you have a CAD system that's faster, that has 
more memory, more storage and filing. . .and color. 

Remember, McCAD is a true integrated system. We 
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i MACWORLD 



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McCAD is a registered trademark of VAMP, Inc./ Macintosh is a 
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McCAD is so easy to understand and use, the engineer can 
start operating it immediately with no break in his work. 

You ask about economy? This might just be the best 
part. Not only does McCAD have one of the most enticing 
price tags around, it also gives you the best price-for- 
performance in the industry. For example, our integrated 
EDS system — including PCB, schematic, router and 
Gerber output — costs only $1,495. And our stand-alone 
modules start as low as $395. 

When it comes to engineering software for the Macin- 
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anyone. Period. 

So, it's simple. All you have to do is make the best 
investment of your professional life, and then sit back and 
relax. McCAD does the rest. 



MCCFID 

Published by VAMP, Inc. 

6753 Selma Ave., Los Angeles, CA 90028 

(21 3) 466-5533 FAX: (21 3) 466-8564 

Telex: 650-262-3069 Answer Back: 650-262-3069-MCI 



34 BYTE • 1988 Mac Special Edition 



Circle M49 on Reader Service Card 



BYTE 
MACINTOSH SPECIAL EDITION 



Take a Walk 
on the Mac Side 



Jerry Pournelle 



I'd worked until quite late and was trying 
to sleep in, when I was awakened by hys- 
terical laughter. Roberta was standing at 
the foot of the bed whooping, "Now 
they've done it!" 

"Uh? What?" I demanded. 

"Now they've done it! " 

No matter what I said, she cackled in- 
sanely and repeated her line. I got up and 
padded to the front door, where I found 
they'd indeed done it: I was greeted by a 
pile of boxes higher than my head. In 
fact, several piles of boxes, all wedged 
together. Enough boxes that it was im- 
possible to get past them. We were barri- 
caded by boxes of computers. 

"Now they've done it," Roberta gig- 
gled. I had to admit things had gone a bit 
far. Just then the UPS truck drove up 
with more boxes, only there wasn't any 
way for him to get past the ones Federal 
Express had delivered— and the mailman 
was coming. 

Eventually, we got the stuff sorted out 
and brought inside. It wasn't all com- 
puters. Some was stuff we had ordered 
from Sears. Some was software— it's 
amazing what all Microsoft sends in 
their OS/2 package. 

Most, though, was from Apple: a Mac- 
intosh II, a color monitor and monitor 
stand, two enormous boxes of software, a 
LaserWriter, and another box of accesso- 
ries for the LaserWriter, including cables 
for AppleTalk. There was also Priam's 
new 330-megabyte MacDisk and some 
other stuff I've forgotten. All told, it 
nearly filled the front room. 

Each box from Apple was topped off 
with a paper threatening dire conse- 
quences if I lost anything: machine, soft- 
ware, boxes, packing material (including 
plastic worms); Apple wants everything 
back. The letter is stiff enough that I con- 
templated packing everything back up 
and getting it out of here the same day, 
but of course I didn't. Eventually, we 
had everything upstairs and unpacked, 
and I sent the boxes out to our public stor- 
age locker. 



Jerry unleashes 

a Macintosh II on 

his treasure trove 

of software 



Setting Up 

Everyone has the problem of computer 
furniture, but with me it's worse than 
most because we have so many systems 
here: not just computers, but also 
printers and monitors. Although there 
are always one or two main machines I'm 
using constantly, most systems are here 
just for testing. There's not enough space 
for everything, so some machines have to 
be brought out, used awhile, then put 
away until new software or boards arrive 
and they're needed again. 

I looked at commercial computer en- 
closures, and I even bought one from 
Yield House, but it was too expensive 
and too large. 

Then I bought several heavy-duty, 
two-shelf, lab-equipment rolling carts 
and fastened keyboard drawers under 
their top shelves. These were large 
enough for big machines like CompuPro 
S-100 "boat-anchor" systems with 8- 
inch disk drives. The only problem was 
that the carts were too big; it wouldn't 
take many to fill the storeroom. 

Then the local Builder's Hardware had 
a sale on microwave carts. These come 
with casters and three shelves. There's 
even an enclosed bottom compartment, 
where I can store system documents and 
software. The tops of these carts were 
too high for comfortable typing, but I 
solved that by making a plywood shelf 
that I attached at the proper height and 
putting a keyboard drawer under that. 



These carts worked so well that Roberta 
is using one as the permanent place for 
her AT&T computer. 

Those were fine at first. The carts 
were nearly perfect for early IBM com- 
puters. Alas, they're no good at all for 
Macintoshes. There's no room in those 
keyboard drawers for a mouse to operate. 
You can put the mouse on the shelf above 
the keyboard, but reaching across the 
keyboard for the mouse gets tiresome in a 
big hurry. 

After many experiments, I set up my 
Mac Plus on an oversize typing table. 
The Plus sits on the AST-2000 hard disk 
drive, the DataDesk 101 -key keyboard 
sits in front of that, and the mouse rests 
next to the keyboard on a genuine Apple 
mouse pad thoughtfully provided by 
Apple's Bruce Chamberlain. All in all, it 
works quite well. 

I've also seen a computer desk called a 
Mac Station from Hubbard Furniture. 
This comes on casters and has a drop- 
down keyboard shelf that's wide enough 
for keyboard and mouse. Alas, neither 
the Mac Station nor a simple typing table 
will work with a Mac II. The machine is 
too large, and you don't want to sit as 
close to the Mac II monitor as to that of 
the Mac Plus. 

Hubbard also has a two-shelf system 
on casters. This isn't bad, and it would be 
more than good enough for most offices; 
but due to severe space limits, I need the 
area under the table for manuals, and the 
Hubbard system wasn't designed for 
that. I could see that the Mac II was going 
to need a lot of space for manuals— at 
least at first — and I'd also need a place to 
put the MacDisk. 

I temporarily solved the problem by 
putting the Mac II on one of the rolling 
lab carts and setting the keyboard and 
mouse on a typing table in front of it. 
This works pretty well, but it makes for 
an awfully big station. 

The furniture problem isn't made any 
easier by the Mac IPs basic design. The 

continued 



1988 Mac Special Edition 'BYTE 35 



THE MAC SIDE 



keyboard port is on the back, on the right 
side as you face the Mac II. The cable has 
to be plugged into the left side of the Mac 
II keyboard, because, although there's a 
cable socket on the keyboard's right side, 
you have to plug the mouse into that. 

I suppose if you're left-handed every- 
thing would be fine. Well, maybe not. 
Even if you plug the mouse into the left 
side of the keyboard, you won't want to 
route the keyboard cable along the right 
side of the Mac II because that's where 



the hardware reset button is. Sometimes 
you just can't win. 

Once you decide where to put the Mac 
II, setting it up is a snap. The monitor is 
clean and crisp. Its stand is worth com- 
menting on, too. Most monitor stands are 
clearly afterthoughts, but the Mac IPs 
tilt /swivel stand was clearly designed for 
the system and is about the best-working 
one I've ever seen. 

After you get everything installed, 
you won't have to reach behind the ma- 




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chine very often, either. Although 
there's an on/off switch back there, the 
Mac II has a shutdown command in soft- 
ware. When you use it, both the Mac II 
and the monitor are completely powered 
down. There's a switch right on the key- 
board that turns them back on. This is an 
idea whose time has come. 

Incidentally, it's just as well that the 
shutdown procedure turns off the Mac 
IPs monitor; it gives off more heat than 
my 19-inch Electrohome monitor. 

Getting Started 

When the Mac II came, I was in the mid- 
dle of doing my taxes. Tax time at Chaos 
Manor used to be pretty grim, but lately 
it's been much better. First, over the 
years I've refined my accounting pro- 
gram—written in compiled CBASIC for 
CP/M and later transferred to an IBM 
PC— to the point where it does most of 
the work. 

There's still a flurry of year-end 
entries into the journal, but that's more 
tedious than difficult; and once all the 
entries are made, the accounting soft- 
ware posts them to over a hundred ledger 
pages, keeping track of what was family 
expense and what was business expense, 
then posts the proper percentages of fam- 
ily items like electricity and house insur- 
ance into the appropriate ledger pages. I 
did have to go in and manually correct 
entertainment to match the new tax law' s 
80 percent requirement, but that was no 
problem. 

The second reason I don't go mad try- 
ing to do my taxes is SoftView's Macln- 
Tax. I've said before that MacInTax is 
worth buying a Mac for— and I haven't 
changed my view. Taxes are traumatic 
enough, though, that I didn't want to be 
learning to use the Mac II while I was 
doing them, so I set MacInTax up on the 
Mac Plus. 

Everything worked fine until I wanted 
to print my tax forms. Then I discovered 
that the Mac Plus had forgotten how to 
use the Imagewriter. 

I don't normally have a printer at- 
tached to the Mac Plus. The Image- 
writer, a very early one bought (along 
with the 128K-byte Mac that eventually 
was upgraded into a Mac Plus) about a 
month after Apple brought o